Total Quality management programs Essay Example
Total Quality management programs Essay Example

Total Quality management programs Essay Example

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  • Pages: 8 (2101 words)
  • Published: July 26, 2017
  • Type: Essay
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While Total Quality Management (TQM) has been proven effective in improving organizational performance, its value can only be ensured through a thoughtful and comprehensive implementation process for large-scale organizational change. This paper outlines key aspects of implementation, considering the guiding principles and considerations for TQM as a system of significant change. Contextual factors need to be taken into account during implementation as intended changes may not be adequately designed without attention to such factors. Additionally, employee expectations and perceptions need to be assessed, including sources of resistance to change and ways of dealing with them. Employees often recount stories of new programs, techniques, systems, or even shifts in current paradigms being introduced with a mix of cynicism and disappointment. Some managers present these ideas after attending conferences or feeling pressured to cut


costs, for example. Such initiatives often raise employees' hopes that management will listen to their ideas.The introduction of a plan often comes with a showy display and can lead to the implementation of new programs. However, things tend to quickly go back to normal. Total Quality Management (TQM) initially appears to be a modification in an organization's technology and way of conducting work. This includes how clients are processed in the human resource area, the application of service delivery methods, and organizational procedures such as procurement and paperwork. Nevertheless, TQM encompasses more than just this; it also represents a shift in the organization's culture, norms, values, beliefs, and systems. To achieve a significant transformation, changes in all these three dimensions must align harmoniously. Many have observed that TQM elicits a profound cultural change in an organization and its way of working. Central t

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this is leadership, which includes philosophy, manners, and behavior that requires consistent interpretation by a leader. If a director is keen on initiating a cultural change like TQM successfully, they need to seriously re-evaluate how they feel and behave regarding these aspects. For many directors, pursuing a personal program of leadership development may enhance their performance as an internal change agent advocating for TQM. Other critical considerations concern alignment among various organizational systems, including human resource systems like job design, selection processes, employee benefits, compensation structures, and performance assessments.1995 ) In order to align the new TQM civilization and provide support for its development and preparation, changes will also need to be made in other areas. For instance, information systems will need to undergo redesign to measure and track new aspects such as service quality. Similarly, fiscal management procedures may also require attention through the realignment of resource allocation and budgeting systems (Hyde, 1992). To effectively implement TQM, it is important to evaluate the organization's current reality, including its history, present needs, and any factors that may have led to the adoption of TQM. Moreover, it is advisable to delay TQM implementation until it is likely to succeed in the current circumstances. Many employees may view TQM as a passing trend akin to previous ones such as quality circles, direction by objectives, and zero-based budgeting (Packard, 1995). Successful implementation of TQM is easier for organizations that have already changed their operating systems and have a track record of effectively responding to their environment. If an organization lacks these skills, it will face skepticism from employees and a lack of skilled change agents. To address this

situation, a comprehensive program of leadership and management development may be necessary (Packard, 1995).According to Packard (1995), successful Total Quality Management (TQM) depends on several key factors. One of these is top management support, which is typically demonstrated through strategic planning related to TQM. Another important requirement for TQM is a focus on the customer, as the goal of improving quality often comes from the customer's point of view. This entails addressing employee empowerment and teamwork issues and changing the organizational culture to prioritize customer satisfaction and quality. The final elements that require attention are product and process measurement and analysis, as well as quality assurance. Hyde (1992) notes that in implementing TQM in the public sector, it is essential to develop accessible quality measurement systems with employee engagement, and to realign budgeting and resource allocation systems with the TQM culture. It is not enough for TQM to be solely a cost-cutting mechanism or an excuse for layoffs; human resource management systems may need to be redesigned to support self-directed work teams aligned with TQM principles.In order to implement squad-based public presentation and mass training for directors, supervisors, and workers, the assessment and compensation systems for public presentations may need to be altered. Moreover, careful attention must be paid to how customer feedback is utilized. Ultimately, leadership is crucial for the successful execution of significant changes, as it sets the vision, defines the purpose, ends, and parameters for Entire Quality Management (EQM), and ensures that the process is followed over the long term. Additionally, a participative leadership style is preferable when designing system elements, so that staff may be involved in the process. When creating

a comprehensive change process for EQM, leaders must consider the existing culture of the organization so that it fits well with values, norms, and management styles and leadership doctrines at all levels. Finally, EQM must also align with other organizational processes such as reward systems, financial and information systems, and training systems. Steps for managing a transition to a new system like EQM include identifying tasks to be done, building necessary management structures, developing strategies for building commitment.1992) In order to successfully implement alterations and allocate resources, planning mechanisms must be put in place (Beckhard.R. & Pritchard.W. 1992). This involves identifying the current state of affairs, assessing readiness, creating a model of the desired state, establishing goals for the organization, and assigning duties and resources. To effectively communicate these changes, additional mechanisms beyond existing procedures will need to be developed. Executives may attend special staff meetings for input and dialogue, while Total Quality Management newsletters can be used to keep employees informed of progress (Beckhard.R. & Pritchard.W. 1992). Adequate resource management is crucial for Total Quality Management implementation, meaning that outside advisers with appropriate experience and flexibility should be consulted at the outset. Employees should also be actively involved in the process, possibly receiving training in change management to pass on to others (Beckhard.R. & Pritchard.W. 1992).The demand for better quality and client service in organizations has increased, often due to environmental pressures. Entire Quality Management is more likely to succeed in times of high environmental pressures. However, transitioning from traditional management practices to a TQM culture requires significant effort from an organization, particularly in the human resources function. TQM emphasizes the use of all

available resources to build long-term relationships with employees in order to operate more efficiently. However, many TQM initiatives fail to achieve expected improvements due to significant resistance to change, especially regarding the use of statistics and data in human services. Change agents must address this opposition directly, while recognizing the importance of gathering and analyzing data on service quality. At a broader level, achieving lasting TQM improvements requires significant efforts from organizations. (Davis.J., and Hyde.A., 1992)Employee authorization may face opposition, as some may perceive it as zero-sum game: if employees have more involvement in decision-making, directors may lose their authority. However, one principle of employee engagement states that each level should be empowered, and directors do not have to relinquish their essential authority. Although changes in roles may occur, traditional directors may require training, self-reflection, time, and reassurance from upper management to avoid disciplinary action (Davis and Hyde, 1992).

Resistance to Total Quality Management (TQM) can appear in other areas of the organization when introduced on a pilot basis or in specific programs. This perspective is known as segmentalism, where each unit or program sees itself as distinct and has nothing to learn from others, resulting in a "not invented here" syndrome. Employees who did not participate in the idea's initial development feel no ownership of it (Rago, 1996).

A powerful way to reduce resistance is to involve employees in decision-making regarding various aspects of the process. There are two principles for employee engagement; increasing employee commitment to resulting gains is the most common objective because they will feel a greater sense of ownership or interest in decisions made.According to Rago.W (1996), the second principle of Total

Quality Management is that employees possess a significant amount of skill and knowledge related to the issue at hand, such as job identification, improvement of work procedures, and increasing quality. As such, their input should lead to higher-quality decisions, with a manager viewing decision-making areas as opportunities for employee engagement. However, it's important to understand that engagement isn't always suitable.

Employees or their representatives can be involved in decision-making areas, ranging from the overall approach to the Total Quality Management process to teams focused on quality analysis and suggestions for betterment. They can also participate in auxiliary areas like restructuring of the organization's structure, information system, or reward system. The involvement of formal employee groups like unions is a critical consideration that could help in implementing Total Quality Management.

Copy-pasting a specific model will be met with skepticism and ultimately fails since it's not suited to the individuality of an organization. Total Quality Management is susceptible to this phenomenon as some followers adopt an almost fanatical enthusiasm. A better approach would be to emphasize quality-related basic principles, engage in continued project analysis to improve performance and cooperate with suppliers to start with high-quality supplies.1992) Total Quality Management (TQM) is a procedure that should be integrated into ongoing bureau operations. The focus should be on how an organization can achieve its goals and objectives through systems analysis and process improvement, rather than solely on statistics or individual fluctuations. While some argue that TQM has a useful role to play in government, it must be well-modified to fit the unique features of the public sector. There should be no one-size-fits-all approach to TQM implementation in public sector organizations, as

there are significant challenges in adapting a corporate manufacturing management system to the public services sector. Additional factors limiting the utility of TQM include its emphasis on products versus services, insensitivity to defining government clients, an inappropriate emphasis on inputs and process over outcomes, and the need for top-level leadership that may not align with governmental culture. (Beckhard.R. & Pritchard.W. 1992)According to Beckhard and Pritchard (1992), taxpayers judge government services not only on their outcomes but also on the behavior and appearance of the service providers. Therefore, creating quality standards for government services can be difficult because defining the government's customer can be politically controversial. While some argue that the emphasis on input and process in Total Quality Management (TQM) is outdated, many government agencies have adopted process-centric methods like process reengineering and performance metrics.

However, modified elements of TQM that prioritize customer feedback, continuous improvement, and employee engagement could be beneficial in the public sector. The implementation of TQM in government can face challenges due to political culture and high demand for services, which results in an ever-expanding client base.The implementation of a successful Total Quality Management system in government agencies may lead to reduced public support for increased public services, often accompanied by sustained or decreasing funding. However, there are several perceived benefits of adopting Total Quality Management, including improved production of goods and services with fewer resources, employee motivation and empowerment, strong leadership, reduced hierarchy levels, better competition against threats, and meeting customer (taxpayer) expectations. These advantages are related and converge in application, and some argue that Total Quality Management aligns with the government's push for more efficient, powerful, citizen-oriented administration. While some

government officials and practitioners have had mixed reactions to Total Quality Management, acknowledging that professional and scientific public employees perform most of the value-adding activities in their jobs has been identified as a potential obstacle to implementation. (Rago.W 1996)According to Rago.W (1996), practitioneers resist Total Quality Management by claiming that it's just another managerial trend, unsuitable for their organization's type of work, adds more paperwork, meetings and training, and takes time away from the "real work." However, evidence suggests that only one in three TQM programs in both public and corporate establishments achieve significant improvements in quality and performance (Hyde.A, 1992; Beckhard.R & Pritchard.W., 1992). Thomas Packard.D. S. W. (1995) discusses TQM and organizational change and development from the perspective of social services. Other sources include Rago.William V. (1996) on struggles in transformation, Romano.Catherine (1994) on a report card on TQM, and Davis.J.A. and Hyde.Al (1992) on the personnel's role in quality improvement.

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