Chapter 2 Study Habits Essay
Chapter II Related Literature and Related Studies This research study cited books, articles and laws, which are relevant to the present investigation. It is composed of related literature and studies, both local andforeign, which contain facts and information on the research problem at hand. It also provides explanations and logical connections between previous researches and the present work. Foreign Literature In Dorothy E. Jhonson’s Behavioral System Model, she stated that a behavioral system encompasses the patterned, repetitive, and purposeful ways of behaving.
These ways of behaving form an organized and integrated functional unit that determines and limits the interaction between the personand his or her environment and establishes the relationship of the person to the objects, events, and situations within his or her environment. Usually the behavior can be described and explained. A person as a behavioral system tries to achieve stability and balance by adjustments and adaptations that are successful to some degree for efficient and effective functioning. The system is usually flexible enough to accommodate the influences affecting it.
Therefore, it is well-explained that through little efforts on modifying a student’s habits in studying, they can develop an organized pattern of behavior useful to their goal of becoming a successful student who has good academic performances. This theory clearly supports this study that study habits are relevant to academic performance. As it is said in the study of Crede and Kuncel (2008), study habit, skill, and attitude inventories and constructs were found to rival standardized tests and previous grades as predictors of academic performance, yielding substantial incremental validity in predicting academic performance.
Study motivation and study skills exhibit the strongest relationships with both grade point average and grades in individual classes. Academic specific anxiety was found to be an important negative predictor of performance. In addition, significant variation in the validity of specific inventories is shown. Scores on traditional study habit and attitude inventories… According to Pogue (2000), what is true about study habits was that more than thirty years ago still rings true today-students fail because they do not know how to study. The best advice he can give is to develop sound study skills.
It’s a common scene if some college students fail to finish a passing requirement for a subject course. What is lacking is their ignorance of developing good study habits that are necessary for good academic performance. And to worsen their ignorance are their psychological conception of giving up so easily and the tempting distractions of the surrounding that lead them to a zero percent possibility of creating their own ideal habits. So, it has become a major trouble to college students who are known to be suffocated with loads of works from school.
Local Literature As recommended by Borro (2006), the good study habit should be taught by parents first at home. The school will later on guide the students on studying their lessons. Teachers should impart the good values of studying. People learn first at home and all the lessons that may be well-learned or well-forgotten are just brought to school by people. In some cases, it is on how parents mold their child during his formative years of life which is a basis for the perspective of the person at education.
The initial process of learning is called emergent literacy which was first used by Clay (1996) in describing how young children interact with books and when reading and writing, even though they could not read or write in the conventional sense. Emergent literacy is a gradual process that takes place over time from birth – until a child can read and write in what we consider to be a conventional sense. The more educationally trained a person was as a child, the higher the possibility that he can develop his own ideal study routine.
Serving as outcome of Borro’s statement, Ortinero (2000) reasoned that good study habits lead to enhancement in learning as ability improves and sharpens through mastery of principles and by means of training, exercise and constancy of application. Foreign Study As stressed by Mcknight (2006), habits form through repetition. Once formed, habits are difficult to break. And habits formed when we are young are likely to stay with us all our lives. Attaining your ideal study habit is a long-way process. It is developed by encountering mistakes from past styles and then using these mistakes to obtain a more correct style.
And if it becomes a part of people’s viewpoint on studying, it is very hard to break it apart and adjust to a more favourable style. According to Palm Beach Community College (PBBC, 2008), they recommend that student’s study should have at least three hours out of class for every hour spent in class. They also said that a student must have a special place to study with plenty of room to work. And students should not be cramped. They presupposes that study time will go better if a learner take a few minutes at the start to straighten things up. A desk and straight-backed chair is usually best. Don’t get too comfortable–a bed is a place to sleep, not to study” as what they said. A student must have everything close at hand (book, pencils, paper, coffee, dictionary, computer, calculator, tape recorder, etc. ) before starting to study. Students are not suggested to spend on time jumping up and down to get things. The PBCC suggests also that distracting noise should be minimized however they said that there are some people need sound and some like silence. In this case, a learner must finds what works for him or her. Culprits are family and friends. onsider a “do not disturb” sign and turning on your answering machine is the way also to have better study habits according to the PBBC. difficult subject first, while the mind is freshest and most receptive. According to the how-to-study. com (2009), students who are very successful in their desired career have good study habits. It is stated in the website that students apply these habits to all of their classes. The website also recommends some tips in improving study habits. The website also suggests that the student should try not to study all the subjects in just a period.
The website also added that if you try to do too much studying at one time, you will tire and your studying will not be very effective. Space the work you have to do over shorter periods of time. Taking short breaks will restore your mental energy. Professors in the developing countries said that the undergraduate students should be fully equip with high level of analytical skills, the capacity for critical reasoning, self-reflection and conceptual grasp and ability to learn autonomously and exercise flexibility of mind (Simmons 2003).
Study habits are said to be improving because of the advent and wide use of the Internet, hypertext, and multimedia resources which greatly affects the Study Habits (Liu, 2005). Karim and Hassan (2006) also note the exponential growth digital information, which changes the way students perceive studying and with printed materials that are to be use in facilitating study. Liu (2005) and Ramirez (2003) report that students print material from the Internet in order to study and read later on. Igun (2005) also found that Nigerians study from materials downloaded from the Internet.
Reading is an attempt to absorb the thought of the author and know what the author is conveying (Leedy 1956). Studying is the interpretation of reading materials. Study habits and skills are particularly important for college students, whose needs include time management, note taking, Internet skill, the elimination of distractions, and assigning a high priority to study. Fielden (2004) states that good study habits help the student in critical reflection in skills outcomes such as selecting, analyzing, critiquing, and synthesizing.
Nneji (2002) states that study habits are learning tendencies that enable students work private. The study conducted by Hope L. Graven (2008) on the relationship between an individual’s amount of caffeine consumption during his/her study session and the individual’s study habits showed that the main effect of drinking caffeine on exam preparation was not significant There were participants, 20 male and 58 female college students (N=78), answered self-ratings on their personal consumption of caffeine as well as their study habits when preparing for a test/exam.
It was hypothesized that the more caffeine a student consumes while studying, the more accurately his or her study habits would be labeled as ‘unhealthy’, as determined by the researchers. Unhealthy study habits were operationally defined as low scores on amount of time per study session, time(in days) when preparation began, and amount of information the participants believed they had retained. High scores on anxiety level were included in ‘unhealthy’ study habits. A Pearson correlation indicated no relationship between amount of caffeine consumed while studying and the individual’s effectiveness of studying and preparation.
Local Study To expand Muega’s ideas, according to Acido (2008), data have revealed that the major difference between students with below average, average, and above average reasoning skills centers on their study habits—whether they have good or bad study habits, and their attitude towards learning a particular skill—whether they are interested or not, are responsible for their learning or not, and take responsibility over what they do or not. Acido proves Zolten & Long’s idea that the awareness on the responsibilities of a college student is essential to increase studying skills.
RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURE ACADEMIC ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM School is one of the primary institutions in which adolescents learn socially appropriate behavior, develop cognitive skills, and establish patterns of early career development. While schools labor to aid every student in developing these skills, problems inevitably arise for some students. One of the most visible problems for students is academic difficulty. Academic problems, by themselves, can thwart educational aspirations, but academic problems can also be a precursor to more serious behavior problems.
Academic failure is often viewed as a gateway to delinquency (Maguin and Loeber, 1996). The extent of student’s learning in academics may be determined by the grades a student earns for a period of learning has been done. It is believed that a grade is a primary indicator of such learning. If a learner earns high grades it is concluded that they may also have learned a lot while low grades indicate lesser learning. However, many experiences and studies found out that there are also several factors that would account for the grades. No single factor can be definitely pointed out as predicting grades.
It has been an interplay of so many factors – gender, IQ, study habits, age, year level, parent’s educational attainment, social status, number of siblings, birth order, etc. In fact, almost all of existing environmental and personal factors are a variable of academic performance. However, at this point in time, the researchers would like to investigate the possible relationship of study habits and the factors. In addition to the changing characteristics of incoming students, characteristics of postsecondary institutions are changing as well. Increased numbers of students are being served with the same, limited resources.
This has often resulted in larger class sizes, encouraging a reversion to the traditional lecture style of instruction, in turn fostering less interactive teaching and learning according to Topping, (1996). A number of positive outcomes are possible for students who receive peer tutoring. Of these, academic progress is typically the one that is given the most weight by educators. In addition to gains in scholastic achievement, researchers have speculated on a number of additional student outcomes resulting from college tutoring, including improved academic self-efficacy and college persistence (Maxwell, 1994).
Tutoring also brings a social component to the learning process, given that educators now believe more effective learning takes place when there are two or more people involved according to Wood & Wood, (1999). According to Dunn, R. , and S. A. Griggs (2000 ) Precisely because individualized instruction is perceived as the key to unlocking the academic potential of each student, researchers have acknowledged that appropriate instructional planning, coupled with attention to each student’s learning-style characteristics, has produced a rewarding combination.
Dunn and Dunn identify learning style as “the way in which each learner begins to concentrate on, process, and retain new and difficult information. ” A meta-analytic validation of 42 experimental studies using the Dunn and Dunn learning-style model indicated that students whose learning styles were accommodated through compatible instructional interventions could be expected to achieve 75 percent of a standard deviation higher than those who had not had their learning styles considered. These results indicated that matching students’ learning preferences with compatible instructional interventions significantly improved academic achievement