Organizational and Management Theories Essay Example
Organizational and Management Theories Essay Example

Organizational and Management Theories Essay Example

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  • Pages: 12 (3149 words)
  • Published: August 8, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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The main focus of this paper is to explain how reframing can help businesses stay competitive and adaptable in today's ever-changing technological landscape.

Over time, a business may become stagnant and lose momentum. It may also run out of fresh ideas, leading to a decline in sales and affecting the company's profits. Initially, the business is structured and operates effectively. However, as new competition emerges, it faces challenges.

The concept of framing in work settings is flexible and can be altered by shifting the perspective or emotional context. Reframing empowers a concern to break away from the constraints of its initial frame. To evaluate its operations, a concern relies on various mentalities and frames. The Structural Frame is one of the four common frames used for analyzing operations.

In this paper, three frames will be discu


ssed: the Human Resource Frame, the Political Frame, and the Symbolic Frame. Each frame has its own focus and key concepts that will be elaborated on.

* "Way things are being done now"

Martin Jacobs is contemplating these changes while determining how to address them in the United States Congress.

In a decision propelled by their vast knowledge and authority over the global economy, the powers-that-be have chosen to modify the official U.S. weights and measures standards to the metric system, effective by 2010. Transitioning to the metric system will prove beneficial for both the company and the nation, as all exported goods must adhere to metric labeling in order to be marketable. For CEO Steve Jacobs, Engineering must adapt its practices or face extinction.

This provides an opportunity for him not just to change the metrics system but the entire operations of the

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Analysis of Theories being used

Maslow’s hierarchy of need - people are motivated by a variety of wants, some more fundamental than others. (Human Resource Frame). Basic needs for physical well-being and safety are "prepotent; they have to be satisfied first. Once lower needs are met, individuals are motivated by social needs and ego needs.

Self-actualization is at the top of the hierarchy, representing individuals reaching their fullest potential. When organizations undergo changes, people often become afraid of the unknown and uncertain future. To address this fear, managers should offer psychological support and training to help employees overcome it. Once conquered, individuals can progress in the hierarchy towards self-actualization by developing and realizing their ultimate potential.

Andrew will start writing the analysis after receiving everyone's initial theories.

Academic Literature Review

The academic literature review concentrates on the Structural Frame, which emphasizes goals.

This frame can be used to form and construct specialized functions and formal relationships in order to achieve results and adapt to an organization's environment and technology. The process of organization design involves aligning people and information.

The design of the organization's structure and engineering is focused on its intent, vision, and scheme. The structure aims to improve communication and information flow among individuals, while the systems aim to encourage individual responsibility and decision making.

The use of technology enhances human capabilities to achieve meaningful work. The end result is a unified system consisting of people and resources that is customized to fit the organization's specific needs. Effective organizational design aids in communication.

An efficient work environment is essential for increasing productivity and fostering innovation. Directors and leaders play a critical role in establishing organizational goals, managing the relationship between structure

and environment, and developing an effective structure that aligns with these objectives.

Confusion and defeat are the result of uncertainty in the creative process, which arises from a lack of understanding about the project and its environment.

In order for an organization to operate effectively, it is necessary for individuals to have knowledge of their responsibilities and roles, as well as a clear understanding of policies, linkages, and lines of authority.

Understanding the proper structure enables an organization to achieve goals and individuals to be efficient in their roles. The human resource frame highlights the connection between individuals and organizations, including their skills, attitudes, and abilities.

During times of change, energy, commitment, and relationships are essential resources for organizations, according to DeGrosky (2011).

Directors must take into account the potential reaction of the workforce to changes, as failure to align these changes with employees' needs and desires can harm the organization. It is crucial for directors to acknowledge that resistance is bound to occur during any change, as de Jager points out: "Resistance is merely an immensely effective, powerful, and valuable survival mechanism."

It is common for employees to question the necessity of change, whether it has been successful in the past or is currently ongoing. However, losing team members who resist these changes poses a considerable risk when managing business transformation. Typically, those employees who are highly committed to their role and your business operations make significant contributions.

Often, these employees are the most challenged by alteration procedure. Research has shown organisational alteration to be a primary cause of emphasis because of the feelings of uncertainness, insecurity.

In Tan's (2005) study, it is stated that organizations face a significant risk when employees

experience excessive stress and burnout. This can result in higher rates of absenteeism, reduced productivity, and decreased job satisfaction.

and low morale.

Political Frame

Bowman and Deal (B&D) define organizations as "living, shouting political spheres that encompass a intricate network of individual and group interactions."

Organizations consist of individuals who possess a range of backgrounds, beliefs, preferences, experiences, and ideals. These organizations have particular objectives to accomplish and therefore recruit individuals from diverse backgrounds to assist in achieving these goals.

However, individuals enter organizations with their own expectations and desires, anticipating that these will be fulfilled. Once inside the organization, they join groups that align with their agendas or share similar ideas and aspirations. Nonetheless, conflicts emerge among these groups due to resource constraints and organizational disparities. Each group endeavors to exert influence using their power and abilities in order to secure favorable decisions for themselves. Nevertheless, leaders strive to unite diverse groups of people and foster collaboration as a cohesive team working towards achieving organizational objectives.

Leaderships engage in dialogues, bargaining, and negotiations with various groups in order to ensure that despite their differences, they are able to work together and defend the organization and its goals. There are several major challenges they face:

  • Divisions among groups that may negatively impact productivity.
  • Union opposition to changes resulting from new metrics systems, as they fear job loss.
  • Inability of leaders to negotiate and deal with different groups. Retraining employees on the new metrics system may further divide older and younger employees.

Symbolic Frame

The Symbolic Frame describes the organizational culture and its rituals.

In the symbolic frame, people evaluate organizations primarily based on their appearance and visual components. This includes the

ceremonials, symbols, and heroes that contribute to the meaning of organizational events and activities. It is within this frame that organizations strive to shape the desired image.

Symbolic leaders play a crucial role in reassuring their constituencies and generating support for their missions. By utilizing the symbolic frame, these leaders can gain insight into the important issues and values within an organization. Additionally, they have the ability to bring employees together if they are effective in their leadership. Symbolic leaders interpret experiences in a way that conveys meaning and purpose. To demonstrate that change is forthcoming, leaders of this type should seek something visible and dramatic.

Symbolic leading involves providing plausible and hopeful interpretations of experience. One way for a leader to successfully accomplish this is by creating a vision, a positive portrayal of the future. This vision should address the challenges faced and the aspirations and beliefs held by followers. During times of change, when employees may feel uncertain or lost, they look for guidance and optimism. A symbolic leader can bring people together and achieve success in these situations.

Symbolic leaders have the ability to create and communicate a vision that inspires others to follow. They accomplish this by sharing narratives, particularly ones that portray the company's journey and history.

Whether examining the future or reflecting on company history and employees, narratives that are personal and relatable increase the likelihood of success. Even if flawed, an influential leader who effectively conveys values and aspirations can still engage their audience. The ability to create compelling narratives with a genuine personal touch demonstrates the potential impact and risks of symbolic leadership.

Positive power lies in the right hands, but

can be destructive when held by the wrong individuals (2004). Many individuals fear the impending changes and how it will impact their employment. They question whether they can adjust to new methods or what consequences they may face if they fail to do so. A symbolic leader may encounter difficulties in discovering symbols, rituals, or heroes that can unite the audience. Additionally, incorporating humor and play into work to alleviate tension during times of change may prove challenging. The organization's culture is not well aligned with the obstacles it confronts, causing its symbols and customs to lose significance. Solutions for overcoming these challenges are available.

Structural Frame

The absence of a well-defined structural design hampers communication and information flow among individuals. Managers and leaders should prioritize project-focused activities.

The text emphasizes the importance of facts and logic in jobs, rather than relying on personality and emotions. It suggests that most job issues are actually caused by structural problems rather than individual faults. It also argues that structural directors and leaders do not have to be authoritative or solve problems by giving orders.

They attempt to devise and execute a technique or framework suitable for the task and circumstances. A structural scenario assigns key roles to managers and leaders in achieving objectives, addressing the connection between structure and environment, and developing a structure that is easily understood by all and adaptable to the necessary tasks. This constitutes a structural design aimed at improving communication and information dissemination among individuals.

Without a viable structure, individuals lose confidence in their purpose. This leads to a state of disarray, failure, and hardship. Conversely, in an efficient organization.

When individuals have the correct structure in place,

they have a clear understanding of their responsibilities and contributions to the mission. Policies, linkages, and lines of authority are uncomplicated and universally acknowledged.

One concept that is universally understood is that organizations can achieve goals and individuals can see their role in the bigger picture. Outdated technology aims to enhance human abilities to perform meaningful work. Technology is focused on improving how we utilize our knowledge and increasing our capacity to produce valuable results.

Improving performance remains a determining factor for the future of individuals and organizations worldwide. This is achieved through learning, collaboration, cooperation, and networking. According to recent statements.

Although the implementation of Information Technology (IT) in organizations may appear difficult, its influence is extensive. Numerous assertions have been made regarding the advantages of IT, such as increased efficiency, improved customer service, and enhanced information processing. Additionally, IT has the potential to revolutionize decision-making procedures and alter the characteristics of business operations. One illustration of this is:

IT has the potential to significantly impact inter-organizational relationships and intra-organizational communication, as well as how organizations compete, produce goods, distribute them, and provide service support. Essentially, it can affect almost every aspect of organizational activity.

Human Resource Frame

Martin Jacobs will face an initial hurdle in the human resource frame, which is resistance to change. There are various reasons for resistance to change, with one being employees feeling uninvolved and ignored.

Encouraging employee involvement is crucial in the decision-making process, as it allows them to explore and present options. By involving individuals in both decision-making and implementing changes, they develop a stronger sense of commitment.

Employees resist change due to their fear of learning something new.

They are not opposed to the advantages of implementing a new procedure, but rather they are apprehensive about the unknown future and their ability to adapt (de Jager, 2001).

This opposition can be overcome by creating an environment where acquisition is encouraged. In this type of environment, early failures in any learning enterprise are not frowned upon or punished, but instead rewarded. Failure is honored as evidence of effort (de Jager, 2001).

Retaining employees during changes

The loss of skilled workers can harm the company's future success. When there are changes happening, exceptional employees may quit because they are unhappy or unmotivated. To keep employees, management can offer incentive compensation like cash bonuses and stock ownership.

Another way for this company to help retain employees during times of change is by increasing job satisfaction. According to Sigler (1999), management can achieve this by granting talented employees more freedom in their job roles and assigning them meaningful tasks, allowing them to participate in decision-making in their area of expertise. Additional methods to enhance job satisfaction include ensuring pleasant working conditions and providing employees with training on how to use the new metric system in their workplaces.

Increased emphasis on employees

When employees become overly stressed.

Increased absenteeism, decreased productivity, lower job satisfaction, and low morale can all result from the stress employees experience during a transition. To mitigate this stress and maximize human resources, directors can take the following actions:

  1. Increase communication and distribute consistent information regarding the transition.

2. Create a positive workplace atmosphere.

Political Frame

The introduction of a metric system within the company may generate varying opinions among different groups in the organization. This will result in the formation of new

alliances between those who endorse the changes and those resistant to them. This will necessitate new negotiations and discussions that could affect morale and productivity. The internal union will seek assurances that the changes will not result in job losses or alterations to employee benefits.

The management's confidence in the convenience of an expanded market through changes may motivate unions to negotiate. In their negotiation, the management should educate employees on the advantages of being proactive in a changing economic environment. The younger, technologically advanced, and curious employees may readily adapt to the changes. However, older employees with more experience and loyalty to the company may perceive these changes as a threat. This can strain relations between the two groups. To ensure both groups embrace the change within manageable differences, careful planning will need to be implemented.

Directors will be responsible for implementing and addressing any changes in communication and answering questions. This is crucial in order to prevent misunderstandings and rumors that could undermine the changes. Directors will also be required to hold meetings with various groups to discuss progress and provide updates.

Symbolic Frame

In order to implement changes in the symbolic frame, directors must find ways to bring employees together using stories and symbols.

The group seeks hope and a model for unity through shared stories and simple actions, such as rites or events that bring the hero of the group together. They desire a historical account that demonstrates their ability to overcome the upcoming change.

When speaking to a group or individuals about the positive aspects of the company's history, it is important to maintain a positive attitude. It is also crucial to acknowledge any fears or

concerns and provide reassurance. Additionally, try to find ways to bring the group together and create a sense of unity. A great visual tool that can achieve this is to set up bulletin boards, as they can convey a narrative even without your physical presence.


The text emphasizes the importance of birthday and anniversary lists, as well as the significance of images from past Christmas parties or field days in bringing people together and providing support and reassurance for the upcoming year. The ability to inspire and create a vision is crucial. The symbolic frame concept, which relates to human needs theory, suggests that organizations are made up of individuals who strive for self-actualization through collaborative efforts. Additionally, the text mentions the potential impact of transitioning from U.S. weights and measures standards to the metric system on everyone at our company.

The symbolic frame brings us to a unifying them that will bond everyone together, creating a common ground for us to rally around. As we undergo this change in our company, we will reflect on what initially brought everyone to this company and the length of their service. Each employee has their own concerns and apprehensions about these changes and how they will impact their jobs. Some worry about being too old to learn new ways, while others question what was wrong with the "old" way of doing things. In such moments, it is essential for the symbolic leader to reassure employees that although there will be a learning curve, everyone will receive support to understand the new changes. We must remember that this transition will not happen overnight, with each person learning at their own


The organization is dedicated to its employees and their job security. The symbolic leader may struggle to find symbols, rituals, or heroes that can bring the audience together. Instead, the symbolic leader will focus on the company's founder and how the company reached this point, highlighting the years of commitment from the employees. The company will not abandon its employees during this change but sees it as another challenge for everyone to overcome, which they will. However, the symbolic leader may overlook the importance of humor and playfulness in the workplace to alleviate tensions during times of change. This is where the symbolic leader must find a unifying symbol.

The company's heritage and its founder's vision are the driving forces behind its success. The company was established by the current CEO's great-grandfather during a time when Henry Taylor and Scientific Management were widely popular. Today, in order to keep pace with the global economy, the company needs to ensure it stays current and up-to-date. By doing so, we will align ourselves with the rest of the world and be able to progress towards our vision.

Focus on Gramps, the male parent, etc. - a family-owned company where every employee is part of that family. The company's culture does not align well with the challenges it faces or with the symbols and traditions that have lost meaning. In this case, with the transition to the metric system, most employees will only be concerned about learning it and how it will affect their job. As long as the symbolic leader considers this change as one small part of the overall changes that have occurred throughout the company's history.

He will

implement this change for them, using the symbols and imposts to convey the significance of their involvement in the family business.

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