Analyze The Luciferian Aspects Theology Religion Essay Example
Analyze The Luciferian Aspects Theology Religion Essay Example

Analyze The Luciferian Aspects Theology Religion Essay Example

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  • Published: September 13, 2017
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In Christian tradition, the light-dark dichotomy represents opposing elements: Eden and hell. Plutarch describes hell as a place without the sun. If visible radiation is associated with life and God, then hell signifies the absence of God and life. According to Jean Chevalier and Alain Gheerbrant in their Dictionary of Symbols, hell is the ultimate sin, where the damned reside. Lust, one of the seven deadly sins mentioned in The Gospel of Matthew, is seen in Paradise Lost when Adam and Eve engage in sinful behavior after eating the forbidden fruit. Gluttony is also presented as a prime cause of illness and death in the afterlife, as explained by Michael to Adam in Milton's work. The journey to hell begins when Dante reaches a mountain's foot, which can be interpreted in different ways: as the "holy hill" or


Mount Olympus. The mountain symbolizes transcendence due to its height, verticality, and proximity to the sky. Jean Chevalier and Alain Gheerbrant refer to the mountain as the meeting point between Eden and Earth, a place for Gods and the starting point for mankind's ascension (1995: Vol.).II: 121) When viewed from above, the mountain appears as a perpendicular, a center of the universe. When viewed from below, it appears as a line, an axis of the universe. However, it is also seen as a ladder, an incline. This dual symbolism of height and centrality is found in religious texts. The mountain represents the Son of the Gods and its Ascension represents a journey toward the sky, a means of connecting with deity. Niphates, the mountain where Satan first landed on Earth according to Milton's Paradise Lost (Book 3:

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742), is a real mountain located in the Taurus range in Armenia, northeast of Turkey. Milton also refers to it as the "Assyrian mount" (Book 4:126), even though it is slightly outside the mentioned area. The description of Lucifer's journey can be compared to John Milton's description of Satan in Paradise Lost. This journey can be seen as Orpheus' descent into the underworld in search of Eurydice. This aspect is also present in Virgil's Georgics, where Proteus describes Orpheus' descent into the underworld to rescue Eurydice and his eventual death at the hands of the Ciconian women. In the end, our hero will reside in the depths of his descent. It is also a journey through the true nature of the seven deadly sins. Milton implies criticism of these sins in the all-encompassing act of eating the forbidden fruit.Gluttony and lecherousness are openly evident. The snake instills covetousness and envy of the "Gods" in Eve. Eve takes pride in her imagined superiority. Adam and Eve lazily retreat to a temporary place to rest after eating and having sex; eventually, they angrily accuse each other. A similar transition can be seen in Ovid's Metamorphoses, where Astraea, or justice, has recently left Earth. The battle of Phlegra ensues, and once the giants are destroyed, mother Earth forms man in their image, but smaller, out of their blood. However, this new creation also disdains the Gods. Soon enough, Lycaon - the wolfman - will commit the first murder, which will ultimately lead to the assassination of Julius Caesar. In the final moments of Inferno's canto, it is revealed that Satan fell from Eden and crashed into our Earth.

To escape him, all the land in the southern hemisphere sank beneath the sea and shifted to the North of the equator, while the matter he displaced rose up behind him to form the mountain of purgatory. In his Pentameron, Landor has Petrarca say: As mentioned earlier, Dante can be compared to Milton. In Milton's case, the narrator encounters mythical and religious figures in his story, rather than comrades or enemies.The majority of the hidden plan of Paradise Lost revolves around the history of Satan's rebellion and fall from heaven, along with his followers. Milton portrays God engaging in a power battle, devising military strategies with his son, and utilizing his power of foresight to carefully create a balance of justice, mercy, and the loophole through which humanity can redeem itself without compromising free will. All consequences within the narrative can be attributed to God's allowance or prevention, as he possesses control over everything. Therefore, analyzing God's character becomes most interesting when deciphering why he restrains his power in specific situations and allows events to unfold naturally, by chance, or through artificial means, resulting in either favorable or, commonly, unfavorable outcomes. The angels who rebel against God under Satan's leadership do so because they perceive God's actions as oppressive. As a consequence, they are cast into Hell and become Satan's devoted followers seeking revenge against humanity. Some of them are fated to become false gods in ancient civilizations.In Greek mythology, Adonis was a beautiful young person who was destined to die and be resurrected annually. He was associated with the natural rhythm of life and symbolized by a river of blood. Milton emphasizes the sexual

undertones in this portrayal.

The name Beelzebub, derived from Hebrew, means "The Lord of the Flies." In the New Testament, it is another name for Satan. Milton presents Beelzebub as Satan's second-in-command in his rebellion against God. In Book II, during the argument among the Satans, Beelzebub suggests a plan for a secret retaliation against God by corrupting mankind.

Belial, a member of the devilish council, speaks second and argues that God is too powerful to oppose directly, so they should wait for his mercy. Despite his graceful manner, Belial hides a wicked soul. If on Earth, he would pervert churches and castles and fill the streets at night with violence and debauchery.

Before his fall from grace, Satan was known by his name, which means "brightest star." In his original state, he was glorious to behold. Satan plays a crucial role in the first half of the poem as a high-ranking archangel in Heaven who becomes envious of the Son of God. He leads armies of angels in a violent rebellion against the Almighty and is subsequently cast into Hell. From there, Satan plans his revenge against God by corrupting humanity.

Satan's complex thoughts and self-reflection sometimes evoke sympathy from readers, portraying him as a heroic figure challenging an oppressive enemy. This unintended sympathy is strengthened by Milton's depiction.In the latter part of the poem, Satan's character changes into a more typical villain, and we begin to sympathize more with the human couple. Milton brings certain ideas to life in a fantastical way, including Grace, Liberty, Night, Chance, Discord, and three important characters in the story. Sin, who is the daughter of Satan and appears as a half-woman

and half-serpent, emerged from Satan's head when he conceived the idea of rebelling against God. She is given the responsibility of guarding the key to the Gates of Hell. Sin and her son, Death, together construct a pathway from Hell to Earth. Death, who is fathered by Satan, is a faceless creature. His first act upon being born is to violate his mother. He confronts Satan at the gates of Hell, but their deadly conflict is interrupted when Sin reveals their incestuous relationship as brother and sister. Chaos personifies the eternity of uncreated matter between Heaven, Hell, and our world. Chaos is hostile towards God's intrusion into his realm through the creation of the new world and encourages Satan in his quest to destroy it. In her analysis of Milton's writings in "Milton and the Revolutionary Reader," Sharon Achinstein describes Milton as a writer who feels compelled to guide readers on how to interpret his work...The enemy's statement, as stated by (1994: 59), argues that by examining the resistance's logic and challenging his audience to do the same, he demonstrates to politically naive individuals how judgment should be conducted. In Milton's world, even the most seemingly innocent truths are no longer accepted without question, and traditional beliefs such as geocentrism, heavenly perfection, divine right of kings, the sanctity of the Bible, and the infallibility of the Pope have been disproven or thrown into doubt. Similar to Herbert, Milton is well aware of the self-referential nature of the Bible. The depiction of the Sun in Milton's work both presents and subverts the easy connections between natural and cosmic orders. Moving on to the topic of death

and referring to John Milton's description of personified Death, ready with his deadly Dart to confront anyone, let's examine Death's first encounter with Satan. Satan has recently escaped from his chains in a fiery sea, rallied his fallen angelic followers to rebel against God even more fiercely, and is now embarking on a reconnaissance mission in hopes of escaping from Hell and making his way through pandemonium to find the newly created human being.The confrontation takes place when Satan arrives at the Gates of Hell, only to find his way blocked not only by the grand, locked Gates but also by the two imposing figures, Sin and Death, seated on either side of the entrance. They redirect their hostility towards humanity, as Satan promises to satisfy Death's appetite for mortal food with human beings, once he learns Death's origin. Satan fulfills his promise by deceiving Eve and subsequently Adam into committing sin and falling into a state of mortality. Sin and Death are both able to sense this fall from a distance. When Satan meets Sin and Death for the second time, there is "great joy at their meeting" (Book 10.350), unlike their first encounter, teaching us the valuable lesson that even demons can become friends. Utilizing Protestant rhetoric of justified rebellion by princes or lower-ranking officials against a king, Satan transforms it into a rallying cry for overthrowing God himself. He consistently refers to his comrades as princes, powers, and dictators.The verse form's storyteller refers to Mammon in his role as Heaven's designer, depicting "Scepter'd Angels" who have seen many towering structures. This illustrates the political structure of Heaven, which is based on a

king and his luxurious magistrates. According to Protestant beliefs, these magistrates have the power to resist, rebel, and overthrow under the right circumstances. By making Satan the representative of Protestant theories of rebellion, Milton critiques not only the theories themselves but also the concepts of magistracy and kingship. He seeks to push the ideas of Luther, Calvin, Mhuntzer, and Marshall further than they were willing to go. These men believed that princes derive their power from God, but Satan goes beyond this by suggesting that celestial princes' power is self-created. He ultimately claims that "Our puissance is our own," referring to himself and his fellow princes. (Book V. 860, 864)Satan justifies his rebellion against the male ruler of Eden by asserting his entitlement and obligation as a prince to defy an unjust sovereign who seeks absolute power and encroaches upon the authority of lower magistrates. This depiction of Eden's ruler as a usurper, seizing power that does not rightfully belong to him, is commonly embraced by those who follow Satan. Satan clarifies his opposition to dictatorship by frequently referring to the Father as a tyrannical figure, whose tyranny confines the denizens of Hell. Satan recognizes that the rebellion in Eden has provided the opportunity to challenge and reject his authority, prompting him to promptly appeal to the system of "Orders and Degrees" that should not be disrupted by rebellious actions (Book V, 792-793). Satan emphasizes this point by proclaiming himself as the leader appointed by the "just and established Laws of Heaven" (Book II, 18-19). This may explain why Satan swiftly prevents any other fallen angels from opposing him in the debate in Book II,

leaving no room for dissent. Paradise Lost is, at its core, a lamentation for the loss of human innocence.In Paradise Lost, various characters including Eve, Adam, Satan, and the fallen angels grieve at different times throughout the poem. These moments of grief are highlighted by specific transitions that reveal the gendered heartache present in the poem. These transitions, functioning as authorizing mechanisms, convey a sense of loss, the presence of feminine Muses, and the prophetic symbols of internal vision.

Similar to biblical prophets like Jeremiah or Amos, the Miltonic storyteller in these transitions emphasizes his own sorrow in order to lend ethical authority to his divine message. For instance, in Book 3, the mention of "Holy Light" introduces the "Heavenly Muse" and the poet's indulgence in places like Clear Spring, shady Grove, or Sunny Hill where he is deeply moved by his love for sacred song.

Milton carefully employs images of height, secrecy, sacred space, and mysterious darkness to create an aura of prophecy around his literary work. He frequently visits the baptismal waters of the Muses' sacred hill during the night and describes his experiences in Hell as a trance-like vision. This ethereal state is essential for his prophetic gift, requiring a conventional state of inertia and darkness.The main element in this conventional depiction of inspiration is the correlation that Milton sees between his own sorrow and the Eve/Magdalene figure. This figure serves as an initial step in Paradise Lost's defense of reformed piety, with Eve and Adam acting as righteous grievers similar to Protestant expatriates who mourn. In Book 5, Adam and the tearful Eve attempt to worship like good Protestants, surrounded by

the morning song of birds. Their unconventional celebration is valued in the poem and hints at Milton's critique of the Roman church, which is further explored in Eve's dream where she falsely ascends to Heaven as a saint or idol. Milton purposely appropriates the Magdalene figure, commonly associated with eroticized sorrow in Catholic Baroque stylization, to undermine the values of the Roman church.The repentance exhibited by Eve in Paradise Lost is distinct from the second moment with Magdalene. In this instance, Eve seeks redemption from Adam, who temporarily takes on a Christlike role. Eve's sorrow after the Fall could potentially be excessive and disorderly, as depicted by her ceaseless tears and disheveled appearance. The portrayal of Magdalene's sorrow, which is tinged with eroticism as she embraces Adam with sincere love, highlights Milton's conflicted use of the mourning-woman archetype. While her complaint is fittingly religious, it also symbolizes an excessive femininity. In Paradise Lost, Milton recognizes sensuality as an inherent aspect of human nature, celebrating the married love between Adam and Eve. The poem includes two scenes depicting their lovemaking and subsequent sleep. The first scene presents the blissful state of Adam and Eve before the Fall in their marital bed. The second scene portrays their lustful desire immediately following the consumption of the forbidden fruit. Although these scenes share similarities, subtle differences contribute to a distinctive tone that captures the change in perception resulting from the Fall throughout Paradise Lost.The intriguing aspect of Dante's snake pit lies in the continuous sound it emits: a mixture of human voices and non-vocal sounds seamlessly blended together, creating an atmospheric ambiance. This concept parallels the popular medieval belief,

as mentioned by Eileen Gardner, where the "dreadful noise" in hell is a prominent characteristic in most medieval dream-visions of it. In the opening narrative of Paradise Lost, the poem introduces a lake of fire with fallen angels submerged in the fiery abyss of everlasting sulfur. Surprisingly, the first auditory indication in the poem is Satan breaking the dreadful silence with bold words. This scene presents two effects - the slight surprise of deviating from our mental expectations, where there are no groans from the demons or crackles from the fires. However, the term "dreadful silence" itself is an oxymoron, boldly defining Satan as an antihero and evoking sympathy towards him. Similarly, in Adam’s speech, we can observe parallels between him and Satan. Both express regret for their past mistakes and acknowledge the dire consequences. They are both in a state of hopeless despair, lamenting how their actions have affected countless others.Adam feels responsible for the future of humanity and is willing to bear the burden himself. On the other hand, Satan is primarily concerned with his wounded pride and sees evil as his only relief. The story begins with Satan being thrown into hell, which fully reveals his character as he reacts with anger and increased rebelliousness. His desperate situation is even more intense than the one that led to his rebellion in Eden. When he gathers his followers, he is overwhelmed with emotion at how many have fallen but still look to him for leadership. Some critics have linked Emily Bronte's character Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights to Satan in Milton's poem. Both are rebellious against authority and are driven by jealousy and revenge

that eventually turn bitter. In Milton's narrative, the out tree symbolizes the dualism of human knowledge before and after eating its fruit, representing consciousness or lack thereof.The text highlights the contrast between two types of knowledge about the world and God. On one hand, there is a pure understanding of the universe that is in alignment with God's Universal Will. On the other hand, there is a more intricate and troubled understanding that arises from an individual's self-awareness. This self-awareness leads to a struggle with God and a desire for salvation.

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