Organizational and Management Theories Essay Essay
The intent of this paper is to explicate why reframing can be so of import to a concern. In today’s universe. concerns must remain on top of the competition and in touch with the ever-changing universe of engineering. Over clip. a concern can go dead. may be running on cruise-control or run out of new thoughts. Gross saless may even get down to steal with new competition impacting the bottom line. Initially a concern is organized and it begins to work on a structural degree that works for the concern. In clip. heads can go hard-wired to go on to work within that initial frame ; nevertheless. framing is merely a construct. It can be changed by changing the conceptual and emotional scene or point of view of the concern. Reframing allows a concern to interrupt free from the bounds of the original frame. The concern foremost assesses its operations via multiple mentalities and frames. There are four common frames used to analyse operations and those include the Structural Frame. the Human Resource Frame. Political Frame. and the Symbolic Frame. Each frame has its ain accent and cardinal constructs and each will be farther explained in this paper.
Organizations are complex entities. There are many factors that make organisational life complicated. equivocal. and unpredictable. “The biggest challenge for directors and leaders is to happen the right manner to border our organisations in a universe that has become more planetary. competitory. and disruptive ( Stadtlander. n. d. ) Organizational framing is a theory in which the direction of a concern assesses its operation via multiple mentalities.
The ability for a leader to do sense of the complex and equivocal work universe depends on the mental theoretical accounts or “frames” applied to the undertaking ( DeGrosky. 2011 ) . A frame “is a mental model-a set of thoughts and assumptions-that you carry in your caput to assist you understand and negociate a peculiar “territory” ( Bolman & A ; Deal. 2008. p. 11 ) . It helps directors understand the state of affairs at manus so they are able to do determinations. There are different angles for directors to see while doing determinations in their organisations. Each angle gives the director a different position of the state of affairs and helps them capture what is really traveling on.
The Four Frames
Bolman and Deal ( 2008 ) developed an organisational theory that consists of four frames. The organisational theory “prescribes a multi-dimensional or multi-frame attack in understanding the properties and situational contexts of organisational behavior” ( Thompson. n. d. ) . The four frames are: Structural. Human Resource. Political. and Symbolic.
“The structural frame is the position that an organisation is a “factory” or a “machine” . “The structural frame depicts a rational universe and emphasizes organisational architecture. including ends. construction. engineering. specialised functions. coordination. and formal relationships” ( Bolman & A ; Deal. 2008 ) . It defines the duties of each place and the relationships between them. Six premises undergird the structural frame: 1. Organizations exist to accomplish established ends and aims.
2. Organizations increase efficiency and enhance public presentation through specialisation and appropriate division of labour. 3. Suitable signifiers of coordination and control guarantee that diverse attempts of persons and units mesh. 4. Organizations work best when reason prevails over personal dockets and immaterial force per unit areas. 5. Structures must be designed to suit an organization’s current fortunes ( including its ends. engineering. work force. and environment ) . 6. Problems arise and public presentation suffers from structural lacks. which can be remedied through analysis and restructuring.
Human Resource Frame
“The human resource frame centres on what organisations and people do to and for one another” ( Bolman & A ; Deal. 2008. p. 117 ) . It focuses on the persons that work in an organisation and their accomplishments. attitudes. energy. and committedness. The human resource frame is built on nucleus premises that highlight the undermentioned linkages: * Organizations exist to function human needs instead than the converse. * Peoples and organisations need each other. Organizations need thoughts. energy. and endowment ; people need callings. wages. and chances. * When the tantrum between single and system is hapless. one or both suffer. Persons are exploited or work the organization-or both become victims. * A good tantrum benefits both. Persons find meaningful and hearty work. and organisations get the endowment and energy they need to win. ( Bolman & A ; Deal. 2008. p. 122 ) .
“The political frame positions organisations as churning arenas hosting ongoing competitions of single and group interests” ( Bolman & A ; Deal. 2008. p. 194 ) . Politicss occurs because employees are seeking to obtain power. The persons with the most power will be the persons that will acquire want they want. There are five propositions to sum up this frame: 1. Organizations are alliances of miscellaneous persons and involvement groups. 2. Alliance members have digesting differences in values. beliefs. information. involvements. and perceptual experiences of world. 3. Most of import determinations involve apportioning scarce resources-who gets what. 4. Scarce resources and digesting differences put struggle at the centre of day-to twenty-four hours kineticss and do power the most of import plus. 5. Goals and determinations emerge from bargaining and dialogue among viing stakeholders cheating for their ain involvements. ( Bolman & A ; Deal. 2008. p. 194-195 ) .
The symbolic frame “views an organisation as a folk or nation” ( Henderson. 2011 ) . It helps to give employees a significance to their work. There is a traditional manner of finishing undertakings. It is the manner that an organisation forms its civilization. The organisational civilization shows the internal ( employees ) and external ( clients & A ; stakeholders ) how the company wants to be perceived. The symbolic frame distills thoughts from diverse beginnings into five guesss: * What is most of import is non what happens but what it means.
* Activity and significance are slackly coupled ; events and actions have multiple readings as people experience life otherwise. * Confronting uncertainness and ambiguity. people create symbols to decide confusion. happen way. and anchor hope and religion. * Events and procedures are frequently more of import for what is expressed than for what is produced. Their symbolic signifier weaves a tapestry of secular myths. heroes and heroines. rites. ceremonials. and narratives to assist people find purpose and passion. * Culture forms the superglue that bonds an organisation. unites people. and helps an endeavor accomplish desired terminals. ( Bolman & A ; Deal. 2008. p. 253 ) .
Steve Jacobs worked as an applied scientist in the US Army. After functioning for 15 old ages he retired and he started a little workshop that manufactured parts for industrial boilers. The company was called Steve Jacobs Engineering nevertheless with the growing he changed it to Steve Jacobs Engineering LLC. From the start difficult work and fortune seem to hold paid off and over the old ages the company continued to turn in capital and production. By the clip his great grandson Martin Jacobs took over the company in 2007 as the CEO the company had 2200 employees and an one-year turnover of $ 3. 2 billion. An technology alumnus with an MBA. he had worked in the company during his pupil yearss and was concerned about the company and its pace based on the altering concern environment.
Despite the growing in capital. labour force. market and net incomes the company had outdated direction systems that made it venerable to a crisis in a changing concern environment. Martin Jacobs spent his first twelvemonth as CEO placing the challenges being faced by the organisation. He figures he need to alter the * Structure of the organisation to do it more decentralised and unfastened where employees can portion thoughts within divisions and ranks. The old system was based on a top down system that he believes can non be sustained. * Groups in the organisation based on place. accomplishments. age and section * Training. motive and compensation of the work force is non in sync with current economic system * Technology which is outdated
* “Way things are being done now”
Martin Jacobs ponders on these alterations and as he contemplates on how to turn over them out the United States Congress. in their infinite wisdom and force per unit areas of the planetary economic system has elected to alter the formal U. S. weights and steps criterions to the metric system. effectual by 2010. Changing into metric system will be good for the company and the state as all the exported goods have to be labeled in metric system or they will non sell. For the CEO Steve Jacobs Engineering has to alter the manner it operates or it will non last. This provides an chance for him non merely to alter the prosodies system but the full operations of the company.
Analysis of Theories being used
Maslow’s hierarchy of need-people are motivated by a assortment of wants. some more cardinal than others. ( Human Resource Frame ) . * Basic needs for physical wellbeing and safety are “prepotent ; they have to be satisfied first. Once lower demands are fulfilled. persons are motivated by societal demands and self-importance demands. At the top of the hierarchy is self-actualization. * When alterations occur in organisations. people become fearful of the new alterations and the terra incognita of the hereafter. * Managers need to diminish this fright by supplying employees with psychological support and preparation to assist them get the better of this fright. When this fright is overcome ; they can travel up in the hierarchy of demands and take a measure closer to making self-actualization-developing to one’s fullest and realizing one’s ultimate potency. *Andrew will be composing the analysis one time everyone has provided their root theories.
Academic Literature Review
Needs to include at least 5 peer-reviewed diary beginnings.
1. de Jager. P. ( 2001 ) . Resistance to alter: A new position of an old job. The Futurist. 35 ( 3 ) . 24-27. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //search. proquest. com/docview/218565953? accountid=40635 2. Tan. N. ( 2005 ) . Maximizing Human Resource Potential in the Midst of Organizational Change. SingaporeManagement Review. 27 ( 2 ) . 25-35. Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //search. proquest. com/docview/226853640? accountid=40635 3. Sigler. K. J. ( 1999 ) . Challenges of employee keeping. Management Research Review. 22 ( 10 ) . 1-5. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //search. proquest. com/docview/223553576? accountid=40635.
Comprehensive Business Literature Review
1. Case Studies
2. Newss Reports
3. Service Offerings.
Predictions of Major Challenges
The Structural Frame emphasizes ends. specialised functions. and formal relationships ; this frame can be used to form and construction groups and squads to acquire consequences and fit an organization’s environment and engineering.
The procedure of organisation design matches people. information. and engineering to the intent. vision. and scheme of the organisation. Structure is designed to heighten communicating and information flow among people. Systems are designed to promote single duty and determination devising. Technology is used to heighten human capablenesss to carry through meaningful work. The terminal merchandise is an incorporate system of people and resources. tailored to the specific way of the organisation.
Good organisational design helps communications. productiveness. and invention. It creates an environment where people can work efficaciously. The cardinal duty of directors and leaders is to clear up organisational ends. to go to to the relationship between construction and environment. and to develop a construction that is clear and appropriate to the ends. the undertaking. and the environment. Without such a construction. people become diffident about what they are supposed to be making. The consequence is confusion. defeat. and struggle. In an effectual organisation. persons are clear about their duties and their part. Policies. linkages. and lines of authorization are chiseled. When an organisation has the right construction and people understand it. the organisation can accomplish its ends and persons can be effectual in their functions.
* Lack of structural design to heighten communicating and information flow among people. * Outdated engineering to heighten human capablenesss to carry through meaningful work.
Human Resource Frame
The human resource frame “highlights the relationship between people and organizations” ( Bolman & A ; Deal. 2008. p. 137 ) . “It includes people’s accomplishments. attitudes. energy. committedness and relationships as cardinal resources of organizations” ( DeGrosky. 2011 ) . During times of alteration. directors need to see the effects the alterations will hold on the work force. If the alterations that occur do non aline with the employee’s demands and wants ; it could do negative impacts on the organisation. Directors need to understand that whenever changes occur ; opposition will go on. “Resistance is merely a really effectual. really powerful. really utile endurance mechanism ( de Jager. 2001 ) .
Employees question the grounds things need to alter when they have worked in the yesteryear or are presently working. Losing employees that resist the alteration procedure is one of the biggest hazards in pull offing concern alteration. The employees that make the greatest part to your concern are normally to a great extent invested in their function and your concern operations. Often these employees are the most challenged by alteration procedure. “Research has shown organisational alteration to be a primary cause of emphasis. Because of the feelings of uncertainness. insecurity. and menace that it invokes” ( Tan. 2005 ) . Organizations that have employees that are excessively stressed or burned out have more instances of absenteeism. lower productiveness. lower occupation satisfaction. and low morale.
* Resistance to alter due to non being involved in the alteration determinations and/or execution procedure ; and fright of holding to larn something new * Retaining employees through the alterations
* Increased emphasis on employees
Bowman and Deal ( B & A ; D ) describe organisations as “living. shouting political spheres that host a complex web of single and group involvements. ” ( 2008. p. 194 ) . Organizations comprise groups of people from diverse background with different beliefs. penchants. experiences and ideals. Organizations have ends to accomplish and they hire people from diverse backgrounds to assist them accomplish them. On the other manus people come into organisations with their ain outlooks and desires which they expect to be fulfilled within the organisation. Persons in the organisation articulation groups that will progress their dockets or that portion their thoughts and desires.
Due to scarce resources and differences in the organisation conflicts erupts among different groups. To entree more resources each group tries to utilize its power and accomplishments to act upon determinations that work to their advantage. However. the end of the leaders is to convey different groups of people together and guarantee they work together as a squad in order to accomplish organisation ends. Leaderships are the defenders of the organisations and its ends. Therefore they result to dialogues. bargaining and treatments with different groups to guarantee despite their differences they are able to work together. Major Challenges
* Divisions among groups that may impact productiveness
* Union opposition to alterations originating from new prosodies systems for fright of occupation loss
* Inability of leaders to negociate. deal and jockey with different groups * Retraining of employees on the new prosodies system may farther split the old and younger employees
The Symbolic Frame describes the organisational civilization. the rites. the ceremonials ; all the symbols and heroes that help us do significance of organisational events and activities ( Bolman & A ; Deal 2008 ) . In the symbolic frame. people judge organisations chiefly by their visual aspect. It is in this frame that organizations create the image that is expected of them. reassure their constituencies. and generate support for their missions.
The symbolic frame can offer insight into cardinal issues of significance and belief within an organisation and convey employees together if the leader is effectual. Symbolic leaders are able to construe experience and in that reading. they can convey significance and intent. Leaderships of this type demand to look for something seeable and dramatic to signal that alteration is on the manner. A cardinal map of symbolic leading is to offer plausible and hopeful readings of experience. An effectual leader is able to make this is by painting a vision. a hopeful image of the hereafter. The vision addresses both the challenges and the hopes and values of its followings. When employees are confused or unsure in times of alteration. they seek hope and way – this is where a symbolic leader can convey people together and win. Symbolic leaders can make the vision – and so they can carry others to follow it.
Symbolic leaders tell narratives. A successful manner to make this is to implant their vision in a fabulous narrative. A narrative that tells where the company has been. where it is. and where it is traveling in the hereafter or looking back at the history of the company and the employees and what has brought you this far already. These types of narratives will win because people want to believe them and it makes it personal. Even a flawed narrative will work if the leader is persuasive in the values and hopes of the hearers. Good narratives and a echt personal touch reflect the power and the danger of symbolic leading. Power is positive in the right custodies but power in the incorrect custodies. can make desolation ( 2004 ) .
Major challenges include:
* Afraid of the alterations and the impact it will hold on their occupations * Can I learn the new ways-what if I can’t? * The symbolic leader may neglect to happen symbols. rites or hero’s that can convey the hearers together * The symbolic leader may neglect at happening and integrating wit and drama at work to ease tensenesss during the times of alteration * The organization’s civilization is non good aligned with the challenges the organisation faces or the organisations symbols and imposts lose intending Appraisals on How to Decide Challenges
Lack of structural design to heighten communicating and information flow among people. The occupation of directors and leaders is to concentrate on undertaking. facts. and logic. non personality and emotions. Most “people” jobs truly stem from structural defects instead than from defects in persons. Structural directors and leaders are non needfully autocratic and do non needfully work out every job by publishing orders. Alternatively. they try to plan and implement a procedure or construction appropriate to the job and the fortunes. A structural scenario casts directors and leaders in cardinal functions of clear uping ends. go toing to the relationship between construction and environment. and developing a construction that is clear to everyone and allow to what needs to be done.
This is a structural design to heighten communicating and information flow among people. Without a feasible construction. people become diffident about what they are supposed to be making. The consequence is confusion. defeat. and struggle. In an effectual organisation. persons are comparatively clear about their duties and their part to the mission. Policies. linkages. and lines of authorization are straightforward and widely accepted. When you have the right construction. one that people understand. organisations can accomplish ends and persons can see their function in the large image. Outdated engineering to heighten human capablenesss to carry through meaningful work. Technology is about bettering how we put our cognition to work and increase our ability to bring forth valued consequences. Performance betterment continues to determine the hereafter of many persons and organisations around the universe through acquisition. sharing. working together. and networking.
If recent averments are to be believed. the gait of execution of Information Technology ( IT ) within organisations would look to be grim and its range pervasive. with excessive claims made in footings of IT’s organisational benefits such as increased efficiency and higher degrees of client service. IT has besides been said to ease the manner in which information is processed. with the possible to alter the manner in which determination devising is undertaken. and even to consequence a displacement in the nature and range of activities undertaken by the concern. For illustration. IT at least promises dramatic reverberations for the signifier and content of inter-organizational relationships every bit good as intra-organizational communicating ; the bases on which organisations compete ; the agencies of production ; the procedure of distribution and service support ; so for about every facet of recognized organisational activity.
Human Resource Frame
Resistance to alter.
The first challenge in the human resource frame that Martin Jacobs will necessitate to confront is opposition to alter. Resistance to alter can go on due to many grounds. Employees resist because they feel uninvolved and ignored. It is of import to acquire employees involved either by allowing them explore and supply some options in the decision-making procedure. When people are involved in the decision-making and/or execution of alterations. they feel more committed to it. ( de Jager. 2001 ) .
Another ground employees resist alteration is they fear holding to larn something new. “It’s non that they disagree with the benefits of some new procedure ; instead. they merely fear the unknown hereafter and doubt their ability to accommodate to it” ( de Jager. 2001 ) . This type of opposition can be overcome by making an environment where acquisition is the norm. In this acquisition environment. “early failures of any learning enterprise are non frowned upon or punished. but are rewarded because failure is honored as grounds of attempt ( de Jager. 2001 ) .
Retaining employees through the alterations
The loss of gifted employees may be really damaging to the company’s hereafter success. During times of alteration. outstanding employees may go forth an organisation because they become disgruntled and/or feel unmotivated. Management can assist maintain employees by offering incentive wage. such as: hard currency fillips and stock ownership.
Another manner that this company can assist retain employees during times of alteration is through addition occupation satisfaction. “Management can see talented employees are given liberties in their occupation maps and are given intending meaningful assignments. leting them to be involved in the determination doing for their country of expertise” ( Sigler. 1999 ) . Other ways that can assist increase occupation satisfaction are doing certain that the on the job conditions are pleasant and offering employees developing to guarantee they know how to utilize the new metric system within their occupation places.
Increased emphasis on employees
When employees are excessively stressed. it could do more instances of absenteeism. lower productiveness. lower occupation satisfaction. and low morale. Directors can assist alleviate the emphasis employees feel during the alteration and maximise their human resource through the followers: 1. Increase communicating and circulate equal information about the alteration. 2. Make a supportive environment at the workplace.
3. Empower their employees to play a more active function in the execution of alteration. ( Tan. 2005 ) .
Changing the company to metric system may arouse different sentiments from different groups in the organisation. New confederations will be formed between those who support the alterations and those immune to them. This will name for new bargaining and dialogues that may impact the morale and production. Union within the organisation will seek confidences that the alterations will non take to layoffs and alterations in benefits. Management confidence of handiness of expanded market due alterations may actuate the brotherhoods to negociate. In their bargaining direction must educate employees the benefit of being proactive in a altering economic environment.
The younger groups of employees who are more technologically advanced and funny may instantly encompass the alterations. On the other manus older employees with more experience and dedication to the organisation may experience threatened. This can strive dealingss between the groups. Careful planning will necessitate to be implemented to guarantee both groups embrace the alteration within feasible differences. Directors will pass more clip communication alterations and replying inquiries. This is of import to forestall pipeline and rumours that may sabotage the alterations. Directors will be called upon to keep meetings with different groups to discourse advancement and updates.
Deciding the alterations in the symbolic frame include happening a manner to convey employees together utilizing narratives. symbols. rites or happening hero’s that unite the group. The group is looking for hope. a function theoretical account. a history that shows they will acquire through this alteration. Simple actions can unify. Thingss such as sharing narratives. speaking to the group or persons about positive properties of the companies history. being positive yourself. acknowledging the frights and concerns and reassuring. observing the things you can to convey the group together. A good visual that unites by stating a narrative without really even being present is to set up bulletin boards. exposures. birthday or anniversary lists…the images from last old ages Christmas party or field day will convey the group together and offer support and reassurance for the approaching twelvemonth. It’s all about being able to animate and make a vision.
The symbolic frame relates to the human needs theory but goes even beyond that by asseverating that organisations are populated by people who strive for self-actualization through concerted attempts.
Prognosis of the Future Impact of the Recommended Changes
*Waiting for Joe to supply his information.
Human Resource Frame ( Topics discussing )
* Employees may necessitate to be dismissed if their function becomes excess after the alteration occurs.
* Attitudes may alter in the workplace ; this could do a negative/positive work environment ; low employee morale
* Decrease of productiveness ; bing the company money.
* Relationships grow stronger or weaken between direction and the employees.
* Loss of gifted employees
Political Frame ( Topics discussing )
* New groups and confederations will emerge and some groups may be formed or eliminated * Union and direction will hold to compromise and failure to hold may ensue to labored dealingss or work stoppages * There will be intensive dialogues. bargaining and jockeying within the first one twelvemonth until a balance is reached among different groups * There could emerge labored relationships between some technologically challenged and technologically savvy workers
Changing from the formal U. S. weights and steps criterions to the metric system will impact everyone at our company. The symbolic frame leads us to happen a uniting them that will bond everyone together. a common land to beat up around. For this alteration in our company. we are traveling to travel back to the beginning. what brought everyone to this company and the length of service of the company. * Afraid of the alterations and the impact it will hold on their occupations
Each employee has their ain concerns and concerns about this alteration. Am I excessively old to larn this is one concern along with what was incorrect with the “old” manner of making things” This is where the symbolic leader must guarantee employees that there will be a learning curve for certain but everyone will be worked with to assist them understand the new alterations. * Can I larn the new ways-what if I can’t?
It will non be an nightlong alteration and everyone will larn at their ain gait. The organisation is committed to the employees and their occupations are non on the line. * The symbolic leader may neglect to happen symbols. rites or hero’s that can convey the hearers together
The symbolic leader will concentrate on the companies laminitis and how the company was able to do it to this point. All the old ages of committedness from the employees beat uping around the company. The company will non turn their dorsums on the employees over this alteration but this will merely be another challenge for us to all ALL overcome. And we will. * The symbolic leader may neglect at happening and integrating wit and drama at work to ease tensenesss during the times of alteration
This is where the symbolic leader must happen that consolidative symbol. The laminitis of this company and his vision. The company was founded by the great-grandfather of the current CEO. back in the yearss when Henry Taylor and Scientific Management was all the fury. Today the company needs to maintain up with the planetary economic system and this is one manner of guaranting we are remaining current and up-to-date. This will unite us with the universe and let us to travel frontward with our vision. Focus on the gramps. male parent etc. – a household owned company and each employee is portion of that household. * The organization’s civilization is non good aligned with the challenges the organisation faces or the organisations symbols and imposts lose significance
In this instance with altering to the metric system. most employees will merely fear the alteration every bit far as larning it and how it will impact their occupation. Equally long as the symbolic leader keeps this alteration in position as one little piece of the alterations that have occurred over the history of the company. he will set this alteration into position for them. The symbols and imposts will hold intending utilizing the household company angle and how they are portion of that
*Completed by Andrew one time paper has been to the full written.
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