Science and Form Modem Psychology Essay
1. Argue that psychology’s roots began 2000 years ago. Now argue that they began 200 years ago. What fields came together to form psychology? Psychology viewed as an old discipline. Psychology can trace its roots to the 5 century BC to the Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle and Socrates, because we grapple with the same questions they attempted to answer. On the other hand, we could view psychology as emerging when philosophy and physiology merged to include experimentation and empirical methods to answer those questions about 200 years ago.
Thus, it also viewed as a new discipline in 1879, which the approach taken to study make psychology became a science and distinguish from the older discipline philosophy and form modem psychology. Modern psychology can be considered a product of 19th century thought because this is the time when the field developed its own independent methods and became its own independent discipline. Philosopher studied human nature via speculation, intuition and generalization based on their own experience, while psychology applied the tool and methods of biological and physical science, with controlled observation and experimentation.
Psychology attain an identity separate from philosophical roots One can also see the influence of the historical context on the formation of the field. The zeitgeist of the time can have a tremendous influence on what the focus of psychology is at any given time. For example, during the world wars, psychological testing, personnel selection and engineering psychology were emphasized. For example, the economic influence in 1900. As psychology as a newest science received small amount of financial support, while little jobs are available for earn a living.
Thus, prevalence of applied psychology to showed its importance in order to receive more money. ———————— Even through Wundt had trained many of the first American psychologists, his ideas had little influence on their work. The work of Darwin, Galton, and Spencer were much more influential. This was partly due to the American Zeitgeist, which valued practicality. There were contextual forces as well as work in America to foster the growth of applied psychology.
The number of people with a Ph. D. in psychology rose and there were not enough academic positions to employ them, and when one attained a teaching job many administrations did not value (or fund) psychology programs. As psychology was a newest science when compared to physics and chemistry…received smallest financial support, so need to proof that psychology is useful in solving social, educational and industrial problem in order to improve budgets.
An emerging societal problem was a dramatic increase in public school enrollment, which opened doors for some psychologists. Thus, the focus of psychology shifted towards the application in solving real-world problem. ————————— [Why established in German? ?Its intellectual history – scientific rather than philosophic. ?Germany temperament emphasized on inductive approach rather than philosophical deduction, and this enhanced psychology developed as a hard science. ?It also had a broader definition of science. Economic condition ensured that universities were well-financed with highly paid faculty and advanced laboratory equipment ? Academic freedom allowed teachers and students free to choose what they wanted to teach and learn. ?More jobs with well-paid available ?Ideal environment…………………] Wundt –Founder of new psychology (experimental). –Published the textbook Principles of Physiological Psychology based on his lectures and summarized and combined physiology and philosophy –Established the first laboratory Edited the first journal –Promoted experiemtnal psychology as a science with systematic experiemtnataion. –Focus on describing and organizing the elements of consciousness, had little practical application to solve real-world problems –Trained the first generation of experimental psychologists –Although Fechner’s scientific work came earlier and has been more enduring, –If not for Wundt’s “selling”, promoting of psychology, the influential contributions of his predecessors may have gone unnoticed.