## Advanced Chemistry 10, Semester 1

 1 meter = (?) megameters (Mm)
 1 meter = .000001 Mm (6 places)
 1 meter = (?) gigameters (Gm)
 1 meter = .000000001 Gm (9 places)
 1 meter = (?) terameters (Tm)
 1 meter = .000000000000 Tm (12 places)
 1 meter = (?) micrometers (um)
 1 meter = 1000000 um (6 places)
 1 meter = (?) nanometers (nm)
 1 meter = 1000000000 nm (9 places)
 1 meter = (?) picometers (pm)
 1 meter = 1000000000000 pm (12 places)
 what is specific heat?
 the amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of one gram of the substance 1 degree celcius
 define conversion factor
 a ratio derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other
 What is an intensive property?
 An intensive property is a property that does not depend on the amount of matter present, such as pressure, temperature, or density.
 What is an extensive property?
 An extensive property is a property that depends on the extent or size of a system.
 What is a compound?
 A compound is a substance that can be decomposed into two or more substances by chemical means. They are always in definite proportions.
 What is a mixture?
 A mixture is a material with two or more kinds of matter, each keeping its own properties. They are not in definite proportions.
 What is Sublimation?
 Sublimation is when a substance goes directly from a solid to a gas.
 What do the variables represent in the equation e=m(c*c)?
 The “e” stands for energy, the “m” stands for mass, and the “c” stands for speed of light.
 What is the law of conservation of mass and energy?
 Mass is neither created nor destroyed during normal chemical reactions or physical changes.
 What is the law of definite proportions?
 Chemical compounds contain the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample of source of the compound.
 What is the law of multiple proportions?
 If two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers.
 When was Dalton’s atomic theory formed? What was it?
 18081. All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.2. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties.3. Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed.4. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole number ratios to form chemical compounds.5. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged.
 What are aspects of Dalton’s atomic theory that have been proven wrong?
 You can divide atoms into smaller particles, and elements can have atoms with different masses.
 What is the basic, modified atomic theory?
 1. All matter is composed of atoms.2. Atoms of any one element differ in properties from atoms of another element remain unchanged.
 What are properties of metals?
 Metals are malleable, can be rolled into a sheet; ductile, can be rolled into a wire; are lustrous, and are good conductors of electricity and heat.
 List the types of radiation from least harmful to most harmful.
 Alpha, Beta, Positron, Electron Capture, Gamma
 What is in an alpha particle? How is it represented?
 – 2 protons, 2 neutrons– 4/2 He
 What is in a beta particle? How is it represented?
 – 1 electron– 0/-1 B
 What is in a positron particle? How is it represented?
 -1 positively charged particle with the same mass as an electron– 0/+1 B
 What is the particle in electron capture? How is it represented?
 – an inner orbital electron-0/-1 e
 What is nuclear disintegration?
 Nuclear disintegration is when a nucleus is bombarded with particles to make it radioactive.
 What is “half-life”?
 Half-life is the time required for half of the atoms of a radioactive nucleus to decay.
 What are the properties of a stable nucleus?
 Stable nuclei have low atomic numbers, the neutron to proton ratio is 1:1, they have an even number nucleons, and either have 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 52, 82, or 126 protons, neutrons, or total nucleons.
 What is nuclear fission?
 Nuclear fission is when a heavy nucleus splits into two nuclei of intermediate mass. This happens in power plants and atomic bombs.
 What is a storage place for nuclear waste?
 A storage place for nuclear waste is called a repository.
 When was the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima?
 6 August 1945
 When was the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki?
 9 August 1945
 What were two nuclear radiation accidents? When and where were they?
 – Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania; 1979– Chernobyl, Russia; 1986
 What is the significance of the five terms, fuel, moderator, control rods, coolant, and shielding, in nuclear reaction plants?
 1. Fuel: what keeps the reaction going, is either Uranium (U) or Plutonium (Pu).2. Moderator: slows down neutrons in the process, is either graphite or water.3. Control Rods: absorb excess neutrons, are either Cadmium (Cd) or Boron (B).4. Coolant: cools down the reaction, is either water or heavy water. 5. Shielding: surrounds the reaction area to prevent radiation from escaping. Contains concrete, lead, and water.
 Describe fusion.
 Fusion is the opposite of fission; fusion is when low weight nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus. Fusion happens on the sun and in Hydrogen bombs.
 Advantages: more energy produced then fission, no air pollution, fuel is plentiful, less harmful radioactive waste.Disadvantages: the temperature must be 1.0*10^7 C
 Name the years and discoveries of the specified people: Democritus, Dalton, Thomson, Millikan, Rutherford, Becquerel, Chadwick.
 – Democritus: foundation of the Atomic Theory– Dalton: first generally accepted Atomic Theory, 1808– Thomson: discovered the electron in his cathode ray experiment, 1897– Millikan: measured the charge of the electron which lead scientists to be able to find the mass of an electron, 1909– Rutherford: discovered the nucleus, 1911 and the proton, 1919– Becquerel: discovered radioactive decay, 1896– Chadwick: discovered the neutron, 1932
 What are the properties of stable atoms?
 The most stable atoms have a high binding energy, have a neutron to proton ratio of 1:1 or 1.5:1, have have an even number of protons and neutrons.
 How big is the nucleus in comparison to the atom’s diameter?
 The nucleus is 1/10000 the diameter of the atom.
 Which is greater, the mass of a proton or the mass of the neutron?
 Neutron > proton
 How can an atom emit a photon?
 An atom emits a photon when an electron moves back to ground state.
 What is the Pauli Exclusion Principal?
 The Pauli Exclusion Principal is that no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers. (No two electrons in an atom have the exact same energy.)
 What is the significance of the Principal Quantum Number?
 (n) indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron. (1, 2, 3, 4…)
 Coversion Factor:grams : pounds
 454 g : 1 lb
 Conversion Factor:Kg : mi
 1.61 kg : 1 mi
 Conversion Factor:mL : qt
 946 ml : 1 qt
 Conversion Factor:cm : in
 2.54 cm : 1 in
 Conversion Factor:mol : atoms
 1 mol : 6.02*10^23
 How do you find the average atomic mass of something?
 Multiply the isotope’s atomic mass by its abundance, and add them together.
 Which looks like a “v”, wavelength or frequency?
 Frequency
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