The Nature of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases Essay Example
The Nature of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases Essay Example

The Nature of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases Essay Example

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  • Pages: 8 (2107 words)
  • Published: February 18, 2022
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Nurmatov et al.

in their article, explains how the effectiveness of interventions designed to deliver holistic care for people with severe COPD. The article explains a well-recognized burden of putting out of action physical symptoms compounded by co-morbidities, emotional distress and societal isolation; the needs of people with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are typically poorly attended to and addressed (Nurmatov et al, 2012, pg 1). The article shows the research carried with the aim assessing the effectiveness of interventions designed to deliver holistic care for people with severe COPD (Nurmatov et al, 2012, pg 1). Nurmatov et al explains how patients with COPD behave with a company of people and while alone. The article by Nurmatov et al, the findings explain that from 2,866 potentially relevant papers, we identified three trials from both


Europe and Asia. Two randomized controlled trials from United States and Australia and one controlled clinical trials from Thailand (Nurmatov et al, 2012, pg 1).

A total 216 patients involved in the research and the assessment of the risk of biasness was as moderate in two studies and high in the third. All the involvements were by the help of nurses acting in a coordinating role such as making possible community support in Thailand. Nurses also provide case-management in the United States and coordinating inpatient care in Australia. The article is states that health-related quality of life services is improving significantly in the Thailand controlled clinical trials compared to the very limited usual care, in two sub-domains in the American trial (Nurmatov et al, 2012, pg 1). The research also showed no major changes in the Australian trial. In Thailand trials, patien

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improved in exercise tolerance, dyspnoea, and satisfaction with care.

The research involved searching in 11 biomedical databases, three trial repositories for the period from January 1990 and March 2012. The research had no language restrictions and used the help of the international experts to situate published, unpublished and in-progress randomized controlled trials (Nurmatov et al, 2012, pg 1). The randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials helped in the investigation of holistic interventions that help in supporting patients with severe COPD in any healthcare context. One of the main outcomes was health-related quality of life.

The process of quality evaluation and data extraction followed Cochrane Collaboration methodology. The research used a piloted data extraction sheet and undertook narrative synthesis. In the research finding stated that years after the first report of that highlighted the need of patient severe COPD, no robust trial evidence about intervention that can help solve the problem. One of the research findings was that an urgent need to develop and assess holistic care involvement designed to improve health-related quality of life for people with severe COPD. The article is helpful since it gives information on COPD on the first researches done (Nurmatov et al, 2012, pg 1). The article is disadvantaged since it did not include the researches done in United Kingdom but in other countries in Europe and Asia.

The methodologies used include randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials helped in the investigation of holistic interventions. SALLY, ROHINI, SIMON, THOMAS and JOHN did a research with the main aim of evaluating of a system change that will help and improve COPD care delivery in a primary care setting between 2010 and 2013

using observational data. In the research, structured care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can get better outcomes. Delivering care to patients with COPD who are in a deprived ethnically diverse area can demonstrate to be challenging. The research used all the 36 practices in one inner London primary care trust were grouped geographically into eight networks of 4 to 5 practices (SALLY et.

al, 2014 pg 1 ). Each practice supported by a network manager, clerical staff and an educational budget. Many multidisciplinary groups such respiratory specialist and the community respiratory team have developed care package for COPD management. The care package has financial incentives based on network achievements of clinical targets and supported case management and education. Monthly electronic control panels enabled networks to track and improve performance. The size of the network of COPD registers increased by 10% in the first year (SALLY et.

al, 2014 pg 1). Between 2010 and 2013 completed care plans increased from 53 to 86.5%, pulmonary rehabilitation referrals rose from 45 to 70% and rates of flu immunization from 81 to 83%, exceeding London and England figures. Hospital admissions decreased in Tower Hamlets from a historic high base. Investment of financial, organizational and educational resource into general practice networks was associated with clinically important improvements in COPD care in socially deprived, ethnically diverse communities. Key behavior change included the following: collaborative working between practices driven by high-quality information to support performance review; shared financial incentives; and engagement between primary and secondary care clinicians (SALLY et.

al, 2014 pg 1). From the research, the research area is more of the whole of Europe and not specifically the United Kingdom. The

area of study in question was majorly the United Kingdom not the whole or parts of the Europe. The research document involved all the 36 practices not living out and grouping them with their similarity for easy access of information.

The causes of COPD include pollution of the air, diseases that are infectious and genetic problems. The government of United Kingdom is introducing work standards and restrictions at the workplace that are at a high chance of getting chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. The employer should provide the employees with standard work attire and equipment to reduce a chance of people contracting chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases at the workplace (GIERSEL, 2014, pg 94). The main factors that increase the risk of contracting the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are by contact with smoke and fumes. The key agents of smoke are by tobacco smoking, secondhand smoking, the pollution of air by fumes, and antitrypsin deficiency among other. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk factors include genetics, age, and occupational exposure.

Some of the risk factors are avoidable such as occupational exposure and direct smoking of tobacco while others are not like age and genetics (CHADWICK, and GOODE, 2010, pg 57). People with a genetic history of respiratory disorders like asthma stand a high chance of contracting the disease easily. Age a factor to consider sing the old people have a very low immune system to diseases. Even if somebody as never smoked directly, the person must have accumulated fumes and dust from their childhood until the old age as a passerby hence vulnerable to this disease.

People who work in a place where there is the usage of smoke, fume and

dust stand a higher chance of contracting the disease. Other disorders that contribute to the risk of contracting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease include emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma among other infectious diseases. The government of united government is creating health facilities that are specializing in respiratory disorders. The health facilities will the measuring the health of the patients and taking a survey on the state of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the respective regions of the nation. The hospital will be treating the victims and issuing them with medication and advising accordingly on the best way forward. The health facility with the help from the government will be conducting periodic teaching and create awareness to the public through education (TERAMOTO, 2016, pg 79).

Through shows and exhibitions, the government will be educating the public on the causes, signs, and symptoms, medication and prevention measures of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had various signs and symptoms at the early stages and developed stages. They symptoms at the early stages of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease include coughs, shortness of breath, chest discomfort and wheezing (CHADWICK, and GOODE, 2010, pg 50). The symptoms at the early stage if not checked upon in good time, they advance to other more dangers symptoms of the progressing stages of the disease. At a developed stage of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the patients experience respiratory distress, cyanosis, tachypnea, hyperinflation and the use of accessory respiratory muscles.

Other symptoms at a developed stage include peripheral edema, chronic wheezing, abnormal lung sounds, prolonged expiration, and elevated jugular venous pulse among others. Chest tightness, unintended weight loss, swelling of body

parts such as ankles, feet, legs, and exacerbations also are symptoms of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has four major stages that range from stage 1 to stage 4 and as the stages increase the disorder is progressively becoming worse until it reaches to stage 4 that is the end stage. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has complications such as respiratory infections, heart problems, lung cancer, depression, and high blood pressure in lung arteries. The health sector is creating a hotline service where people can able to call and report emergencies and make inquiries on matters concerning chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (TERAMOTO, 2016, pg 79). By creating hotline services, the public will be able to take action at an early stage where the disease is manageable to help save a life before the disorder gets to stage 4.


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