Critiquing Essay Example
Critiquing Essay Example

Critiquing Essay Example

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  • Pages: 9 (2207 words)
  • Published: August 26, 2016
  • Type: Essay
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The aim of this essay is to examine the interaction between a health professional and service users as depicted in the DVD clip titled "Someone to Watch over Me." It investigates the notions of health and communication, highlighting the importance of the nurse/patient relationship and how interpersonal communication is essential in conveying health information. To organize this essay, four guiding principles have been selected.

This text discusses various topics related to health and the main characters in a DVD clip. It explores the social determinants of health using Dahlgren and Whitehead's (1991) model, and examines how these determinants affect the health of the clients and the health professional. Additionally, it identifies three health behaviors depicted in the clip and analyzes their impact on the holistic health of the clients and the Health Professional using the Tran th


eoretical model. The text also addresses barriers to communication during the interaction between the health professional and the clients, and suggests ways to address these barriers. Lastly, it discusses the types of communication used during patient/client interaction and suggests alternative forms of communication that could have been utilized.

According to McKenna (2002 cited by Lloyd, Hancock and Campbell 2007), concepts – known as labels – give us meaning and allow us to categorize, interpret, and structure a phenomenon. It is important to understand that concepts should not be confused with the actual phenomenon itself. In a similar vein, Lloyd, Hancock, and Campbell (2007, p. 4) propose that health and communication are more complex than they may initially seem.

The definition of health can differ among individuals, with various perspectives. For some, it is merely

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the lack of illness, while others consider psychological factors. Analysts in healthcare, such as Kronenfeld (2002, p.21), have faced challenges in defining health for a long time. Previously, health was commonly associated with being free from sickness or disease. However, this definition is regarded as negative since it neglects physical well-being and fails to encompass the positive aspects of health.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) (1958 cited by Lloyd, Hancock and Campbell 2007) embraced a wider interpretation of health. According to the WHO, health is not simply the absence of illness or weakness but also includes overall physical, mental, and social well-being. Nevertheless, this definition has received criticism as it implies that health is not a fixed state but an ongoing process of adapting to daily challenges. In response to this feedback, the WHO revised its definition in 1984 to emphasize that health serves as a valuable asset for everyday life rather than being the sole objective of existence. This updated definition gives significance to both personal and social resources, as well as physical abilities.

The definition presented acknowledges the multi-faceted nature of health, encompassing mental, physical, and behavioral aspects. Hargie and Dickson (2004 cited by Berry 2006) stress the essential role of communication in our daily lives, highlighting its fundamental importance to the human experience. Communication involves the transmission of information from a sender to one or more recipients (Northouse and Northouse, 1998 cited by Berry 2006). The Department of Health (2004 cited by Berry 2006) suggests that information is crucial for making informed decisions and having choices. Without information, choices become limited. Information facilitates knowledge and understanding, empowering patients to actively

participate in their healthcare as partners.

A. Hasselkus (2011) emphasizes the importance of improving patient information to enhance health communication and enable informed healthcare decisions. Fitzpatrick and Kazer (2011) state that interpersonal communication plays a vital role in providing patients with knowledge about their specific health issues, prevention and treatment strategies, as well as the roles of patients and nurses in achieving favorable health outcomes. The national university of Singapore (2011) defines interpersonal communication as verbal and nonverbal interactions in one-on-one or small-group settings, highlighting its significance in achieving better standards of care.

The video clip shows that both spouses do not meet the definitions of health and lead unhealthy lifestyles. There are wider determinants of their health present. The Dahlgren and Whitehead 1991 social model of health is an example of a framework that considers the general determinants of health. This framework, known as the social ecological theory of health, is useful in conceptualizing the main influences on health. Marks et al (2005, p. 13) explains that this framework is like a multi-layered onion structure. At the core is the individual, endowed with fixed factors such as age, sex, and genetic makeup, over which we have little or no control. Surrounding the individual are four influences. The first layer is the individual's lifestyle.

According to Marks et al (2005), an individual's life can have positive or potentially harmful outcomes. Kim's lifestyle has had negative effects on herself and her four children. Three of her children have been taken away by social services, and she is currently pregnant with her fourth child. Kim had problems with excessive drinking, which the NHS Choices

(2012) identifies as a health risk. The impact of alcohol on health varies depending on the amount consumed. The more an individual drinks, the greater the health risks become. It often takes several years for the hidden dangers of alcohol to become apparent, during which serious health issues may arise (NHS Choices, 2012).

The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) have identified excessive drinking as a major health concern. The risks of this behavior are diverse and can result in both immediate and long-term effects. These include neurological problems such as dementia and stroke, cardiovascular issues like myocardial infarction, social challenges like unemployment, complications during pregnancy that may lead to miscarriage or stillbirth, and lifelong physical and mental birth defects in children.

According to the health professional's assessment, Kim's lack of coordination and neglect towards her children can be attributed to her drunkenness. She frequently leaves them hungry, unkempt, and starved. Even though she is close to giving birth, she continues to smoke tobacco, which poses risks to both her own health and the well-being of her unborn baby. Pitsiou and Argyropoulou-Pataka (2007 p. 35) highlight that women are particularly susceptible to smoking-related diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease.

Smoking during pregnancy poses a higher risk of perinatal mortality for women. It can also negatively affect female fertility and bone density during menopause. To address the smoking epidemic and its associated health issues, various measures need to be implemented. Adam abstains from both drinking and smoking but has a history of mental disability. He does not try to positively influence her due to her previous

difficulties with motherhood. The second layer of Dahlgren and Whitehead's 1991 model highlights the importance of social and community networks.

The paragraph discusses the support available for society members in unfavorable conditions. Marks et al (2005) states that these individuals will receive support. The Centre for Public Scrutiny (2009) suggests that these support networks should focus on social exclusion, community development, and access to health and social care services. If Kim had the support of these networks, it would have helped her recovery journey and provided her with an understanding of the negative health and social consequences resulting from her addiction.

Health behavior refers to any behavior that may impact an individual's physical health or any behavior that an individual believes may affect their physical health (Sutton, 2004, p. 94). In Kim's situation, smoking and drinking were considered unhealthy behaviors, which caused concern for the healthcare professional regarding her decision to trust her clients' ability to make appropriate choices.

According to Sutton (2004), health behaviors can be influenced by different factors, including biological, psychological, and sociological factors. However, these theories only mention a limited number of these factors. The Transtheoretical Model, as recognized by Tucker (1999), combines various theories to explain how behavior change occurs. Lloyd, Hancock, and Campbell (2007) use Diclemente and Prochaska's (1982) model to explain the stages individuals go through when changing their behavior; this model identifies six stages in the behavior change process.

The process of change can be categorized into various stages, including Pre-contemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance, and Relapse. During this process, individuals assess their beliefs and consider the time and effort required for change, as well as the pros

and cons involved. The social-cognition model analyzes factors that influence behavior and examines why individuals struggle to maintain committed behaviors (Lloyd et al., 2007, p. 11). Difficulties in effective communication were witnessed during the interaction between a health professional and a client.

Communication is the process through which people interact and create and interpret meanings using signs (Wood, 2011, p. 3). It is a two-way process that results in shared meaning between the sender and receiver (Cleary, 2004, p. 11). Scriven (2010, p. 133) states that effective communication should be clear, unambiguous, and free from message distortion. Wood (2011) suggests that effective communication is closely linked to physical and psychological well-being as individuals have a need for social interaction and community involvement. In addition, according to Scriven (2010), communication plays a crucial role in the success of health promotion efforts.

Communication barriers can impede the transmission of messages from a sender to a receiver (Cleary, 2004, p. 11). In the context of health professionals and their clients, there is often a social gap between them that can hinder effective communication. Clients may feel disconnected from the health professional due to differences in their roles, resulting in withdrawal and tension (Cleary, 2004, p. 12). Cleary (2004, p. 12) further explains that an individual's frame of reference encompasses their values, beliefs, cultural/educational background, attitudes, and physical attributes which shape their perspective.

Throughout a person's life, their frame of reference can be altered by their experiences. For example, Kim had negative encounters with health professionals in the past, leading to the removal of her children. Consequently, she now harbors a general distrust for authority figures,

particularly social workers. She views health professionals as individuals who criticize and pass judgment on her while attempting to enforce changes upon her preferred lifestyle and behaviors. It is vital to acknowledge and tackle these communication obstacles when functioning as a health promoter.

Tackling the problem is no easy task, but improving awareness and skill can greatly contribute to improvement (Scriven, 2010, p. 140). Cleary (2004) suggests that health professionals should possess strong communication skills, both verbal and listening, in order to meet the needs of the receiver effectively and prevent communication barriers. They should demonstrate genuine concern and personal engagement with their clients, successfully relating to them and their experiences, while still maintaining an unconditional positive regard, which allows for disagreement. Therefore, they should approach the problem itself rather than the client (Webb, 2011, p. 100). According to Scriven (2010, p. 138), effective communication and skilled questioning are crucial in prompting people to provide precise, concise, and honest responses.

In order to communicate effectively with clients, health promoters should employ diverse forms of communication. The effectiveness of this communication is associated with how clients perceive themselves and their aptitude for communicating (Dixey, Cross, Foster and Lowcoc, 2013, p. 78). During her conversation with Adam and Kim, June employed a range of communication techniques primarily through verbal means. She took care not to utilize jargon or acronyms that could impede their comprehension; instead, she spoke using plain language while selecting her words carefully.

When complex situations are being explained to the general public, there is a tendency to use medical terminology that can cause misunderstandings. This issue becomes more significant when one

or both parties do not have English as their first language, and even more so when neither of them is fluent in English. Even individuals who are fluent in English may face difficulties understanding due to accents, dialects, euphemisms, colloquialisms, and acronyms. This lack of understanding can lead to disappointment or alienation for the patient and potentially compromise their healthcare (McEwen and Kraszewski, 2010, p. 3). The healthcare provider also relied on nonverbal cues during communication.

The passage discusses the importance of communication and how it can be influenced by tone of voice and non-verbal cues. It explains that June's negative tone while reading an assessment to a couple conveyed a negative message, while Kim, who already knew about her addiction issues, did not need to hear about them again from someone offering a solution. The passage also mentions the unintentional impact of tone of voice on the recipient in communication and acknowledges June's use of non-verbal forms of communication.

Non-verbal communication, also known as communication without words (McEwen and Kraszewski, 2010), is recognized by researchers for its power. It is widely agreed upon that non-verbal cues receive more attention from individuals than verbal communication. Therefore, healthcare promoters should be mindful of the non-verbal messages they transmit and receptive to those they receive from others. However, in this case, the promoter failed to actively listen - a crucial skill for effective communication. Instead, she dominated the conversation and only briefly paused to receive responses to her questions and requests. Properly interpreting both the patient's words and body language while actively listening to their answers is essential.

Active listening and asking open-ended questions

are important for developing trust and obtaining meaningful information. A strong relationship between health professionals and their clients is crucial to their role. It is necessary to evaluate how your professional stance aligns with your attitudes and values. Effective communication is vital in promoting health, ensuring that clients receive accurate information about services and that their preferences are acknowledged. Health professionals have a responsibility to communicate effectively, and seeking feedback from clients can help improve communication skills.

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