Contraception in the Philippines Essay

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Concluding Paper

The ethical job that I’d like to discourse for my concluding paper would be the usage of contraceptive method, specifically the usage of rubbers and birth control pills. Contraception is a heatedly debated moral issue here in the Philippines and although I have heard both sides of the statement I don’t think I know plenty about it to organize a witting determination for myself. Right now I would wish to state I am pro-contraception, but I think it would be irresponsible to make so without a more thorough analysis of the statements presented by both sides and looking at what each side has to offer. That’s why I think even though this subject has been debated on with so many statements for both sides it is still deserving looking at even if it’s merely for me to organize a more witting sentiment on the subject.

First I’d like to get down off by looking at the statements against contraceptive method. The BBC Ethics Guide ( 2014 ) has summarized some of the major statements against contraceptive method. The BBC Ethics Guide ( 2014 ) say that when people argue against contraceptive method as per se incorrect they bring up the thoughts that contraceptive method is unnatural, anti-life, a signifier of abortion, and offprints sex from reproduction. Now I believe that the statement that is a signifier of abortion may be more sentiment, but it’s a given that people would convey up statements against it on the evidences that it prevents construct seeing as that’s the full point. I think the inquiry we have to inquire is if the bar of construct is per se incorrect itself. Other statements BBC Ethical motives Guide ( 2014 ) provided that say contraceptive method is bad include publicity of “contraceptive culture” contraceptive method forestalling good human existences from being born, contraceptive method as a eugenic tool, contraceptive method taking to depopulation, and contraceptive method promoting people to be more promiscuous.

These statements have changing degrees of relevancy, but what I feel is the most compelling statement against contraceptive method is that it could be a eugenics tool. Eugenicss is a really chilling thing, being a psychological science major I know that the eugenics motion was a existent thing and happened comparatively late. Eugenicss was foremost advocated by Sir Francis Galton in 1883, and he wanted to use this on the “poor” and “unintelligent” . Harmonizing to Tartavosky ( 2011 ) in the 1930s around 30 provinces had a sterilisation jurisprudence in consequence, but the scariest portion here was its definition on who could really be sterilized. Tartavosky ( 2011 ) besides mentioned that the words “imbecile” and “feebleminded” were arbitrary, and the jurisprudence may hold been abused for grounds like continuing a family’s self-respect. I think eugenics itself is a bad thing, but when you apply with such liberty it can be downright monstrous. Margaret Sanger ( 1921, p.43 ) said “the run for Birth Control is non simply of eugenic value, but is practically indistinguishable in ideal with the concluding purposes of Eugenics.” Yet we have to inquire ourselves if birth control and eugenics have the same purpose, so possibly birth control is non such a good thing? Eugenicss I think is inherently bad, and if birth control truly has the same purpose so by extension birth control must be bad as good. It might besides be possible that comparing birth control with eugenics might be a spot of a stretch, but the danger that birth control could be used in such a Draconian policy is really existent.

BBC Ethics Guide ( 2014 ) provides us with a few statements in favour of birth control. One statement they give is that it promotes generative autonomy, and lets people take whether or non to hold kids and in making so may besides cut down the figure of abortions. BBC Ethics Guide ( 2014 ) besides says that contraceptive method gives adult females a pick and have more equality because bar of gestations can let adult females more sexual liberty where gestation might take her to be economically dependent and even put at a wellness hazard. Another statement is that population control will assist cut down poorness. The benefits listed out here fundamentally indicate that to the fact that gestation may non ever be a good effect of sex, and that its bar in some instances may really take to more good than bad.

I think the chief thing traveling for the pro-contraception statement is that it gives people more pick and it reduces wellness hazards, and is the milder option to abortion. While many people would reason that legalising preventives would take to legalising abortion I think that preventives might really forestall that. Harmonizing to Crimmins ( 2007 ) here in the Philippines, where abortion is illegal, approximately half a million adult females have backstreet abortions every twelvemonth. In add-on to that, Crimmins ( 2007 ) further said that around 80,000 adult females are admitted to infirmaries every twelvemonth because of complications that arise in such an abortion, and around 800 dice every twelvemonth because of this. When we look at these statistics we can see that the fact that abortion is illegal doesn’t prevent everyone from seeking it anyhow. Who knows how many of these abortions may hold been prevented if merely these people were provided with a pick. It about looks irresponsible on the state’s portion that it continues to deny these people pick when their option is more utmost and much more unsafe than merely supplying contraceptive method.

Looking at the pros and cons that the BBC Ethics Guide ( 2014 ) provided we can see that there is a clear convergence. The pros of the pro-contraception side, specifically the 1s about cut downing gestation, is exactly what the anti-contraception side has a job with. When there is such a clear convergence who can we say is right? Can both sides be right?

In other instances the sides have statements that wholly contradict the other. Those that argue for contraceptive method say that it reduces abortions, yet those that argue against it say that “contraceptive culture” will take to the legalisation of abortion. DeMarco ( 1983 ) wrote that contraceptive method does non forestall unwanted gestation but promotes it. DeMarco ( 1983 ) further citations that after contraceptive method was legalized in Sweden the figure of abortions increased from 703 in 1943 to 6,328 in 1951, and he reasoned that people were dividing intercourse from reproduction came with the monetary value of dividing it from duty every bit good.

Surveies have besides shown that contraceptive method can besides cut down unwanted gestations and abortion rates. Winter ( 2013 ) a survey done by Washington University showed that abortion rates dropped by a scope of 62-78 per centum when adult females were provided with inexpensive preventives. Winter ( 2013 ) would besides compose “Among misss ages 15 to 19 who had entree to liberate birth control provided in the survey, the one-year birth rate was 6.3 per 1,000, far below the U.S. rate of 34.3 per 1,000 for misss the same age.”

In the two different surveies we see that presenting contraceptive method in different times and topographic points had different effects on the abortion rate. We have to so inquire ourselves which one is more relevant? It might be easy to state that Winter’s survey is clearly more relevant visual perception as it’s much more recent, yet I don’t think we can disregard DeMarco merely yet. His statements may be supported by scriptural transitions.

The Bible might non turn to contraceptive method straight, but some of its transitions could be directed towards contraceptive method. The first transition that I want to convey up is Gen 1:28, which says “God blessed them ; and God said to them, “ Be fruitful and multiply, and make full the Earth, and subdue it ; and regulation over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over every life thing that moves on the Earth. ” The clear statement against contraceptive method here is the portion about being fruitful and multiplying and the thing with contraceptive method is that it prevents that portion. Leeuwen ( 2001 ) says the chief job with this transition is that when people read it, they take it as a bid instead than a approval, and that adult male must make this in order to delight God.

Leeuwen ( 2001 ) further says that when we read parts of the bible in English it is really easy to misinterpret some approvals as bids. Leeuwen ( 2001 ) further points out that in Gen 24:60 “ And they blessed Rebekah, and said to her, ‘Our sister, be the female parent of 1000s of 10 1000s ; and may your posterities possess the gate of those who hate them! ” Leeuwen ( 2001 ) says that the first portion of the approval “be the mother” sounds like a bid, but if we take it literally so it’s silly to anticipate her to be the female parent of so many and he farther points out in the following coevals when the approval doesn’t semen for Rachel, Jacob replies in Gen 30:2 “ Am I in the topographic point of God? ” The thing that Leeuwen ( 2001 ) wants to indicate out is that God gives the approval of birthrate to humanity as a whole and non following up on this is non a wickedness. Leeuwen ( 2001 ) further points out that if you apply the Gen 1:28 “command” to the full Bible so Paul would be disobedient because he remained individual and encouraged others to make so.

Another Bible transition that could associate to contraceptive method is the parts refering Onan. In Gen 38:9-10 “Onan knew that the offspring would non be his ; so when he went in to his brother ‘s married woman, he wasted his seed on the land in order non to give offspring to his brother. But what he did was displeasing in the sight of the LORD ; so He took his life also.” Fr. William Saunders ( 1998 ) said that the Protestants used this to reprobate any signifier of contraceptive method, and because God struck Onan instantly so this wickedness is worse even than criminal conversation or incest. However we have to acknowledge that this was a different clip, and although Gen 38:8 outright says it was Onan’s responsibility “Then Judah said to Onan, “ Sleep with your brother ‘s married woman and carry through your responsibility to her as a brother-in-law to raise up offspring for your brother. ” This act would be regarded as colza today.

The thing about it is I don’t think that Onan was struck down because he didn’t desire his brother’s married woman to gestate, or in a wide sense he used contraceptive method, but because he did non due his responsibility. I think the non-fulfillment of his responsibility was his chief mistake, but so once more this raises some inquiries. Is forestalling construct itself a misdemeanor of that responsibility? Could we state that merely because the adult female in inquiry is his brother’s married woman is beside the point? Maybe God would hold struck him down either manner. Traveling back to Leeuwen ( 2001 ) has to state, I like to believe that birthrate, and by extension construct, does non needfully hold to be the responsibility that God requires from us, and possibly the episode with Onan is merely a specific portion of Judaic tradition that doesn’t truly keep much H2O in today’s society. While looking at Leeuwen’s statements might demo that the Bible doesn’t truly damn contraceptive method, it decidedly does non supply an statement for utilizing contraceptive method.

When looking to the Gospels refering Jesus we don’t truly happen any reference of contraceptive method. However it is frequently argued that contraceptive method threatens the holiness of matrimony, and Jesus’ stance on matrimony is really clear. In Matthew 19 it is said that “Jesus replied, “Moses permitted you to disassociate your married womans because your Black Marias were difficult. But it was non this manner from the beginning. I tell you that anyone who divorces his married woman, except for sexual immorality, and marries another adult female commits adultery.” Peoples have besides argued that contraceptive method encourages sexual immorality every bit good ( BBC Ethics Guide, 2014 ; DeMarco 1983 ) .

The Bible does non truly reply the inquiry if Jesus would be all right with contraceptive method, but when we look at how Jesus treated adult females so possibly one could warrant contraceptive method as it is said to give adult females more pick. In John 7:53-8:11 Jesus saved a adult female from being stoned to decease for the wickedness of criminal conversation. While we know that Jesus clearly argued for the holiness of matrimony, here he saves a adult female from being stoned to decease for go againsting that holiness. This does non truly supply an statement for contraceptive method, but it suggests that it decidedly is non more of import than human life. When we see contraceptive method as something that can assist forestall deceases from unwanted gestations so possibly the individual of Jesus might be more tolerant of contraceptive method.

Jesus decidedly isn’t stating that being promiscuous is alright, and at the terminal of this poetry he tells her “Go now and go forth your life of sin” but there truly isn’t a warrant that she won’t wickedness once more. I think Jesus himself realizes this, but seeing as the option to forgiveness was slaying so possibly that’s merely something that’s alright. If we look at Jesus as forgiveness so possibly we can understand why he was so indulgent. When we look at how preventives might cut down decease in childbearing due to unwanted gestation, or decease in abortion, so possibly we can use the same logical thinking. Jesus might non to the full agree with contraceptive method, in fact he may really good be against it, but I think it’s easier to forgive promiscuousness than abortion.

Looking to the Catholic theologians I think there is no inquiry that they thought contraceptive method was bad. Magee ( 1999 ) says St. Thomas Aquinas ( 1274 ) argues against contraceptive method on the footing of Natural Law. The Natural Law by and large says that people should prosecute good based on their nature which God designed for their ain benefit, and avoid immorality ( Magee, 1999 ) . In add-on to that St. Thomas Aquinas said that although people do things because they normally get something good out of it, doesn’t needfully intend these things are good, and there are things that have an evident good because they provide some benefit but are non truly good ( Magee, 1999 ) .

When we apply that to preventives we can see that there is a clang between the natural result of sex and what preventives do. Typically when a adult male and a adult female have sex they would bring forth a kid, but when contraceptive method is introduced so this natural result is prevented. In utilizing contraceptive method people would be traveling against the Natural Law which would be iniquitous harmonizing to St. Thomas.

St. Augustine besides has some things to state about contraceptive method. Marshall ( 2012 ) writes that in 419, St. Augustine said that when reproduction is obstructed so hubby and married woman do non really take part in matrimony. Marshall ( 2012 ) reiterates St. Augustine’s statement that the piquing party is merely covering up their black act by stating that it is matrimony, when in world they are merely carry throughing their lubricious desires. From here it is clear to see that St. Augustine believes that sex is merely for reproduction, and since contraceptive method takes that out of the image so it is bad and makes fornicators and prostitutes out of work forces and adult females.

The Protestant reformers besides have really strong sentiments refering contraceptive method. Fr. Saunders’ ( 1998 ) article against contraceptive method says that Luther wrote “Onan… spilled his seed. That was a wickedness greater than criminal conversation or incest, and it provoked God to such ferocious wrath that He destroyed him instantly ” Here we see that non merely is forestalling construct bad, it’s even worse than criminal conversation or incest. Fr. Saunders ( 1998 ) noted that Calvin was besides against contraceptive method when he wrote “ The voluntary spilling of seeds outside of intercourse between adult male and adult female is a monstrous thing. Intentionally to retreat from sexual intercourse in order that seeds may fall on the land is double monstrous. For this is to snuff out the hope of the race and to kill before he is born and anticipated progeny ” . Here we see two of import figures in the Protestant Church are clearly against the bar of construct, which is one of the primary ends of contraceptive method.

The Anglican Church nevertheless is really alright with contraceptive method. The web site of “The Church of England” ( 2014 ) says that in the 1930 Lambeth Conference a declaration was passed stating “Where there is a clearly felt moral duty to restrict or avoid parentage, complete abstention is the primary and obvious method” and subsequently gives says on avoiding abstention “that the Conference agrees that other methods may be used, provided that this is done in the visible radiation of Christian principles.” Subsequently the 1968 Lambeth Conference would differ withHumanae Vitaewhich said that other methods of contraceptive method aside from abstention were contrary to the will of God ( The Church of England, 2014 ) . Here we see a clear interruption from the Catholic and Protestant position on contraceptive method, and the Anglican Church might give us the thought that maybe contraceptive method is non so contrary to the will of God.

With all this being said, I’d still like to state that I think contraceptive method is alright. I think whatever bad that contraceptive method brought is counterbalanced by the advancement and good it brings. It may promote promiscuousness, but the manner I see it people have been promiscuous since before contraceptive method anyhow. Even before Jesus was born people were already promiscuous, and it’s no secret that St. Augustine himself was promiscuous when he was younger, so the statement that it encourages promiscuousness doesn’t truly keep that much H2O for me. At least with contraceptive method the negative effects of this promiscuousness, such as abortion, is lessened. Promiscuity may be the underlying job that contraceptive method doesn’t solve, but the manner I see it at least contraceptive method softens the blow. There besides seems to be some motion at least toward accepting contraceptive method as a feasible pick, which I think could be the beginning of something good.

Mentions:

Bbc.co.uk. ( 2014 ) .Bbc – moralss – contraceptive method: moral instance for contraceptive method. [ on-line ] Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/contraception/in_favour.shtml [ Accessed: 24 Feb 2014 ] .

Bbc.co.uk. ( 2014 ) .Bbc – moralss – contraceptive method: moral instance against contraceptive method. [ on-line ] Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/contraception/against_1.shtml [ Accessed: 24 Feb 2014 ] .

Churchofengland.org. ( 2014 ) .The church of England position on contraceptive method. [ on-line ] Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.churchofengland.org/our-views/medical-ethics-health-social-care-policy/contraception.aspx [ Accessed: 24 Feb 2014 ] .

Crimmins, C. ( 2007 ) .Abortion in the Philippiness: a national secret. [ on-line ] Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.reuters.com/article/2007/09/05/us-philippines-abortion-idUSMAN29804620070905 [ Accessed: 24 Feb 2014 ] .

Demarco, D. ( 1983 ) . The prophylactic outlook.Homiletic And Pastoral Review, pp. 56-63. [ Accessed: 24 Feb 2014 ] .

Leeuwen, R. ( 2001 ) .‘be fruitful and multiply ‘. [ on-line ] Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2001/november12/4.58.html? start=3 [ Accessed: 24 Feb 2014 ] .

Magee, J. ( 1999 ) . [ on-line ] Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.aquinasonline.com/Topics/natlaw.html [ Accessed: 24 Feb 2014 ] .

Marshall, T. ( 2012 ) .6 grounds why contraceptive method is iniquitous and contrary to god ‘s will – Taylor Marshall. [ on-line ] Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //taylormarshall.com/2012/02/6-reasons-why-contraception-is-sinful.html [ Accessed: 24 Feb 2014 ] .

Sanger, M. ( 1921 ) . The eugenic value of birth control propaganda.The Birth Control Review, 5 [ Accessed: 24 Feb 2014 ] .

Saunders, W. P. ( 1998 ) .Straight replies. Baltimore, Md. : Cathedral Foundation Press.

Tartakovsky, M. ( 2011 ) .» eugenics & A ; the narrative of carrie buck – universe of psychological science. [ on-line ] Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2011/01/24/eugenics-the-story-of-carrie-buck/ [ Accessed: 24 Feb 2014 ] .

Winter ( 2013 ) .Access to liberate birth control reduces abortion rates | research intelligence | Washington university school of medical specialty in st. Louis. [ on-line ] Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //medschool.wustl.edu/news/patient_care/Contraceptive_Choice [ Accessed: 24 Feb 2014 ] .

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