The Renaissance was a time of rebirth for learning and the arts Essay
The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were a time of growth in thinking, science, art and religious freedom. The Renaissance was a time of rebirth for all of Europe. New thinkers include Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Bacon, and Luther. Many of these great thinkers were beginning to ask questions of what the majority of people had taken for granted and believed were true.
They found many of the answers to their unanswered questions. New ideas about humanism and the role of the individual were formed. People began to realize that they would not be around forever and started to live like there was no tomorrow.After the Dark Ages, came a new light called the Renaissance and the Baroque. The Renaissance was a time of rebirth for learning and the arts. Shortly after St.
Thomas Aquinas, the unifying culture of Christianity started to break down. The Renaissance began in Northern Italy and spread rapidly northward during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Philosophy and science broke away from the theology of the church, enabling religious life to attain a freer relationship and made religion and science open more freely to new scientific methods and religious ardor.During the Renaissance, people emphasized that one annot reach God through rationalism because of the fact God is in all ways knowledgeable. The new importance of man was to submit himself to Gods will not to understand the divine mysteries. The Renaissance was a new era of humanism totally contrastive to the Dark Ages in which every aspect was seen through the divine light.
In the age of humanism, everything once again revolved around man. The Renaissance resulted in a new view of man humanism. Humanism was a contrast to medieval emphasis on the sinful nature of man.In humanism, man was to be infinitely great and valuable. The difference was in the Middle ages their spin off on philosophy was from God while in during the Renaissance their point of departure was from man himself.
To get ideas, philosophers researched concepts of the previous Greek age of humanism. From this they received the idea that horses are born and human beings are formed and in order to be a human one needs to be educated. Another characterization of the Renaissance was individualism or the belief that we are not only human beings we are unique individuals. Read analysis of the movie “The Day After Tomorrow“This belief lead to the worship of genius.
The Renaissance man was a man of niversal genius embracing all aspects of life. This completely differed from the beliefs during the Middle Ages. This is what is meant by a rebirth of thinking, science and art. The new outlook was man did not only exist for God’s sake, they in fact could delight in life here and now. This belief was new to Greek humanism.
In that philosophy, they only believed in tranquility in moderation and restraint. The Renaissance brought a new view of nature.Nature was regarded as a positive image and that God was present in his creation-God was present in everything. This belief is pantheism. During the Medieval philosophies, there was an insurmountable barrier between God and the Creation. Controversially it could now be said nature is divine and it is “God’s blossoming.
” One of the new ideas of art was nudity that was formed from the new belief of nature. There was no longer anything to be ashamed of and nude paintings were a common beautiful thing during the Renaissance.The Church throughout the Renaissance persisted to condemn those who did not follow their exact way of thinking. Giodano Bruno was an unfortunate person who burned at the stake for believing in pantheism and that the universe was infinite.
There was a new scientific method during the Renaissance.The empirical method or investigation using our senses and observing through experience and systematic experiment. During the Renaissance, there were several new changes and advances to belief systems, art and science. Galileo, Copernicus, Kepler, Bacon, and Martin Luther were all influential philosophers during this time.Galileo Galilee’s famous quotes was, “Measure what can be measured and make measurable what cannot be measured.
” This was his view of the importance of the empirical method. Galileo believed the language of mathematics was the language of the book f nature. He used the telescope to observe heavenly bodies. He observed the moon and hypothesized that the moon had mountains and valleys, as did the earth.
He discovered that Earth was not alone in having a moon in that Jupiter has four. From testing a metal ball and its behavior down a ramp, Galileo formulated the law of inertia.He believed a body remains in the state it is in at rest or in motion as long as no external force compels it to change its state. Galileo was dead on for most of his ideas except for rejecting the idea forces of gravitation could work over distances like the moon and the Earth.
Nicolas Copernicus was also an accomplished figure of the time. In 1543, the publishing of his book On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres, and his death took place on the same day. He claimed the earth rotated around the sun not vice versa. The reason people had always believed the sun went round the earth was that it turns on its own axis.
However, observations of heavenly bodies are easier to understand if one assumed that both earth and the other planets circle around the sun or heliocentric ideas. Copernicus believed sun was the center of the universe and that orbits are in circles. He was half-right. The idea the orbits are in circles was from the belief that heavenly bodies are round and moved in circles because they are plainly heavenly. This idea was incorrect and Johannes Kepler realized this.
Kepler, from the early 1600s, believed the orbits are elliptical or oval. He came to this conclusion based on careful observations.He believed the speed of the planets is greatest when closest to the sun and slowest when furthest from the sun. He also corrected Galileo’s idea and emphasized the belief that physical laws apply everywhere throughout out the universe. He believed the earth was just a planet just like all ther planets. He knew all this because he investigated the movements with his own senses instead of blindly trusting ancient superstitions.
Kepler used the telescope and observed heavenly bodies attract to each other. Galileo’s law of inertia applied to this thought. Kepler believed the ebb and flow of the tides was directly a result of a lunar force.All three of these philosophers greatly influenced the Renaissance’s scientific beliefs. Francis Bacon another important figure during the Renaissance believed “Knowledge is power. ” In believing in this, he underlined the practical value of knowledge.
He believed that man was starting to intervene in nature and beginning to control it. He idea was roughly true. The technical revolution lead to the spinning jenny which lead to unemployment, and to medicine which lead to new diseases. Perhaps Bacon was warning those that would come after him of the dangers this new technical revolution could cause.Bacon is not alone in his beliefs and many people today agree with him. Martin Luther was a reformer and believed people did not need the intercession of the church or its priests in order to receive God’s forgiveness.
He thought God’s forgiveness was not ependent on the “indulgences” from the church. Luther distanced himself from religious customs and dogmas that had become rooted in ecclesiastical history during the Middle Ages. Luther wanted to return to early Christianity just as the Renaissance humanists wanted to turn to ancient sources of art and culture.Luther’s many accomplishments included teaching himself agreed that the age of thirty-five and then translating the bible into German- therefore allowing the language of the people to take precedence over Latin. He believed every man should be able to read the bible resulting in him becoming his own priest. He employed priests for practical reasons; he did not believe anyone received God’s forgiveness and redemption from sin through church rituals.
He based his church on the idea they receive God’s forgiveness and redemption from faith alone.His church emphasized on the individual and his or her personal relationship to God. Luther’s characteristics shined very much like an important Renaissance feature. The five of these individuals’ determination and new ideas help them to become a perfect examples of a Renaissance men or men who are of universal genius and embrace all spects of life. The seventeenth century began the Baroque period. The Baroque came from a word that was first used to describe a pearl of irregular shape-irregularity was typical of Baroque art which was highly contrastive from Renaissance art.
Characterization of the Baroque included irreconcilable contrasts. The Renaissance brought unremitting optimism while the Baroque is the opposite extreme life of religious seclusion and self-denial. “Pompous flamboyant forms of self expression while at the same time there arose a monastic movement-turning away from the world”(Gaarder, p. 26) characterized the Baroque period. In other words, the Baroque was “both proud palaces and remote monasteries”(Gaarder, p.
226). A favorite saying of the Baroque was “carpe diem,” or seize the day.Vanity or affectation filled the Baroque, but at the same time people concerned with the reality, that all the beauty that surrounds us must one day parish. This realization was the idea of ephedermal nature. During the Baroque years of 1618- 1648, Europe put up with the Thirty Years’ War, which ravaged the continent. The war took a toll on Germany and France became the major power in Europe.
The wars were between Protestants, Catholics, and political power. The wars helped the people of the Baroque to realize life is short and one should live life to the fullest.The theater was more than an art form during the Baroque period. “It was the most commonly employed symbol of the time”(Gaarder p. 227) It was a symbol of life. It became a reflection of life in general.
It portrayed human frailty that closely related the idea of living life to the fullest. As one can see, the Baroque era related closely to the saying “carpe diem. ” I think it is a bit coincidental that we are asked to elate the quote “seize the day” with everyday life today because it is one of the common quotes that I try to fulfil everyday.I believe that everyday should be lived to the fullest because one can never know when it will be taken away from you. As the philosophers from the Baroque said, all the beauty that surrounds us must one-day parish, including human beings.
Most people take the comforts we have today for granted. Many people do not understand that there are other hungry, homeless, uneducated people out there. Everyday needs to be lived like there will be o tomorrow and the people of the Baroque did just that. The Renaissance and the Baroque both had qualities of new ways of thinking.In the Baroque people began to understand that they would not be around forever and that they should take in all that they could one day at a time.
People believed life was like a theater. Philosophy was characterized by conflict between idealism, the belief that existence is spiritual, and materialism, the belief that only material phenomena really exist. During the Renaissance, all cultural life flourished, and Rome was rebuilt. People felt that God was present throughout nature. The idea of an empirical method was born, and it resulted in an emphasis on investigation and experimentation.Scientific knowledge became important, and led to scientific innovation that has continued to the present day.
The innovations have been both good and bad, but there is no way to return to the days before such inventions. People’s relationship to God became more personal, and the Protestant Reformation demonstrated that the normal view of the Church was no longer acceptable for all. Compared to the Middle Ages the time of the Renaissance and the Baroque clearly were quite an advance in all ways.