Language Key Stage 1 2 Teaching Essay Example
Language Key Stage 1 2 Teaching Essay Example

Language Key Stage 1 2 Teaching Essay Example

Available Only on StudyHippo
  • Pages: 9 (2243 words)
  • Published: October 2, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
View Entire Sample
Text preview

Research has shown that societal, economic, and environmental factors impact child development. Language is crucial for children's progress and can indicate their age and stage of development, according to Piaget. Vygotsky and Erikson argue that language reflects a child's preconceptions, interpretations, understanding of the world, and social skills. Bronfenbrenner views language as a reflection of an individual's environments, including personal relationships (such as family, peers, and teachers) and external influences like culture and beliefs.

The importance of exploratory talk in classroom discussions for students' development of pro-social and thinking skills has been acknowledged (Dawes et al., 2004; Grugeon et al., 2005). This essay is divided into three sections. The first section examines the evidence of children's linguistic development at the primary level, including how theory, evidence, and practice define their speech. It also dis


cusses frameworks like the National Curriculum for Key Stages 1 and 2 and the National Literacy Strategy for Key Stages 1 and 2 that support this development. The second section provides a general discussion on different forms of talk. The third section focuses on the classroom environment and the teacher's role in taking a holistic approach to students' language and learning. It explores various language forms shown in Figure 1 and how teachers can effectively enhance students' skills through speech. Extensive research has been conducted to comprehend communication as an inherent human impulse, with educational theories emphasizing specific types of discourse by promoting children's speech (Marsh, 2004 cites Lasswell's version of the 5 W's from 1948 and Johnson's procedures of interpersonal communication from 1986).The significance of using exploratory and inquiring language is emphasized by The National Curriculum. This text showcases the importance of

View entire sample
Join StudyHippo to see entire essay

diverse forms of speech in enhancing a student's communication abilities, providing numerous examples for each subject and stage.

Understanding how children understand, manage, and convey information is important in order to effectively promote questioning and exploration. From a children's language perspective, language goes through various stages that reflect both physical and cognitive development. It can be argued that at the early stages, language serves as a means of learning and also as something to be learned. However, theories of a 'universal' basic grammar suggest that language is instinctual. over time, the parameters for this language development into more efficient tools for gathering, interpreting and communicating knowledge. It is important to note that language is more than just a tool for representing knowledge. The child's manner and purpose of speaking may be influenced by parents and caregivers and their specific attitudes and values - their cultural capital as Bourdieu would describe it.

They also include culture and environments and, as Jackendoff (1993) states, society. Children come to school with this background of child-directed speech. The amount and type of growth and transformation seems to be influenced by societal, cultural, and economic environments and impacts how a child can understand and respond to school. While this essay cannot fully address the syntactical, phonetic, semantic, or grammatical aspects of children's language development, their importance is recognized. However, the significance of oral language is now emphasized in the National Curriculum and integrated throughout the Key stages. As Dockrellet al. (2004) highlight in their examination of methods for supporting language development in young children, the approach introduced in Teaching speaking and listening in Key Stages 1 and 2 (QCA, 1999) increasingly focuses

on teacher modeling.

Research has shown (e.g. Hart and Risley, 1995; Peterson and Siegel, 1999) how socio-economic factors and environments can affect a child's basic linguistic cognition. For example, the literacy hour (National Literacy Strategy, 1999) has been designed to compensate for deficiencies in a student's existing language skills. As mentioned earlier, the way children communicate can reveal their cognitive stage, personal knowledge, biases, pro-social abilities, and reference terms. It also acknowledges the concept of mutual determinism, as described by Bandura (cited in Krause et al., 2003), where the environment is influenced by both internal and external factors of individuals.

However, this particular subdivision approaches ways of speaking from an equal standpoint. For example, excluding learning difficulties and ESL for now, a teacher would not expect a five-year-old to still be using telegraphic speech (two-word sentences) typical of a two-year-old. Some over and under-extension may be expected, but fundamentally, Key Stage 1 students should be demonstrating more metalinguistic awareness. Promoting the development of metalinguistic awareness is emphasized throughout the National Curriculum. For instance, the English section states: Students should be taught about how speech varies:

  • in different situations, such as reflecting on how their speech changes in more formal contexts
  • considering different listeners, for instance, adjusting what they say when speaking to unfamiliar people.

Clearly, at the core of this are two key skills - the ability to investigate a matter and the ability to communicate within established parameters. Exploratory talk, as highlighted by Dawes and Wegerif (1998), is a crucial skill that needs to be taught in many primary school situations.

The text emphasizes

the significance of children acquiring effective communication skills while utilizing computers in small groups. It highlights the necessity for students to engage in turn-taking, active listening, respect for differing opinions, questioning, discussion, and ultimately reaching a consensus. It is crucial for students to comprehend the appropriate formats for effective communication. For instance, a student may possess a clear understanding of an issue but encounter difficulties expressing it accurately. In the absence of essential communication tools, the student's knowledge cannot contribute effectively to the group.

This brings us to the topic of the instructor as a facilitator of constructive discussion. Language acquisition cannot happen without shared social and situational contexts. To enable students to develop their communication skills (including literacy, pro-social skills, etc.), teachers must create a learning environment that builds confidence in inquiry. This guide addresses several crucial issues.

Instructors must be conscious of their personal biases, attitudes, and values. In the curriculum, it is essential for instructors to hold high expectations for students. If they fail to do so, students might lose interest in specific subjects or impede their own learning progress. Similar to how a student's language reveals their cultural beliefs and values, this can also be true for teachers.

An effective instructor uses various techniques to help students contribute verbally in different formats. Both modeling and motivation are strategies that can be employed in all formats. Through play and exploration, children can gain a better understanding of effective communication, both verbal and non-verbal. This is discussed in the book "Talking, Listening, Learning: working with children in Key Stages 1 and 2" by DfES (0626-2003, p.7).

Good modeling is crucial for teachers. The National

Curriculum emphasizes the importance of confidence and eloquence, and one way to achieve this is by providing students with the necessary vocabulary for a given situation and teaching them how to use it.

For illustration, Listening Mathematics involves practical activity, exploration and discussion (5.1.a Mathematics, National Curriculum). However, as Dockrell, Stuart and King (2004) point out, difficulties in defining effective oral communication go beyond modeling: it is not enough to simply provide 'good models'; the language used by the adult must be carefully tailored to the child's language. It must be delivered in a way that extends and supports, and children need plenty of opportunity to practice their emerging skills. Dockrell et al., Supporting early oral language skills, 2004. A positive learning environment requires multiple components.

Child development experts consider motivation to be a significant factor in the generation of various types and forms of children's speech. When faced with a problem or a new situation, young children tend to express their thoughts out loud and engage in self-questioning and self-resolution. At this early stage, explorative talk typically occurs naturally.

At primary level, the teacher is responsible for ensuring that effective learning is taking place. While exploratory talk should be encouraged, it is more guided and learning is more supported, whether in a constructivist paradigm or a more structured setting. If the teacher can capture the student's interest, then motivation occurs naturally. The curriculum includes four categories of speaking, listening, group discussion, and interaction (Speaking, listening, learning: Working with children in KS1 and KS2 - extends and supersedes the Teaching speaking and listening in Key Stages 1 and 2 (QCA, 1999)). Specifically, the teacher needs to provide individuals

with speaking formats and opportunities to practice them. The following is one from the English Model:

  • What is being talked about?
  • Who is speaking?
  • What kind of talk?

"Talking, Listening, Learning: Working with children in Key Stages 1 and 2 DfES 0626-2003 (2003)" added questions such as "what does this mean" and "how should I respond?" unfortunately, there is no space here to delve into the excellent lesson plans and strategies (see for example Grugeon et al., 2005) for enhancing inquiry learning through exploratory talk or activities like Talk Box activities (Dawes et al., 2004).

In summary, an effective teacher should create a safe and motivational learning environment, be clear and explicit, provide tools for communication, listen and evaluate their strategies, adapt communication to individual learning styles, provide ample opportunities for practice, use small group work, develop students' awareness of language, promote self-regulation, inspire and encourage students, and maintain high expectations. These are just a few important elements for developing well-rounded and confident students. It is also important to recognize that school itself is a format, and informal language like playground talk is valid for student learning. Therefore, it is equally important to listen to slang in order to teach confidence in more formal contexts. Ultimately, this essay aims to convey the significance of oral language.

Recognizing the impact of speech on a student's learning, including their understanding of language and how it conveys messages, is crucial. Additionally, it is important for students to both comprehend and compose texts.

References and further reading

  1. Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., and

Cocking, R.R. (eds.) (2000 expanded ed.) How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience and School. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council, Washington, DC: National Academy Press

  • Chapman, R.S. (1978) Comprehension strategies in children. Pp.308-329 in Speech and Language in the Laboratory,
    School and Clinic. J. Kavanaugh and W.
  • Strange, (explosive detection systems) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

  • Chomsky, N. (2000) New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
  • Dawes, L. and Sams, C. (2004) Talk Box: speech production and listening activities at Key Stage 1. London: David Fulton Publishers
  • Dawes, L.
  • , Wegerif, R. and Mercer, N. (2004)

    Thinking together: Activites for Key Stage 2 Children and Teachers.

    Birmingham: Imaginative Minds

  • DfES. The NLS Framework for learning YR to Y6
  • DfESFramework for learning (DfES 0500/2001)

    National Literacy Strategy:
  • DfES Speaking, Listening, Learning: working with kids in Key Stages 1 and 2 (DfES 0626-2003)
  • DfES Grammar for composing (DfEE 0107/2000)

    National Literacy Strategy
  • DfES Developing early authorship (DfEE 0055/2001)

    National Literacy Strategy
  • DfES Mathematical vocabulary book (DfES 0313/2000)

    National Numeracy Strategy
  • DfES NLS Framework for learning (DfES 0500-2001).

    National Literacy Strategy
  • Dockrell, J.
  • < p > Stuart, M. , and King, D. ( 2004 ) , Supporting early unwritten linguistic communication accomplishments in < em > Literacy Today , September 2004 Vol. 40
    < li > Erikson, E.H. ( 1997 ) , The Life Cycle Completed: Extended version New York: W.W.

    Norton and Co.

    • Gee, J.P. ( 2004 ) Situated Language and Learning: a review of traditional schooling. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge
    • Grugeon, E., Hubbard, L., Smith.

    C. and Dawes, L. (2005) Teaching Talking and Listening in the Primary School. London: Fulton Press
    Hart., B and Risley,


    According to a source (1995) cited in Krause, Bochner, and Duchesne (2003), there are significant variations in the everyday experiences of young children in America. The source, titled "Meaningful differences in the mundane experience of immature American kids," was published in Baltimore, MD by Paul H Brookes and can be found on page 21.

    Southbank, Victoria: Thomson

    • Jackendoff, R. ( 1993 ) Patterns in the Mind: linguistic communication and human nature. Hemel Hempstead, Herts: Harvester Wheatsheaf
    • Johnston, P.H. ( 2004 ) Choice Wordss: how our linguistic communication affects kids 's acquisition. : Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers
    • Krause, K.L.

    , Bochner, S., and Duchesne, S. (2003) Educational Psychology for learning and teaching. Southbank, Victoria: Thomson

  • Karmilloff-Smith, A. (1979) A Functional Approach to Child Language.
  • Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

  • Marsh, C. (2004) Becoming a Teacher: Knowledge, accomplishments and issues. (3rd ed.). Gallic's Forest, NSW: Pearson Education Australia
  • Peterson, C.C., and Siegal, M. (1999) Representing interior universes: Theory of head in autistic, deaf and normal hearing kids.
  • The article "Psychological Science" was cited in the book "Educational Psychology for Learning and Teaching" by K. Krause, S. Bochner, and S. Duchesne. The specific citation is from volume 10, issue 2, pages 126-129, and it can be found on page 21 of the book.

    Southbank, Victoria: Thomson

    • Piaget, J. ( 1978 ) success and Understanding. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
    • Robertson, M. , and Gerber, R. ( Eds ) ( 2000 ) The Child 's World: triggers for larning. Melbourne, Australia: The Australian Council for Educational Research
    • Webb, J.

    , Schirato, T and

    Donaher, G. (2002) Understanding Bourdieu. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen and Unwin

  • Winch, G., Johnston, R.
  • , March, P., Ljungdahl, L., and Holliday, M. (2004) Literacy: reading, composing and children's literature. (2neodymium erectile dysfunction).

    Oxford: Oxford University Press

  • Whitton, D. , Sinclair, C. , Barker, K. , Nanlohy, P.
  • , and Nosworthy, M. (2004) Learning for Teaching: Teaching for Learning. Southbank, Victoria: Thomson

  • Wolfe, P. (2001) Brain Matters: interpreting research into schoolroom pattern. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
  • Web sites

    1. Play and consequence. hypertext transfer protocol: // Accessed 5 Jan 2006
    2. National Curriculum. hypertext transfer protocol: // Accessed 3 Jan 2006
    3. Oral linguistic communication skills.http: // Accessed Jan 4
    4. National Curriculum models. hypertext transfer protocol: //
    Get an explanation on any task
    Get unstuck with the help of our AI assistant in seconds