School Administration Essay
To define supervision, b. To Identify the major function of supervision, and; c. To recognize the alms of supervision. Discussion: School supervision is a school-college-based practice that engages teachers in a dialogue on the improvement of teaching and learning. One of the main roles of this system is to monitor the quality of education and support the teachers in their efforts to provide the best possible education.
Thus the supervision is part of the overall quality and improvement system in schools. The things that made significant changes in school supervision are the present socio-cultural conditions and the expanding body of professional knowledge. The aim of supervision is to provide the necessary leadership In studying, planning, Improving, coordinating and evaluating of the school program and In handling of the problem areas that materialize the schools.
Jointly, administration and supervision are responsible for furnishing the leadership required In Improving the teaching-learning situations, and Implementing changes in the curriculum: developing in-service programs for teaching personnel; ND developing and revising instructional materials to keep abreast of current developments. It is defined as the effort to stimulate, co-ordinate and guide the continued growth of the teachers in school, both individually and collectively.
According to Barton & Burner, “Supervision is an expert technical service primarily aimed at studying and improving co-operatively all factors which affect the child’s growth and development. ” Supervision’, according to Barr and Burton is the foundation on which all programs for improvement of teaching must be built. Thus he term supervision has been defined by defined by deferent educationists In different ways.
But all agree that the Improvement of Instruction Is a cooperative process In which all the teachers participate and the supervisor Is an educational leader who acts as a stimulator, guide and consultant to the teacher in their effort to improve instruction. The Five Major Functions of Supervision INSPECTION Objective: To discuss the role of inspection and explain its purpose in supervision.
Discussion: In general terms, school Inspection can be viewed as the process of assessing, examining, collecting Information, and analyzing the performance of schools, so as to see If It meets the educational standards that the government intends to achieve through Its educational system. As argued by Richards (2001 b) school Inspection Involves making evaluations about the coalescence and value of what Is observed, collected and reported. It is not simply a means of judging a school’s compliance with should be developmental and not Judgmental (Diamond & Walker, 2005; Wilcox, 2000).
It means that it should help the teacher to improve and not Just pinpointing his/her weaknesses. Inspection refers to the study of existing school conditions. The major task of a supervisor is to survey the school system in order to discover problems or defects of the pupils, teachers, equipment, school curriculum, objectives and methods of instruction, together with the conditions that surround them. Inspection as a function must be based on actual facts. Inspection and supervision is no longer considered to be fault finding and criticizing.
In reality, it is for improvement in teaching-learning process and situation. It is providing leadership in the field of education. Its main aim is to provide democratic leadership to teachers to put them on right lines and to set before them goals within reach. Another aim of inspection and supervision is to check inefficiency in schools and find out gaps in the proper functioning of school and ensure they are bridged. Inspection is concerned mainly with the improvement of standards and quality of education and should be an integral part of a school improvement program.
A major purpose of inspection is “to collect a range of evidence, march the evidence against a statutory set of criteria, arrive at Judgments and make those Judgments known to the public”. RESEARCH . To define research as functions of supervision; and b. To distinguish the procedures and conditions in conducting research in the school system. Discussion: The fundamental aim of this function is to formulate a plan to remedy the weakness or to solve the problem discovered. The supervisor should conduct research to discover means, methods, and procedures fundamental to the success of supervision.
The solutions discovered through research should be passed on to the teachers and other personnel connected with the school system. Teachers in the field should also be encouraged to conduct their own research for self-improvement. Research as a function should be practical and applicable to existing procedures and conditions. Outlines the steps in supervisory research as follows: a. To discover existing defects in instruction b. To seek improved methods and correcting defects. C. To formulate tentative plans to improve instruction. D. O plan controlled experimental conditions e. To measure results of experiments f. To formulate tentative objectives and standards g. To formulate a plan for the general use of method. H. To present a plan to district principals for criticism, suggestion, and approval. TRAINING a. O define training as functions of supervision Training may take the form of demonstration teaching, workshop, seminars, directed the use of bulletins and circulars. The function must be based on the democratic principle of supervision-research for rights and opinions of others.
Supervision must endeavor to keep up with the best prevailing standard of improving the total teaching-learning situation. GUIDANCE Define guidance and its function in supervision Guidance involves directing and channeling employees’ behavior toward the accomplishment of work objectives and providing a workplace where teachers can be titivated to accomplish the school objectives. It’s the function of the supervisor to guide and encourage the teachers to apply all the instructional procedures and techniques in their teaching process.
Through guidance the teachers are being developed to express their self to be more creative and urge the teachers to stimulate a creative and reflective thinking. Education should be the process of guiding growth of our learners. The teaching of teachers was the point of emphasis of guidance. EVALUATION a. To determine and analyze the meaning and purposes of evaluation Discussion: Evaluation this can be considered the ultimate major function of supervision.
The purpose of evaluation is to appraise the outcomes and the factors conditioning the outcomes of instruction, and to improve the products and process of instruction. It is the duty of the supervisor to help develop an adequate instrument with which to measure the teaching learning process and set up standards of attainment as are necessary for the appraisal of the teacher’s progress in teaching, and the pupil in his learning. School work should be evaluated in the light of desirable educational objectives and social standards.
Evaluation must be based on educational aims and objectives. Evaluation as a function of supervision serves many significant purposes as the following: 1 . Evaluation discovers the needs of the individuals being evaluated and familiarize the teacher with the pupil’s needs and possibilities. 2. Evaluation relates measurement to the goals of the instructional program. 3. It serves as a guide for the selection of supervisory techniques. 4. It appraises the educational growth of pupils which is the end-product of supervision. 5.
Evaluation appraises the quality of supervisory processes and the supervisor’s competence. . It appraises the quality of the teaching process and the teacher’s efficiency. 7. Evaluation aids pupil-teacher planning 8. It serve as a means of improving school-community relations. 9. Evaluation improves the selection and the use of guiding principles in supervision. 10. Evaluation appraises the success of the instructional program in particular and of the supervisory program in general. Identify the other functions of Supervision There are other functions of supervision.
Barr, Burton and Bracken give the following as the three major functions of supervision with the supervising activities under each: 1 . Teaching-Learning Situation Studying the The supervisor must analyze the objective of education and supervision, study the products of teaching and learning and studying the satisfactory and unsatisfactory growth and achievement, studying the interests, abilities and work habits of the pupils, study the teacher at work and aiding her to study herself and study the curriculum and operation. 2.
Improving the Teaching-Learning Situation The supervisor must ensure to improve the educational objectives and curriculum, improve the teacher and her methods, and improve the materials of instruction and the socio-physical environment. . Evaluating the Means, Methods and Outcomes of Supervision: The supervisor must discover and apply the techniques of evaluation, evaluate the general work of supervision, the factors limiting the instructional outcomes and improve the personnel of supervision Crow and Crow give the following as important functions of supervision which pertain to teaching and learning a.
The interpretation of educational objectives b. The study and improvement of he curriculum and materials of instruction c. The measurement of the individual pupil’s ability to learn d. The guidance of pupils toward improved study and in their work habits. . The improvement of teaching techniques f. The evaluation of educational outcomes g. The stimulation of whatever creative ability may be inherent among the supervised. REFERENCES GREGORY, HERMAN. , school supervision http://www. Alberta. Ca/?crabber/papers/aka. HTML http://cathartics. Webby. Com/academic-aspect-inspection-supervision. HTML POSITIVE REACTION Conducting an inspection in school is very important for the universal recognition of the right of every child in every classroom, in every school to receive a high quality education appropriate to their needs and aptitudes, effectiveness in education yester is a key influence on economic well-being of every nation, and the recognition of the need to equip students with the kind of education that will enable them to contribute to increasingly complex and changing society. Inspections generally bring about little improvement in the quality of teaching and learning within schools.
The requirement for schools to develop a plan to improve oral and written feedback from school inspectors as an important stimulus for school improvement. NEGATIVE REACTION Though inspection played an important role in supervision, there are still numerous robbers associated in the system of school inspection. Inspection is always a stressful time for a school. It could be the moment when hard work is finally garlanded with a glowing report, or the occasion when a single teacher is having a bad day tarnishes the reputation of all his colleagues.
In addition to this, it is very tough for the part of the teachers if the inspectors will do the inspection without notice. The inspections were generally planned and managed well. Sometimes, inspection costs a lot and ensures that all inspectors are clear and consistent in their use of performance data to inform. There were also inconsistencies with the part of inspectors. Generally, most of the complaints about inspections have been concerned with the validity of inspectors’ Judgments, the conduct of inspectors, the quality of the report and the gathering or use of evidence.
Aside from what has been mentioned above, it is also time-consuming particularly to the part of the school. In most cases, the schools have difficulties in resolving the problems being discovered after the inspection. CONCLUSION Therefore, it is very important to assess the school quality and this could only happen f there will be an inspection towards the school because inspection mainly concerned with the improvement of standards and quality of education and should be an integral part of a school improvement program.
Learning would be productive if the there will be inspection in all areas in education so that whatever problems exist will be addressed and resolve easily and the flow of learning would be continuous and lifelong. Name Subject Schedule Semester A. Y. MANGOS, JOSEPHINE R. EGGS EDUCE 605 School Administration and Supervision 8:00 – 11 (SATURDAY) 1st SEMESTER 2013- 2014 Every organization has its own functions. Function as used in education may mean the purpose or activity to be accomplished by creative educative process. There were five major functions in supervision.
Every major functions of Supervision is very important to achieve the aim of Supervision which is to provide the necessary leadership in studying, planning, improving, coordinating and evaluating of the school programs and in handling of the problem areas that materialize in the school. Research and training are some functions in Supervision in which both have a place in supervision that help to achieve the goal. Each has its own function that may yester.. Research has the fundamental aim is to formulate a plan to remedy the weakness or to solve the problem discovered.
Through research the main problem discovered and it will eager the researcher to formulate more options or solutions to solve the problem. They will do everything not Just for the good of the institution but also for the personnel in the school system, for the community and especially for the learners. Training in different institutions is highly needed. Training may take in different forms of demonstration teaching, workshop, seminars, directed observations, individual or group conference, interventionist etc. As an educator, training is very useful. Through it one can share skills, knowledge or talent that individual he have.
With the help of training, the educators learned more skills and will be knowledgeable enough to share the learners of what they have. It will be easy for them to impart or share the knowledge and skills they acquired that will also mold the individual to be knowledgeable, skillful and make as one of the educator in the near future. NEGATIVE REACTION Research and Training has its own negative side also. In research some problems encountered by the supervisors may not be true to some teacher or personnel in the school. May the solution made is too much idealistic for the supervisor and are not realistic for the people who are in the field.
It may be more difficult for them to achieve the goal and become boredom on their part. It could implement more modules to make without financial support that the people in the field will be the one to shoulder all the financial assistance, Likewise the trainings being implemented is useful in the real situation but it could not be applicable to others or it is Just depends on the situation. Sometimes in reality it is 100% applicable especially in the skill level, but sad to say the absence of the tools or materials or maybe gadgets may lead to nothing.
Theory is really different because learning is by doing. A learner cannot learn if he could not do it or apply it actually using the tools needed for the skills to be achieved and learned. Research and training has a great help as functions of supervision. Both of their aim is for the improvement and goodness of the school system or institution. Therefore I conclude that research and training are some of the major functions of prevision are important in achieving the goal of supervision. Research will help the teacher to have self-improvement and with the help of training the teacher will really improve.
The said improvement is not Just for his own good but it is also the learners and people surround can be benefited. BARRIOS, EMCEE E. SASS EDUCE 605 School Administration and Supervision Schedule : (SATURDAY) FIRST SEMESTER 2013-2014 The teachers are guided to be more innovative in their field of teaching. The teachers are being encouraged by the supervisors to work positively to accomplish the school locals and objectives. They are being motivated to achieve school objectives. They are being directed to work well for their learners.
Gladly they have their supervisors at their back who never fails to help them in the world of teaching. It is still assumed that the principal or supervisors knew best how to teach. And the teacher should follow the pattern or techniques approved by their supervisors. In short it is still authoritarian. Therefore I conclude that learning will be more productive through guidance for teachers are being guided to do ways in their field of teaching. They are directed to attain accomplishment of work goals and objectives of the school. They are provided a workplace wherein they can develop and grow as a better teacher.
TALENTED, GLENN B. Indeed, it enhances and develops teachers ability being innovative in his/her way of teaching and the strategies or instructional material she/she is using. HE/SHE is prepared, knowledgeable and knows learner individual differences. And will do extra miles to have progressive outcome in the classroom activity. In the process of learning it measures the development of educational growth of a learner. It creates creative and holistic learning process. Wherein the learners analyze, understand and enjoy the class activities. The learning that they acquire will be inculcated to their minds and deeply to their hearts.
School evaluation also includes checking of accommodating school facilities and learning environment where students are harmoniously enjoying their studies in that institution. It is to make all these possible, school heads, staffs, teachers and students must work together with love, respect and care and to have a better successful outcome for the entire school community. All officials and supervisors in education are responsible to conduct an evaluation to efferent schools to check if these schools are producing standard quality education.
Their basis includes the performance of the teachers. They check if they teach thoroughly the learners. And they also evaluate the methodologies used, and it supervisors is Just a waste of time and effort, to visit and evaluate all schools. They pretend as if they doing their duties well. Pressure may arise in the part of the teachers, because thorough preparation will have to do. Like updating board displays and meeting the standard of the evaluators. It’s Just a tiresome activity for the school administrator and staff of the whole school community.
It is shameful to say but it is true that sometimes evaluators accept gifts or favors from the school administrator which is actually form of bribery. This situation makes the evaluation impractical. That is the reality of the world we live in. We don’t have a perfect world to live in. But we can achieve 99% of towards perfection through our faith to our almighty, determination, hard work and perseverance to our work and everything that we do. The attitude that we show every day to our families, relatives, friends, fellow workers and the people we meet in the society will reflect who we are.
The productive outcome of the schools relies on the performance of the school administrator, educators and learners. This group of people must work together. Since individual differences are considerable, the values to be built up with in their selves are respect, being open minded, innovative and hardworking person. If this happen their common goal will be attained. Everything is possible, if and only if we are willing to evolve and explore our ability to help and guide the innocent one with the sincere support of the expertise in the government and officials in the department of education.
Good supervision affects organizational results and the overall work environment. It is strong supervisory team that contributes to a positive work. Environment and enables teachers to be and feel successful can provide an organization with a competitive advantage in attracting and retaining better. Teachers and supervisors typically have dual roles that of supervisor and that of worker. Generally, it enhances the teaching and learning process. Moreover, it has a quality outcome that leads to satisfaction growth and achievement.
It arouses the interest abilities and work habits of the pupil. Basically, it caters all the dimensions that need to improve the whole system. Every now and then there will be an improvement of the curriculum and materials of instruction. Basically, it is a burden to the supervisor. Thus, successful supervision requires a broad knowledge, ability to use and a multitude of skills. Moreover, supervisors must be effective and efficient, thus the Job of supervision is quite complex and is accomplishing the organization’s goals and objectives. Therefore, a supervisor faces a complex task.
The work of the supervisor is not Just to plan, organize, staff, lead and control but there are still functions beyond the major functions. A supervisor does not do the operative work but sees that it is accomplished the effort of others. However, the supervisor must learn to make good decisions, communicate well with people, plan, train, and the like.
Guidance stimulates teachers to be creative. 2. Inspection does not base only on actual facts but also to the all data gathered by the inspectorates. The necessary leadership in studying, evaluating of the school program and 3. The aim of supervision is to provide planning, improving, coordinating and in handling of the problem areas that materialize the schools. Is to formulate a plan to 4. NNE major function of supervision is analyzing, which remedy the weakness or solve the problem discovered. 5. Training may exclusively take the form of demonstration, seminars, and directed observation.
Test II. Direction: Read and encircle the correct letter of the answer. 1. It stimulates teachers to be creative. A. Evaluation b. Research c. Guidance d. Inspection 2. This can be considered as the ultimate function of supervision. 3. The following are true about evaluation except: a. Aids pupil-teacher planning. B. Praises the success of instructional program. C. Serves as guides for the selection of supervisory techniques d. Improves the selection and the use of guiding principles in supervision 4. .AI the steps in supervisory research as follow are correct but except one. A. Discover existing b. To seek improved methods of correcting defects. C. To know how to do an experiment properly. D. To formulate tentative plans to improve instruction.