Theories of Crime and Deviance Test Answers

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Conflict theory emerged on the heels of
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labeling theory
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According to Austin Turk, the key to understanding conflict is best reflected in
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authority-subject relationships
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The main theme of conflict for Marxist criminologists is
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the mode of production
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Conflict theories have that general name because they do not all assume that conflict is
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abnormal or uncharacteristic to human nature and society
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Conflict theorists are more Classical than
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Positivist
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Left realism explains crime though:
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the victim, the offender, the state, and the community
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The policy implications for conflict theory mentioned in the text include
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expand employment opportunities and skills training, require corporations to adopt codes of ethics, and encourage more citizen input on regulating and controlling public space.
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Traditional male-centered approaches to studying crime are called
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androcentric
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The critical components of gender relations in the patriarchal family include
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the way delinquency is defined, the amount and type of parental control, and gender preferences for risk-taking.
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Liberal feminists argues that
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as the roles of women and men become similar in terms of power and public influence and women gain equality in the work force, there will be a likely increase in female crime rates
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Marxist feminism would attribute
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female crime to women’s potential threat to the sexual division of labor
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An equal rights amendment was passed by Congress but
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never ratified by the states
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Gender theories can be described as
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structural, conflict-oriented and post-modernist
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If the criminal justice system were to reduce its practice of chivalry
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there would be the false perception that female criminality is increasing
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Radical feminists believe that women’s liberation
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will not increase female crime rates.
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Another way to look at social control theory
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is to call it socialization theory
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Durkheim purported that behavior is controlled by
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social reaction to someone else’s behavior
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The most popular version of social control in the 1970’s and 1980’s was
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the one presented by Travis Hirschi
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Hirschi blamed delinquency on
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broken or weakened bonds to society
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Matza called the ties that exist between the individual and the dominant values of society
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bonds to the moral order
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The following are variables of interest for social control theory family structures
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peer groups, and educational levels
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These are the techniques of neutralization denial of the victim
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condemn the condemners, and appeal to a higher loyalty
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A criminological learning theory that emphasizes social aspects of reinforcements and punishments is attributable to
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Ronald Akers
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Social learning theory is primarily an extension of
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differential association theory
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In Jeffery’s social learning theory, the determination of whether behavior will be deviant or conforming depends on
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differential reinforcement
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The social learning theory of Ronald Akers is based on
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learning mechanism in social behavior is operant conditioning the assumption that the primary
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Social learning theory considers the fact that
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people seek pleasure and avoid pain, a core set of common values, and modeling to be central to the learning process
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The primary intellectual background material for social learning theory is
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behavioristic psychology
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Akers’ social learning theory is
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testable, capable of dealing with subcultures and possible to integrate with other theories
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Rational choice theories developed in the midst of social events that included the Drug War, the Prison Expansion Era, and the Victims’ Rights Movement.
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the Drug War, the Prison Expansion Era, and the Victims’ Rights Movement.
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Policy/program implications from rational theories include
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the neighborhood watch, victim assistance, and target hardening
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The probability of crime increases when
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there is a motivated offender
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Lifestyle theory focuses more on
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the lifestyle of the victim
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Rationalist theories seemed to be rooted in evidence that
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came from national victimization statistics
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Routine activities can be considered a continuation of the Chicago School because of its emphasis
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social disorganization and ecology
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A routine activities theorist would not argue
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victims and targets are randomly distributed through all types of settings
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Peer pressure to engage in delinquency, perceiving oneself to be the victim of discrimination of injustice, and insufficient coping skills are sources of strain that may lead to deviance according to
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Agnew
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The text describes the interactionist perspective as proposed by
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Terence Thornberry
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According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, self-control is a factor that is
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stable over the life course
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According to ______, a child will avoid deviance if first successful in attachment to parents
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Thornberry
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Positive blockage and negative avoidance combine in general strain theory to create
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create the highest rates of delinquency and deviance
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Child-rearing practices are a major concern in
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self-control theory
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____ and ____do not play an important role in self-control theory
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Race and social class
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The first theories to be widely used in integration were
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social control and social learning
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In control-balance theory, the two types of deviance that are referred to are
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autonomous and repressive
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It is politically determined and therefore politically defined, motivation is not a government concern so that part of theory is left out, and terrorists may vary according to who officials object to at any given time all produce difficulties in using terrorism in the development of criminological theory
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The integrated theory that brings together theories of rationally
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motivated offenders, routine activities, victimology, and ecology is called crime and social context
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The continued use of structural theories particularly social disorganization and ecological principles can be attributed to the popularity of the use of
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community oriented policing, the concept of broken windows, and direct applications of environmental criminology.
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Charles Tittle’s control balance theory is difficult to test because of its
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complexity
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The theory of crime that includes in its concepts basic human impulses, the desire for autonomy, deviant predispositions, feelings of debasement, situational risk, and opportunity is chaotic engagement theory
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