Project Management

Validate Scope
1. Inputs
a.Project management plan
b. Requirements documentation
c. Requirement Traceability matrix
d. Verified deliverable
e. Work performance date

2. Tools and Techniques
a. Inspection
b. Group decision making techniques

3. Outputs
a. Accepted deliverables
b. Change requests
c Work Performance information
d. Project documents updates

Knowledge Area
1. Project Integration Management
The processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management process group.
2. Knowledge Area
2. Project Procurement Management
Processes Necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team.
3. Knowledge Area
3.Project Risk Management
Processes of conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, response planning, and controlling risk on a project
4. Knowledge Area
4. Project Communication Management
The processes that are required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, collection, execration, distribution, storage, retrieval, management, control, monitoring and the ultimate disposition of project information.
5. Knowledge Area
5. Project Human Resource Management
The processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team.
6. Knowledge Area
Project Quality Management
The processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.
7. Knowledge Area
Project Cost Management
The processes involved in planning estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget.
8. Knowledge Area
Project Time Management
Processes required to manage the timely complrtion of the project.
9. Knowledge Area
Project scope management
The processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required and only the work required to complete the project successfully.
Managing Project includes
1. Identifying requirement
2. Addressing the various needs, concerns, and expectations of the stake holders in planning and executing the project.
3. Setting up, maintaining, and carrying out communications among stakeholders that are active, effect and collaborative in nature
4. Managing stakeholders towards meetings project requirements and creating project deliverables
5. Balance the competing project constraints, which include, but are not limited to – scope quality, schedule, budget, resources, risks
Project Management
The application of knowledge skills, tools, techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
Variance analysis
A technique for determining the causes and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance.
Collect requirements
The process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet projects objectives.
Scope baseline
The approved version of a scope statement work breakdown structure and its associate WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison
10. Knowledge area
Project Stakeholder Management
processes required to identify the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impact on the project and to develop appropriate management strategies for effectively engaging stakeholders in project decisions and execution.
11. Knowledge Area
Project integration management
the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify and coordinate the various processes and project management process group.
A project team operates in 9 knowledge areas
1. Integration: Develop the Project Charter, Scope Statement and Plan. Direct, Manage, Monitor and Control Project Change.
2. Scope: Planning, Definition, Work Break-down Structure (WBS) Creation, Verification and Control.
Time: Definition, Sequencing, Resource and Duration Estimating, Schedule Development and Schedule Control.
3. Cost: Resource Planning, Cost Estimating, Budgeting and Control.
4. Quality: Quality Planning, Quality Assurance and Quality Control.
5. Human Resources: HR Planning, Hiring, Developing and Managing Project Team.
6. Communications: Communications Planning, Information Distribution, Performance Reporting,
7. Managing Stakeholders.
8. Risks: Risk Planning and Identification, Risk Analysis (Qualitativ e and Quantitative), Risk Response (Action) Planning and Risk Monitoring and Control.
9. Procurement: Acquisition and Contractin g Plan, Se llers Responses and Selection, Contract Administration and Contract Closure.
Initiating. Main elements
Authorize the project
Commit the organization to a project or phase
Set the overall direction
Define top-level project objectives
Secure necessary approvals and resources
Validate alignment with overall business objectives
Assign project manager
Integration management
Planning. Main elements:
Define project scope
Refine project objectives
Define all required deliverables
Create framework for project schedule
Provide forum for information sharing for team members and stakeholders
Define all required activities
Sequence all activities
Identify required skills and resources
Estimate work effort
Risk analysis and avoidance
Define and estimate all required costs
Obtain project funding approval
Communication plan
Executing. Main elements:
Coordinate the resources, team development
Quality assurance
Select and approach subcontractors
Distribute information
Work the plan
Monitoring and Controlling. Main elements:
Manage team, stakeholders, subcontractors
Measuring progress and monitoring performance (overall, scope, schedule, costs, quality)
Take corrective actions if and where needed. Issue resolution and escalation
Change request management
Risk Management (technical, quality, performance, project management, organizational, external)
Performance reports. Communications
Closing. Main elements:
Finalize activities
Administrative close out (gather, distribute, archive information to formalize project completion, acceptance/signoff, evaluation, member appraisals, lessons learned)
Contract close out (completion of the project contract including resolution of open items and final formal acceptance)
The Project Manager is responsible for
the project objectives to deliver the final product that has been defined, within the constraints of project scope, time, cost and required quality.
PMBOK guide is a framework and de facto standard.
It is process-oriented.
It states the knowledge needed to manage the life cycle of any Project, Program and Portfolio through their processes.
It defines for each process the necessary input, tools, techniques and output (deliverables).
It defines a body of knowledge on which any industry can build it specific best practices for its application area.
The purpose of the project planning phase is:
Establish business requirements.
Establish cost, schedule, list of deliverables and delivery dates.
Establish resource plan.
Get management approval and proceed to the next phase.
The basic processes of the project planning are:
Scope planning specifies the in-scope requirements for the project and facilitates creating the work breakdown structure.
Preparing the work breakdown structure specifies the breakdown of the project into tasks and sub tasks.
Project schedule development specifies the entire schedule of the activities detailing their sequence of execution.
Resource planning specifies who will do what work at which time of the project and if any special skills are needed to accomplish the project tasks.
Budget planning specifies the budgeted cost to be incurred in the completion of the project.
Procurement planning focuses on dealing with vendors outside of your company
Risk management planning charts the risks, contingency plan and mitigation strategies.
Quality planning for quality assurance to be applied to the project.
Communication planning on the communication strategy with all project stakeholders.
1. Which of the following statements describes Project Integration Management?
It is made up of two processes.
It is made up of three processes.
It is made up of four processes.
Correct – It is made up of six processes.
2. Why do many test-takers struggle with the Project Integration Management material on the PMP® exam?
Because the PMP® exam is not normative.
Because it includes contradicting concepts.
Correct – Because test-takers may lack practical experience with project integration.
Because Project Integration Management does not clearly identify key concepts such as trade-offs and change management.
3. How does a procedure differ from a policy?
Government projects use policies while private projects use procedures.
There is no difference, since the terms are interchangeable.
Employees create policies and managers create procedures.
Correct – Policies do not specify how activities are to be carried out, while procedures do.
4. Which of the following choices is the most visible element of a PMIS?
Correct – Hardware.
Software.
Networks.
Data.
5. Which variable do you find in every Project Management Knowledge Area?
Enterprise environmental factors.
Develop Project Charter.
Correct – Organizational process assets.
Project initiator or sponsor.
Which Process Group does Collect Requirements belong to?
Executing.
Monitoring and Controlling.
Initiating.
Correct – Planning.
Which process in Project Scope Management has less than nine elements making up inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs?
Correct – Plan Scope Management.
Define Scope.
Collect Requirements.
Control Scope.
What is the intent of value engineering?
Find errors.
Maximize costs.
Correct – Capitalize on hidden opportunities.
Improve cash flow.
Which of the following is an input for Define Scope?
Correct – Project charter.
Project scope statement.
Product analysis.
Expert judgment.
What is the preceding project management process for Define Scope?
Verify Scope.
Correct – Collect Requirements.
Create WBS.
Control Scope.
What Process Group includes Validate Scope?
Planning.
Correct – Monitoring and Controlling.
Executing.
Closing.
Within the Project Scope Management Knowledge Area, which tool and technique is included in the Control Scope project management process?
Correct – Variance analysis.
Expert judgment.
Inspection.
Product analysis.
What is a barrier to using a WBS template?
They require too much time to use.
Correct – They require too much time to create.
They are in conflict with an actual WBS.
They are not effective in supporting routine tasks.
What is an input for the decomposition tool and technique?
Scope baseline.
WBS dictionary.
Correct – A project scope statement.
WBS.
Where do you find change requests in the Project Scope Management Knowledge Area?
As an input for Control Scope.
As a tool and technique for Create WBS.
Correct – As an output for Control Scope.
As a tool and technique for Verify Scope.
Which of the big three elements does Project Time Management focus on?
WBS.
Earned value management (EVM).
Correct – Network scheduling techniques.
Estimating.
Which project management process within the Project Time Management Knowledge Area has the greatest number of inputs?
Define Activities.
Sequence Activities.
Estimate Activity Durations.
Correct – Develop Schedule.
Which project management process within the Project Time Management Knowledge Area belongs to a Process Group other than Planning?
Define Activities.
Sequence Activities.
Estimate Activity Durations.
Correct – Control Schedule.
What type of dependency is most commonly used?
Correct – Finish-to-start.
Finish-to-finish.
Start-to-start.
Node-to-arrow.
What is a good way to get started with defining a project’s dependencies?
Correct – Start on a whiteboard with your team members. Use technology (software).
Select a scheduling method.
Identify activity durations.
What project dependency does the Precedence Diagramming Method most commonly use?
Correct – Finish-to-start.
Finish-to-finish.
Start-to-start.
Start-to-finish.
Which of the following is a type of dependency?
Correct – Discretionary dependency.
Three-point estimate.
Leads and lags.
Sequence dependency.
Which Project Time Management element uses expert judgment as a tool and technique?
Sequence Activities.
Activity Attributes.
Correct – Estimate Activity Resources.
Activity List.
Which of the following is another term for quantitatively based durations?
Subnet
NIST.
Correct – Standard cost.
Correct – Bottom-up estimating.
What is another term for analogous estimating?
Correct – Historical analogy.
Parametric.
Alternatives analysis.
Reserve Analysis.
What is the task of the Develop Schedule process?
Calculate durations.
Produce a resource profile.
Compare the benefits of PDM and a Gantt chart.
Correct – Arrive at a start and finish date for each activity in your network diagram.
Which of the following scheduling methods is based on the Theory of Constraints?
Monte Carlo.
Correct – Critical Chain Method.
PDM.
Variance analysis.
How do you determine early start and finish dates on a project schedule?
Take a backward pass.
By using a bar chart.
Correct – Take a forward pass.
By using fast tracking.
When would it be appropriate to maintain two versions of a project schedule?
It’s never appropriate because it is inefficient.
To use a valid schedule for internal purposes and a more favorable schedule to present to customers.
To use PDM for some team members and a Critical Chain for others.
Correct – To use PDM for internal scheduling purposes and a bar chart for presentations to management and customers.
What is the earliest start for activity C whose predecessors are A and B where A’s earliest finish is 10 and B’s earliest finish is 15?
Correct – 15.
10.
25.
5.
What phase (step) of the decision making model would include evaluation criteria such as the limiting factor?
The Problem Definition phase.
The Problem Solution Generation phase.
CorrectThe Ideas to Action phase.
The Solution Evaluation Planning phase.
Which statement characterizes effective leadership for projects?
Leadership is an event not a process.
Leadership is best used during the middle of the project when you run into trouble.
Motivation and leadership are interchangeable terms. Correct – Respect and trust are better ways to lead than using fear.
Which factor affects the decision style a project manager uses?
Correct – Available time for the decision.
Type of email technology available.
Negotiation skills.
Having a common goal.
How should project managers deal with organizational politics?
They should use organizational politics extensively.
They should attempt to eliminate it.
They should ignore it.
Correct – They should acknowledge its presence.
What should you do during a negotiation if you find you won’t be able to achieve your desired objective?
Correct – Push for your next best alternative to a negotiated agreement.
Push for a win-lose negotiation.
Become more rigid and demanding.
Settle for something less than you need.
1. Project Time Management
Plan Schedule Management
The processes of establishing the polices, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, manageing, executing, and controlling the project schedule
2. Project Time Management
Define Activities
The process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables
3. Project Time Management
Sequence Activities
The process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities.
4. Project Time Management
Estimate Activity Resources
The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity
5. Project Time Management
Estimate Activity Durations
The process of estimating the number of work projects needed tp complete individual activities with estimated resources.
6. Project Time Management
Development Schedule
Project Life Cycle
Is a series of phases that a project passes through from its imitation to its closure.
Plan Scope Management
The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will defined validated and controlled.
Plan Quality Management
Plan Process Group
Determine Budget
Plan Process Group
Plan Procurement Management
Planning Process Group
Plan Risk Responses
Planning Process Group
PERFORM QUANTITATIVE RISK
Planning Process Group
Control Risks
Monitoring and Controlling Process group
Progressive Elaboration
When you first begin a project, you first begin a project. you move from the general to the specific.
project Boundaries
1. Initiating Process
2. Planning Process
3. Monitoring & Control Process
4. Executing Process
5. Closing Process
Earned value terms
are earned value = PV and Actual Cost =AC I an equation in earned value management EV also comes first
Create WBS Tools and Techniques
Expert Judgement-used to analyze the information needed to decompose the project deliverables down into smaller component parts in order to create an effective WBS
Project Scope Management
The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
1. Project Management group
Five Process Groups
1. Initiating
2. Planning
3. Executing
4. Monitoring and Controlling
5. Closing
Project Integration Management
Includes the processes and activities to identify combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the project management process groups.
Progress Elaboration
the iterative process of increasing the level of detail in a project management plan as greater amounts of information and more estimates become availables.
Control Scope
The process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline.
Project Charter
A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project management with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
Scope change
Any change to the project scope. A scope change almost always requires and adjustment to the project cost or schedule.
OBS Organizational Breakdown Structure
A hierarchical representation of the project activities and the organization that illustrates the relationship between project activities and the organization units that will perform these activities.
project Scope Statement
The description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints.
Focus Group
An elicitation techniques that brings together prequalified stakeholder and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a preposed product, service, or result.
Identify risks
Plan Process Group
Develop Project Team
Executing group
Acquire Project Team
Executing process group
Development Project Management Plan
Planning Process Group
Estimate Activity Resources
Planning Process Planning
Communication Process
Command and Consensus
Solutions Action Planning Phase
Critical Path Method
To estimate the minimum project duration nd dtermine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedul model.
Change Control System
A set of procedures that describes how modifications to the project deliverables and documentation are managed and controlled.
Baseline
The approved version of work product that can be changed control assumptions, constraints, level of detail, ranges, and confidence levels.
Team Building Process
Ask these three questions to guide building process:
– How are we performing?
– What do we do well and what needs to be improved?
– What needs to happen so that we improve?
Control Cost
Monitoring and Control Process Group
Control Quality
Monitoring and Control Process
Identify Stakholders
Inputs
1.Project Charter
2.Procurement Documents
3. Enterprise enviromental factors.
4. Organizational process assets
Out
1. Stakeholder Register
Develop Project Management plan
Planning Process Group
Work Breakdown Structure
A hierarchical Decomposition of the total scope of the work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the prospect objectives and create the required deliverables.
Focus Group
An elicitation techniques that brings together qualified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a prospect product, service, or result.
Milestone
A significant point or event in a project, program or portfolio.
Organizational Breakdown Structure
A hierarchical representation of the project organization that illustrates the relationship between project activities and the organization units That will perform these activities.
Control quality
Concern with determining if project results meet requirements.
Control Scope
the process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline
Project Time Management
Includes the processes required to management the timely completion of the project
Control Account
A management control point where scope, budget, actual cost and schedule are integrated and compared to earned value for performance measurements.
Project Scope Management
the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project requirements
progression elaboration
When you first begin a project, you move from the general to the specific.
Control Risks
Monitoring and Controlling Process Group
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
Plan Process Group
Plan Quality Management
Project Management Knowledge Area
An identified area of project management defined by its knowledge requirements and described in terms of its component processes practices, inputs, outputs, tools, and techniques
Manage project team
Executing Process Group
Control Communications
Monitoring and controlling process group
Project Management planning definition
Planning is reviewing the past to make a decision in the present for something that is desired in the future
Time Project Management
Includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project
Projects iterative
They include activities that you may do more than once
Plan Scope Management
1. Inputs
a. Project management plan
b. Project charter
c. Enterprise environmental factors
d. Organizational process assets
2.Tools and Techniques
a. Expert Judgment
b. Meeting
3. Outputs
a. Scope management plan
b.Requirements management plan
Enterprise Environmental Factors
1. Organization’s culture
2. Infrastructure
3. Personnel administration and
4. Marketplace conditions
Requirements Management Plan
A component of the project or program management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented and management.
Solution requirements
Describe features, functions, and cahracteristics of the product, service or result that will meet the business and stakeholder requirements. Solution requirements are further grouped into functional and nonfunctional requirements:
Functional requirements describe the behaviors of the product. Examples include processes, data, and interactions with the product.

Non-functional requirements supplement functional requirements and describe the environment conditions or qualities for the product to be effective. Example include:
reliability, security, performance, safety, level of service, supportability, retention/purge, etc

Which of the following would you typically find in a project?
Time increases, cost increases, scope increases.
Which of the following is the first step in the control process
Setting a standard.
Define Scope
The process of developing a detail description of the product or service.
Inputs
a. project management plan
b. Requirements documentation
c. Requirements traceability matrix
d. Work performance data
e. organizational process assets
Tools and techniques.
a. Variance analysis
Outputs
a. Work performance information
b. Change requests
c. Project Management Plan Updates
d. Project documents updates
e. Organizational process assets updates
Collect Requirements
The process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives.
1. Inputs
a. Scope Management Plan
b. Requirements management plan
c. Stakeholder management plan
d. Project charter
e. Stakeholder Register
Tools and Techniques
a. Interviews
b. Focus Groups
c. Facilitated workshops
d.Group creativity techniques
e. Group decision-making techniques
f. Questionnaires and surveys
g. Observations
h.Prototypes
i. Benchmarking
j. context diagrams
k. Document analysis
Outputs
a Requirements documentation
b. Requirements traceability matrix
Which choice is the correct structure for the project management processes as stated by the PMBOK® Guide
Inputs, tools and techniques, outputs.
Finish-to-Start (FS)
A logical Relationship In which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished. Example: The awards ceremony (successor) cannot start until he race (predecessor) has finished.
Finish – to – Finish (FF)
a logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished. Example:Writing a document (predecessor) is required to finish before editing the document (successor) can finish.
Start – to -to finish (SF)
A logical relationship which successor activity can not start until a predecessor activity has started. Example: The first security guard shift (successor) cannot finish until the second security guard shift (predecessor) starts
Create WBS
1. Inputs
a. Scope management plan
b. Project scope statement
c. Requirements documentation
d. Enterprise environment factors
e. Organizational process assets
2. Tools and Techniques
a decomposition
b. Expert judgement
3. Outputs
a. Scope baseline
b. Project documents updates
Plan ScheduleManagement
Inputs
1. Project Management Plan
2. Project charter
3.Enterprise environmental factors
4. Organizational Process Assets
Tools and Techniques
1.Expert judgement
2.Analytical techniques
3. Meetings
Outputs
1.Schedule management plan
Scope baseline
The scope baseline includes the project scope statement and the work break down Structure WBS details used for defining activities, duration estimation, and schedule management and cost risk and communication decision
Enterprise Environment Factors
Conditions, not under the immediate control of the team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project, program, or portfolio
Project management
is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
Five Process Groups
Initiating
Planning
Executing
Monitoring and Controlling
Closing
Triple Constraint.
Time, cost, and scope
A project can create
1. A product that can be either a component of another item, an enhancement of an item, or an end item in itself
2. A service or a capability to perform a service
3. An improvement in the existing product or service lines.
4. A result, such as an outcome or document.
Managing a project includes, but not limited to:
1. Identifying requirements
2. Addressing the various needs, concerns, and expectations of the stakeholders in the planning and executing the project.
3. Setting up, maintaining and carrying out communications among stakeholders that are active, effective, and collaborative in nature.
4. Managing stakeholders toward meeting project constraints, which include, but not limited to:
a. Scope
b. Quality
c. Schedule
d. Budget
e. Resources, and
f. Risks
Progressive elaboration
Involves continuously improving and detailing a plan as more detailed and specific information and more accurate estimates become available
Synergy
You achieve synergy when you creatively assemble inputs that provide outstanding value to stakeholders.
Iteration
is the act of repeating a process with the aim of approaching a desired goal.
Quality Function Deployment QFD
A facilitate workshop technique that helps to determine critical characteristics. for new product development.
Project Management Knowledge
An identified area of project management defined by its knowledge requirements and described in terms of its component processes, practice, inputs, outputs, tools, and techniques.
Organization Process Assets
Plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases that are specific to and used by the performing organization.
Risk Management Plan
a Component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed.
Project Management Processes
there are 47 processes and they can all be foundbin the 5 process groups.
The project life cycle
1. Project conceptualization and definition
2. project planning Project implementation
3. project implementation
4.project completion and closure
9 Knowledge Areas
1. Integration
2. Scope
3. Time
4. Cost
5 Quality
6 Human Resources
7. Communication
Conduct Procurements
Executing Process Group
Management Stakeholder Engagement
Executing Process Group
Process
A systemic series of activities directed towards causing and end result such that one or more inputs will be acted upon to create one or more outputs.
control
Comparing actual performance with planned performance analyzing variances assessing trends to effect process improvements evaluating possible alternatives and recommending appropriate corrective action as needed.
6 Project Scope Management Processes
1. Project scope
2. Project Management plan
3. Project scope statement
4. WBS
5. Product scope
6. Product requirements
Control Schedule
Monitoring and Controlling Process Group
Control Procurements
Variance Analysis
A technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance.
Decomposition
Dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverable into smaller more manageable parts
Close Procurements
Closing process group
Plan Communication Management
Planning Process Group
Sequence Activities
Planning Process Group
Plan Schedule Management
Planning Process Group
Define Activities
Planning Process Group
Identify Stakeholders
Initiating Process Group
Scope
The sum of the products services and results to be provided as a project
Develop Project Charter
Initiating Process Group
Control Scope
The process the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline
Critical Chain Method
A schedule method that allows the project team to place buffers on any project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties.
Direct and management Project Work
Inputs
a. Project management plan
b. Approved change requests
c. Enterprise environment factors
d. Organizational Process assets
Tools and techniques
a. Expert judgements
b. Project management information systems
c. Meetings
Outputs
a. Deliverables
b. Work performance data
c. Change requests
d. Project Documents updates
What process group does Collect Requirements belong to?
Planning
What is the intent of value engineering?
Capitalize on hidden opportunities
Progressive elaboration
involves continously improving and detailing a plan as more detail and specific information and more accurate estimates become available.
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