Scientific revolution was the period of transition from the early and traditional sciences to the modern and advanced science occurred. Disciplines and fields such as mathematic, astronomy, chemistry, human anatomy, and physics were developed in this period. This era started in the 16th and 17th centuries with Kepler, Isaac Newton, and other scientists and then later in 18th century with scientists such as Newton and Clairaut (Harman et al p. 109).
Previously, people believed in the religion church explanation of the world. People were satisfied with the observations that were evident in the entire world. They also believed and trusted ancient leaders without any question. However, with the emergence of scientists and scholars who came with more reasonable notions, many people shifted their focus from mere observation to testing and experimentation. Observation was not enough to convince people about different occurrences and also prediction of occurrences. The mindsets and ways of thinking of the people were changed by the introduction of practical experiments, works, and logical reasoning. This was done by a group of scientists who had common way of thinking about similar, and at times different, events and occurrences all aiming at evidence-based results.
Therefore, the scientific revolution was deemed a revolutionary process as it involved t...
he changes of the entire world and people’s way of thinking about physical world around them. People stopped believing in magic (Casadevall et al p. 22). Eventually, the modern sciences led to the development of physics, chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, biology, and others all geared to embrace the transformed view of the nature and society.
How was the Scientific Revolution Era Revolutionary?
The Rise of Scientists with Common Thinking
Previously, people used to attribute things according to religion and faith. For example, people used to believe that God cures illness and He cannot do it through human beings as we believe today (Harman et al p. 115). People believed that the Bible, clergy men and priests, and also ancient leaders and their families were the solutions to all the problems that occurred in the world. That was the mindset with many people by then.
However, with the scientific revolution as at 16th century onwards, a group of scientists began to have different views from what people felt and held. For example, Rene Descartes invented “deductive reasoning” which is also known as the “top-down method”. Using this method, scientists began to address different issues according to their causes. Scientists began using theories or general statement from which testable hypothesis would be derived. From the testable hypothesis, observation based on testing and experimentation would be done. Consequently, the results of the experiments and tests would land them into a conclusion (Harman et al p. 113). The conclusion would be used and compared to the initial theory in order to confirm and verify that theory. This approach was opposed to the early and traditional methods where people followed the ideologies of the authorities and religion to make all decisions and conclusions.
On the other
hand was Francis Bacon. As an early scientist, he was certain of many preconceptions and misconceptions that people had in the past. He urged the scientists to ditch the manipulation and preconceptions such as; ideologies and reasoning, that they had embraced from the religion and old authorities who implemented them (Casadevall et al p. 32). The Baconian Method, also the “inductive reasoning” or “bottom-up method”, was invented as to address different issues. Scientists used to observe occurrences, develop a general statement or theory, and eventually come up with a logical conclusion. Therefore, despite having knowledge on something or a certain field, it was worth to assume it and retake the reasoning process based on tangible facts.
Thus, both Descartes and Francis Baicon findings were the main basis for revolutionary in the era of scientific revolution. In their propositions, the 2 scientists encouraged critical thinking based on facts and crucial testing and experimentation. Any conclusion, general statement, or prediction was based on results of findings and not merely the information and idea implemented by authorities of the past.
Many people in the past used to believe in the traditional authorities and they could not question them for anything. As a result, dictatorship, hereditary leadership, feudalism, bureaucracy, violation of rights, and even slavery were common and, furthermore, they were unquestionable. However, with the emergence of scientific revolutionists who encouraged thinking before concluding on something, many changed their lives (Casadevall et al p. 36). People started questioning about their positions in the society. People became insightful in the need for democratic leadership in the world starting from Europe to America. Education and different campaigns enlightened people on their human rights. People began being opposed to slavery and bureaucracy. Cases of civil unrest and human rights campaigns began to rise frequently. At the same time, religion split ups began with the era of Protestantism due to people being opposed to systems such as the Roman Catholic Church and its strict rules across Europe. Many people in many parts of the world started opposing stratification and racism as they started seeking societal equity by all means.
Geocentrism VS Heliocentrism
Before scientific revolution, it was believed that, the earth was the centre of the universe and everything else revolved around it. Since no one had made it to the space, it was therefore hard to argue or oppose that. This was the era of geocentrism. This belief was supported by religion which emphasizes that the earth is the centre of the universe where everything in the universe happens from.
On the other hand was the notion of heliocentrism. Led by a mathematician by name Copernicus, the notion stood to oppose geocentrism. It presupposed that the sun, not the earth, is the centre of the universe and everything else in the space revolves around the sun. However, without any tangible evidence, the notion was powerless to convince the people.
Later on, Johannes Kepler proposed that there are planetary motions that are based on a path known as “orbit”. On this path, the earth revolves around the sun (Casadevall et al p. 45). He supported his statement by the occurrence of
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