Anthropology is the study of humans in a whole or everything, all aspects of humanity. The term anthropology derived from the Greek word anthropos, “man” and “discourse” or “study” and was first used in 1501 by german philosopher Magnus Hundt. It is considered a fulfilled discipline. Its basic concerns are what defines homo sapiens? , who are the ancestors of modern homo sapiens? , what are humans physical traits? , why is there variations and differences among different groups of humans? , and how we have evolved over time?.
Anthropology is divided into four sub-fields, cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology, and physical anthropology. Cultural anthropology is the study of human culture and society. It helps you understand how people live, traditions, customs, culture, religion, kinship styles, rules of heredity, politics, how humans govern themselves, how they interact, and how that influences their culture. cultural anthropology is also called socio-cultural anthropology or social anthropology.
The study of culture is mainly based on Ethnography. Ethnography is a research technique used in field work it can refer to both a methodology and a product of research. Ethnology involves a comparison of different cultures. This is through a process of participant observation that helps to understanding a culture from a personal experience and point of view. This cannot be done by simply just reading from a book it requires lots of time, patience, and vast skills related with cultural behavior.
Archaeology anthropology is the study of human past through findings and material remains or artifacts. Archaeologists typically take care of the digs or excavation of layers of ancient sites, they work closely with physical anthropologists, art historians, physics laboratories for dating, and museums. They are in charge of preserving the results of their excavations that are often found in museums. Archaeologists also study and examine paleoecology. “paleo” meaning ancient and “ecology” which is the study of interrelations among living things and the environment.
This provides vast sources for the places human beings have traveled, their ways of making a living and demographics. Lastly archaeologists also study nutrition, art, systems of writing, and other physical remains of human cultural activities. Physical anthropology is the study of human biological diversity in time and space. It helps to comprehend hominid evolution, human genetics, and human biological adaptation throughout time. They also study the behaviors, relations, and evolutions of non-human primates. hysical anthropologists have a theory on how the globe has become populated with humans, as well as tried to explain geographical human variation and race.
A large part of physical anthropology is primatology, where they focus on understanding other primate populations. Primatologists depend heavily on the field of biology and ecology in their research. Linguistic anthropology is the study of variations through time and space and the interrelations between language and culture. It seeks to understand the processes of human communications, verbal and non-verbal.
Linguistic is divided into its own sub-fields. Descriptive linguistics which deals with the building of grammars and vocabulary lists for unstudied languages, historical linguistics this includes the reconstruction of past languages, from which current languages have descended, ethnolinguistics is the study of the relationships between language and culture, and lastly sociolinguistics the study of the social ways in which language works. Linguistics is also deals with how language has evolved in parts the brain.