During the last United Nations Summit held on 25 September 2015, leaders from across the globe adopted the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda which included a set of 17 initiatives known as the sustainable development goals or the global goals. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a set of new, universal goals, targets and indicators that the United Nations member states are expected to applying in framing their next 15 years political policies and agendas. These 17 goals which place huge emphasizes on poverty alleviation, fighting inequalities and injustices and tackling climate change by 2030, has 169 targets within these goals with each goal having specific targets it wishes to address. They are built on the 2000 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, but have a broader spectrum which goals further into addressing the root causes of various issues and need of universal developments that work for all the people. inclusivity of all nations in development of the SDGs is recognized by United Nations as an important milestone that ensures not even one is left behind and a bold step of putting the entire world on a sustainable and inclusive course. It recognizes that combined effort is important in meeting citizens’ prosperity and wellbeing, aspirations of peace and preservation of our planet. In addition, girls and women empowerment are recognized as key strides towards achievement of the 2030 Global Goals (Theron, 2016).
They believed that goals that work perfectly for women and girls are good for the world. Targeting on women, the third sustainable development goal on health has tried to address various issues affecting women across the globe. This research wishes to explore th...
e different ways in which this goal has affected women especially those affected by HIV/AIDS, its significance in the field of psychology and how different international agencies are addressing the issue.
Ensuring healthy lives and promoting wellbeing at all ages and for all, is the third and essential goal that has to be met to achieve sustainable development. The goal has various targets it wishes to achieve by 2030 including reduction of maternal rates globally to ratios of below 70 in 100,000 live births, putting to an end to newborns and children under 5 years preventable deaths, putting to an end tuberculosis, malaria and HIV/AIDS epidemics and neglected tropical diseases as well as combating water-borne diseases, hepatitis and other communicable diseases, ensuring universal health coverage and access to reproductive health services, reduce number of illness and deaths associated with chemicals and pollution, implement tobacco controls, and support least developed and developing countries in research and developments of medicines and vaccines to curb spread and deaths related to non-communicable and communicable diseases, increase their health financing, training, recruitments, development and retention of workforce and strength their capacity to detect early warning, reduce risks and manage health risks both locally and internationally (Natale et al, 2010). More importantly, this goal is recognized as a crucial input to achievement of other SDGs and a reliable measure of the sustainable development progress in general.
Women health and wellbeing is critical in achievement of all the 17 sustainable development goals. However, despite significant strides having been made b
the MDGs to alleviate HIV epidemic, it remains a huge threat to global development especially among girls and women. According to world health organization, HIV/AIDS is the worldwide leading cause of deaths among girls and women in the reproductive age. There are approximately 16 million globally, living with the disease. According to UNAIDS, HIV/AIDS affects women across the globe disproportionately with the women living in the sub-Saharan Africa regions being the hardest one hit by the disease. This is attributed to the fact that women biological make up make them more susceptible to sexually transmitted infections than men. In addition, this rapid spread of the disease is also due to the inequalities existing between women and men (Natale et al, 2010).
HIV and AIDS cases among women are fueled by various factors including violence against women, denial of their rights, legal norms and discrimination by criminal laws. Many countries harbor different expectation with regards to women roles especially in relationships at home limiting their abilities to protect themselves from harmful incidents and controlling their sexual lives. Violence against women makes them more vulnerable and less likely to get tested, disclosing it to their partners, getting counseling or treatment. Their low status in the community has restricted them from obtaining education, running businesses or owning property denying them ability to prevent HIV infections. HIV cases are also fueled with increased cases of coerced and involuntary sterilizations and abortions among women. To achieve this goal, it is important to understand it impact on psychology. This means looking into the psychological factors such as fear which are common factors among women and girls. Fear has been identified as a common factor among infected women with majority fearing disclosing their status to their partners (Hegdahl et al, 2016). Women living with HIV are highly traumatized both physically and sexually leading to high prevalence and poor outcomes.
HIV/ AIDS has attracted global attention with many international bodies coming out strongly and boldly address the issue of HIV/AIDS among women (Natale et al, 2010). Majority of them have developed HIV programs and policies aimed at creating awareness among women and girls and the society at large. The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) has been on the forefront since 1990s, championing the effects of gender inequalities on women and ho it has fueled transmission of HIV/AIDS among them. It has been providing education on family planning, maternal and reproductive health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has provided antiretroviral treatment guidelines for pregnant women living positively, and promoted a number of approaches aimed at reducing vulnerability. These programs include cash transfers in form of social protections programs meant to reduce poverty and promote food security, school based interventions to promote equity and ways of addressing violence among others. UNICEF has also implemented various strategies aimed at reducing vulnerabilities of HIV infections by providing gender sensitive education, life skill education and services. It has also partnered with various organizations to promote comprehensive HIV knowledge, need for testing, counseling services and family planning services. The Global Fund and other organization such as UNAIDS, UNFPA, PEPFAR among others have joined the