Leadership Development Reflection Diary Theology Religion Essay Essay
- Wednesday 10 April, 2013
- Undertaking B – Essay ( 2747 words )
- Martin Luther King Jr. – Transformational Leadership Theory
- Inspirational Motivation
- Nelson Mandela – Servant Leadership Theory
- Functional properties
- Attach toing properties
- Appreciation of others
- The Practical Relevance of Leadership Theory
One experience of this Principals Servant Leadership attack stands out in my head. During a catered tiffin at a school in-service twenty-four hours with other staff, this Principal taking a home base from the tabular array, ‘worked the room ‘ and served some of the staff and instructors tiffin. However, what diluted the impact of this attack was the ‘see me, expression at me ‘ attitude that he portrayed. The Principal ‘s actions of service did non aline with his attitude and voice. The ‘Servant Leader School Principal ‘ diminished the impact of his service by pulling attending to his act of service by declaring to the staff as he moved around the room ; ‘look at me being a servant leader. ‘
Although my experience of this peculiar Principal ‘s leading manner did non reflect the servant leading mantra which he espoused, the servant leading manner has ever profoundly impressed me as a really effectual method of taking and developing others. In my ain leading journey in my function as an Area Manager, I have endeavoured to work with and develop my staff to help them to better. My personal motive has been one of retainer first, leader second. Although, the aspiration of Servant Leadership has ever been something I have strived for and something that has influenced my determinations and leading manner, what I have learned by really being a leader and director is the importance of healthy relationships with my staff.
I would comprehend Servant Leadership as my personal leading manner nevertheless I recognise that I do non systematically use its dogmas in my mundane leading and direction. I believe the servant leading theoretical account of leading best aligns with my personal values and beliefs and I aspiringly strive to outwork servant leading in my personal and professional life.
Wednesday 10 April, 2013
Belly laugh! My eyes have been enlightened! I have exhaustively enjoyed the research, thought, be aftering and composing for this assignment. I have lost infinite hours delving deeper into the leading diaries and following the breadcrumbs to happen nuggets of leading inspiration. It has besides been honoring researching the lives and leading journeys of my chosen leaders.
Whilst I am non wholly satisfied with my statements and concluding assignment construction, as I do n’t believe it captures my personal acquisitions and research findings, the procedure has been a thoroughly rewarding experience for me.
My initial appraisal of my leading manner as being that of a Servant Leader has been confirmed. Understanding the servant leading theoretical account in greater item will help me to be a more successful leader and retainer in the hereafter. In add-on, researching Transformational Leadership has been improbably actuating and has challenged me to work towards implementing transformational leading features suitably into my leading function at work.
Undertaking B – Essay ( 2747 words )
This essay will reason that leading theory is of great practical relevancy to managerial leaders today. Leadership theory helps directors and leaders critically analyse the success of their leading and help them to develop and determine their leading manner. Critical contemplation and ego analysis is vitally of import for leaders to better personally, and professionally develop and heighten the success of their administrations.
Analyzing the leading manners of Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela, this essay will use Transformational Leadership Theory and Servant Leadership Theory to the leading methods of these august leaders. The essay will besides critically measure the leading effectivity of King Jr. and Mandela and show the relevancy, intent and practical application of leading theory.
Martin Luther King Jr. – Transformational Leadership Theory
Martin Luther King Jr. is esteemed for his leading of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the 1950s until his blackwash in 1968. King promoted passive resistance as a manner of life and non merely as a tactic to accomplish an result of societal alteration ( Carson 1987, p. 449 ) . King ‘s vision and leading was cardinal in stoping the legal segregation of African Americans in the United States.
Martin Luther King Jr. is the leading transformational leader. King could be perceived as a ‘Great Man ‘ in line with Stogdill ‘s Great Man Theory because of the major societal alteration that his leading made possible ( Carson 1987, p. 454 ) . Yet it is exactly the major societal alteration that King facilitated that makes him a transformational leader. Researching King ‘s motive we discover that he wanted to be remembered for his love and service to humanity ( Washington 1986, p. 267 ) . It is this belief in his cause and his ability to pass on vision that reinforces King ‘s standing as a singular transformational leader.
This subdivision of the essay will analyze the leading manner of King and use two of the four features of transformational leading, as detailed by Burns ( 1979 ) and revised by Bass and Stogdill ( 1990 ) . The four qualities of transformational leaders are ; personal appeals, inspirational motive, rational stimulation, and idealized influence. This essay will analyze the transformational leading qualities of personal appeal and inspirational motive in King ‘s leading.
The term personal appeal has traditionally been used to depict the godlike, charming qualities possessed by certain leaders ( Carson 1987, p. 449 ) . Charismatic leaders are seen as extraordinary persons who have found personal significance and intent to life ( Shamir 1991 ) . King unimpeachably demonstrated his personal appeal in the manner he communicated significance and intent through his alone oratory accomplishment as he spoke with emotion and passion. Sosik ( 2000 ) highlights the importance of magnetic leaders holding a sense of personal significance and intent and supplying this significance to followings. A leader ‘s personal significance, integrated into organizational vision and ends and efficaciously communicated to followings, enhances the motive of both leader and follower and significantly increases the follower ‘s emotional fond regard to the leader ( Shamir, House & A ; Arthur 1993, pp. 577, 82, 83 ) Sosik ( 2000, pp. 65-8 ) identifies a assortment of beginnings of personal significance including self-concept and individuality, societal and political activism, selflessness, digesting values and ideals, and faith and spiritualty. King Drew from each of these beginnings of personal significance for his intent, significance and motive and his personal significance communicated through his vision for social alteration significantly contributed to the regard and high respect in which he was held by his followings. King ‘s magnetic leading qualities significantly contributed to his leading success nevertheless he recognised that personal appeal entirely was non adequate to be a leader of the many autonomous leaders in the Civil Rights Movement ( Carson 1987, p. 449 ) .
Gibson, Hannon & A ; Blackwell ‘s ( 1999 ) stock list of the features of magnetic leaders could really good be a sum-up of Martin Luther King Jr. ‘s character traits:
Self assurance in their ain abilities
A vision of how to do things or do things better
Extraordinary communicating accomplishments ; ability to joint the vision
High degree of personal energy and enthusiasm ; willingness to work really difficult
High degree of committedness and strong belief about the rightness of their thoughts
Act as function theoretical accounts to their followings
( Gibson, Hannon & A ; Blackwell 1999, p. 14 )
It is intriguing to read through this list with King in head as he demonstrated all of these qualities. However, sing the first characteristic, ‘self assurance, ‘ it is notable that King himself recognised his restrictions and failings and confessed that the decease menaces made against him and his household during the Montgomery coach boycott filled him with fright and disheartenment alternatively of staying confident in his leading function. King explains, “ Sometimes I feel demoralized aˆ¦ life everyday under the menace of decease aˆ¦ under the unfavorable judgment aˆ¦ I feel my work is in vain ” ( King 1966 ) . Whilst King ‘s strong belief may hold wavered during this period of disheartenment, his openness and transparence in pass oning and sharing his darkest battle helped him derive the trust of his followings.
Transformational leaders create a vision and inspire others to ordain their vision ( McGuire & A ; Hutchings 2007, p. 157 ) . When leaders communicate their vision, followings are more likely to follow a call to action if the communicating of the vision connects with them on a “ deeper, emotional degree ”
( Emrich et al. 2001, p. 532 ) . In add-on, Emrich et Al. ( 2001 ) suggests that ocular, image based address further increases followings ‘ willingness to move and therefore contributes to the realization of the vision.
King ‘s usage of poetic imagination to paint a graphic image of a society without bias through words of inspiration and inclusion is an first-class illustration of inspirational motive. In his credence address for the Nobel Peace Prize King declared: “ I refuse to accept the position that world is so tragically bound to the starless midnight of racism and war that the bright dawn of peace and brotherhood can ne’er go a world ” ( King 1964 ) .
Martin Luther King Jr. ‘s motive is similar to that of Nelson Mandela ‘s. King explains “ I am non interested in power for power ‘s interest, but I ‘m interested in power that is moral, that is right and that is good ” ( in Robinson & A ; Exceeding 2013, p. 194 ) . Transformational Leadership theory predicts that leaders who exhibit high moral logical thinking degrees would expose greater transformational leading behaviors than transactional leaders ( Turner et al. 2002, p. 308 ) . King ‘s moral motive and moral character are strong prognostic indexs of his leaning towards a transformational leading manner and his leading success.
Nelson Mandela – Servant Leadership Theory
Nelson Mandela was the first President of South Africa elected in a to the full democratic election. Mandela opposed the old apartheid government in South Africa and endured great personal adversity as an advocator of the rights of others ( Covey 2004, p. 69 ) . Mandela has become a symbol of unity, hope and bravery whose servant leading transformed and freed a state.
The contradictory impression of the retainer every bit leader as described by Robert K. Greenleaf ( 1991 ) forces a reconsideration of the very nature of leading as understood through the lens of earlier leading theories such as Great Man theory, trait theory and the Big Five theoretical account. Greenleaf posits that “ the great leader is seen as servant first ” and that this ab initio oxymoronic thought is in fact the key to leading illustriousness ( Greenleaf 1991, p. 2 ) . Greenleaf describes the servant leader as an person who has a sensitivity to function: “ The servant-leader is first retainer. It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to function. Then witting pick brings one to draw a bead on to take ” ( Greenleaf 1977, p. 27 ) .
Greenleaf ( 1991 ) lineations ten features of servant leading:
Committedness to the growing of others
These features of servant leading are non an thorough list ( Spears 1998, p. 6 ) . Russell and Stone ( 2002, p. 146 ) place a farther 20 properties from a reappraisal of academic literature which they classify into nine ‘functional properties ‘ and eleven ‘accompanying properties. ‘ These servant leading properties are listed in the tabular array below:
Attach toing properties
Appreciation of others
( Russell & A ; Stone 2002, p. 147 )
Using servant leading ‘s functional properties of vision and trust, as detailed by Russell and Stone ( 2002 ) , I will analyze the leading manner of Nelson Mandela and show the practical relevancy of servant leading theory.
Nelson Mandela is the prototype of the servant leader. Mandela ‘s humbleness and selflessness, even to the grade of protecting and functioning his enemies, is declarative of his servant leading qualities. Mandela writes “ To do peace with an enemy one must work with that enemy, and that enemy becomes one ‘s spouse ” ( Mandela 1995, p. 112 ) .
Vision is espoused as an indispensable quality of leaders by many faculty members ( Choi 2006 ; Farling, Stone & A ; Winston 1999 ; Godwin et Al. 2011 ) and is defined as “ an ideal and alone image of the hereafter ” ( Kouzes & A ; Posner 1995, p. 95 ) . Harmonizing to Russell & A ; Stone ( 2002, p. 147 ) a cardinal function of the servant leader is set uping strategic vision. Nelson Mandela ‘s vision for the obliteration of apartheid, equal rights and democracy for all is a greatest illustration of this property. At his test, Mandela shared his precious vision of “ a democratic and free society in which all individuals live together in harmoniousness and with equal chances. It is an ideal which I hope to populate for and to accomplish. But if demands be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to decease ” ( Mandela 1995, p. 56 ) .
Lubin ( 2001 ) demonstrated that nine of Greenleaf ‘s 10 features of servant leaders are apparent in the behavior of airy leaders. Mandela ‘s airy accomplishments, which saw the obliteration of apartheid in South Africa, illustrate this determination.
Greenleaf ( 1977 ) argued that trust was a cardinal dogma of servant leading and asserted that in servant leading, persons are recognised as leaders “ because they are proved and trusted as retainers ” ( Greenleaf 1991, p. 3 ) . Nelson Mandela, through the presentation of humbleness and friendship even won the trust of his prison guards. When he was elected as President of South Africa, he embraced the rival politicians who had put him in prison by giving them cardinal functions in his authorities. Mandela optimistically trusted his enemies thereby capturing them and gaining their trust ( Stengel 2008 ) .
Joseph & A ; Winston ( 2005 ) supply empirical support which demonstrates that “ servant leading is one of the specific leading behaviours that elicits trust from others ” ( Joseph & A ; Winston 2005 ) . It is clear that servant leading has a strong prognostic capacity of leader and organizational trust. The trust that Mandela enjoyed was due to his consistent application of servant leading.
Following his release from prison, after functioning 27 old ages as a political captive, Mandela spoke at a mass meeting held in his honor stating, “ I stand here before you non as a prophesier but as a low retainer of you, the people. Your tireless and heroic forfeits have made it possible for me to be here today. I hence place the staying old ages of my life in your custodies ” ( Mandela 1995, p. 100 ) . Mandela ‘s humbleness and sacrificial service engendered trust from others. On the eventide of his historic election win for the African Nation Congress as President of South Africa, Nelson Mandela referenced the immortal words of Martin Luther King Jr. when he addressed the state of South Africa ; “ Free at last! Free at last! I stand before you humbled by your bravery, with a bosom full of love for all of you. I regard it as the highest award to take the ANC at this minute in our history. I am your retainer ” ( Mandela 1995, p. 114 ) . Mandela ‘s self designation as a servant indicates that he is predisposed to function. Nelson Mandela demonstrates with singular humbleness the retainer foremost, leader 2nd dogma of Servant Leadership.
Greenleaf argued that the best trial for measuring the effectivity of servant leading is by inquiring the inquiries: “ Do those served grow as individuals? Do they, while being served, go healthier, wiser, freer, more independent, more likely themselves to go retainers? And, what is the consequence on the least privileged in society? Will they benefit or at least non be further deprived? ” ( Greenleaf 1977, p. 27 ) . Harmonizing to Greenleaf ‘s ain trial of servant leading effectivity, Nelson Mandela ‘s leading scores full Markss! The full state of South Africa grew and discarded the apartheid government, the state became healthier and free, Mandela encouraged each citizen to see the demands of the weakest and most vulnerable, and modelled forgiveness and selflessness which encouraged his followings and citizens to besides function others.
A critical differentiation between servant leading and other leading theories is found in a leader ‘s motive. Sendjaya and Sarros ( 2002, p. 61 ) portion the positions of a figure of writers who argue that a servant leader ‘s motive to take is found in their beliefs and values. Mandela ‘s motive was found in his unwavering and sacrificial committedness to contending subjugation, unfairness, apartheid and inequality in all its signifiers.
In add-on, Mandela reflects a participative leading manner in his committedness to consensus and the democratic procedure ( Bunkers 2009, p. 27 ) , even when he did non personally agree with the result. This participative attack, which demonstrates Mandela ‘s grasp of others points of position, is another illustration of Mandela ‘s servant leading manner.
The Practical Relevance of Leadership Theory
Leadership Theory has a great practical relevancy to directors and leaders in today ‘s work force. Most significantly workers who are led by transformational or servant leaders demonstrate important practical additions in public presentation ( Day & A ; Lord 1988 ; Shamir, House & A ; Arthur 1993, p. 578 ) . In his survey of transformational leading Tichy developed the construct of the ‘Leadership engine. ‘ Tichy believes that leaders are the energising and driving force in administrations and that leaders must “ take direct duty for the development of other leaders ” ( Tichy 1997 ) . Tichy ‘s leading engine is of great practical relevancy as it efficaciously mobilises and motivates leaders in their cardinal organizational function and stresses the importance of the leader ‘s part to group public presentation by breeding thoughts, elaborating values, and taking with emotion, energy and ‘edge. ‘ Another practical application of leading theory is administrations usage of psychological appraisals to find leading possible among campaigners for managerial places ( Bray, Campbell, & A ; Grant, 1974 ) .
The servant leading theoretical account is a practical and relevant tool. It has been successfully applied in managerial leading places in non-profit, voluntary and spiritual administrations ( Smith, Montagno & A ; Kuzmenko 2004, p. 89 ) . Numerous practical and applicable thoughts to help managerial leaders and enhance administrations have emerged from servant leading theory and many leaders from the Fortune 500 houses self identify as servant leaders ( Sendjaya & A ; Sarros 2002 ) . Most notably TDIndustries, a big warming and plumbing contractor in America, has developed servant leading as an organisation-wide leading preparation and development plan and necessitate all supervisors and directors to be trained in servant leading ( Spears 2004, p. 10 ) .
When research consequences demonstrate that leading effectivity can explicate up to 45 % of an administration ‘s public presentation ( Day & A ; Lord 1988, p. 458 ) , it is clear that the practical application of leading theory has tremendous relevancy to organizational success. As has been explored in this essay, the transformational leading and servant leading theoretical accounts have many demonstrated practical applications in legion Fieldss of leading and direction. However, each theoretical account ‘s effectivity will be dependent upon the context in which it is applied.
Smith, Montagno & A ; Kuzmenko ( 2004, p. 89 ) conclude that non-profit, voluntary and spiritual administrations thrive under the servant leading theoretical account because these administrations “ attract employees who seek chances for personal growing, fostering and mending. ” Service administrations and educational establishments besides attract a work force with similar features and are every bit every bit suited to the servant leading theoretical account ( Buchen 1998 ; Cerit 2009 ; Crippen 2004 ) . Transformational leading is more suitable to a dynamic external environment, where employees are empowered and encouraged to introduce and take hazards ( Smith, Montagno & A ; Kuzmenko 2004, p. 89 ) .
Although leading theory is practically relevant, ‘leadership is a relationship between the leader and the people being led ‘ ( DuBrin 2010, p. 4 ) . Due to the built-in complexness of human relationships, leading theory will merely of all time serve as a tool to assist our understanding instead than present a to the full realised solution to managerial leading. This by no agencies undermines the importance or practical relevancy of leading theory. It does, nevertheless, remind us to maintain theory in its proper context, recognizing its strengths but besides understanding its failings.