Psycho Educational and Social-Ecological models of Social Cognitive Theory
Social cognitive theory is a learning theory that was proposed by Dollard and Miller in 1941 and later broadened by Walters and Bandura in 1963.
The theory is primarily based on the notion peoples thought processes are centrally fundamental to understanding personality and that individuals learn by observing what other human beings do. This was done within the principles of vicarious reinforcement and observational learning in social cognition. On his part, Bandura introduced his self-efficacy concept in 1977 and refuted the traditional concepts used in learning theory for learning understanding.The social cognitive theory gives an explanation on how individuals acquire and retain some behavioral characteristics and patterns while at the same time allowing a basis for strategies to intervene. The theory as thus deals with emotional aspects, behavior understanding aspects as well as cognitive to understand behavioral change (Bussey, Bandura, 1999, p.
679). This theory further takes into account an evaluation of this behavior change based on factors environment, behavior itself and people.These are categorically the major concepts of the theory as they are postulated in several models including psycho educational model and the social ecological model which I shall discuss here under. Other concepts include expectations, behavioral capability, self-control, expectancies, reinforcements, self-efficacy, observational learning and reciprocal determinism.
The psycho educational model is a perspective that aims at changing values, behavior patterns, and non-adjusting individuals’ life outlook in differentiated environments such as school, work place or home as well as events interpretation.It is seen as if inappropriate behaviors are maladaptive attempts to fit oneself in the environment. Apart from focusing on observable behavioral changes, psycho education also concerns itself with individuals’ emotional orientation and the mind. Emotional issues and psychological state are put into consideration in the process of change especially involving the young person in the process of developing better actions (Bandura, 1995, p.
24). A better understanding of oneself and other individuals as well as putting into practice new ways brings about this form of behavioral change and later an analysis of the outcomes follows.Psycho education model interventions rely mainly on the ability of the teacher to institute trust and acceptable relationship with the pupil. In the process, appropriate boundaries must be maintained along with the teacher being giving and emphatic and at the same time restricting some student behavior (Bussey, Bandura, 1999, p. 711).
On the same note, the psycho educator must always deliberate on issues such as how h/she can prevent escalation of the situation. Read also about the role of cognition in learningMoreover, it is always important to device proper intervention tactics that are deemed to be in the best interests of the students and through which the student will learn from the situation in question. On these grounds, what impacts and surrounds the student matters significantly as they have the influence power over him/her.
The psycho educator should consider significant others, the school, and the home among many other relevant information sources to have a better understanding of the student’s world (Bandura, 2001, p. 16).Social Ecological Model (SEM), which is also referred to as Social Ecological Perspective (SEP), is a framework that concerns itself with the examination of social elements interrelatedness within an environment and their multiple effects. The term social ecology refers to the study of human beings as they relate and influence one another in an environment.
There are a number of SEM adaptations with the most widely and initial version being Bronfenbrenner Urie’s Ecological Systems Theory which proposes a four levels factors division.These divisions describe several influences such as community, intercultural, individual/interpersonal, and community. This perspective was based on the environment, the person, and the interactions between the two. Both components develop and evolve from this continued interaction and as a primary understanding quest of human behavior and development, it was necessary to realize how these factors impact on the individual (Bandura, 1995, p. 57). The organization, culture, individual and community thus formed the environment and the person function as nested factors with each echelon operating fully in the subsequent larger context.
Summarily therefore, social ecology theory is basically a systems theory perspective that investigates development which occurs in a variety of spheres as a result of differentiated systems actions. Psycho educational model on the other hand restricts its scope to individualistic approach to student behavior and how their psycho educators approach them in the event of desired behavioral change. On the same foundations, social ecological model allows for top-down effects by establishing how individual human behavior is shaped by environmental factors.