Exploration Of The Views Of Older Women Sociology

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A study by Garavan, Winder and McGee ( 2001 ) Health and Social Services for Older Peoples, Consulting Older Peoples on Health and Social Services: A Survey of Use, Experiences and Needs concluded within its findings that older adult females viewed that they had a low quality of life.

Stuart-Hamilton ( 2000 ) states that an component within the ageing construct is that work forces for changing grounds die at a greater rate than adult females after the age of 70 and that therefore it could be concluded that the ageing experience could be a longer procedure for adult females.

The aged population in Ireland is increasing in that harmonizing to Connell & A ; Pringle ( 2004 ) the jutting population of older adult females in 2021 is expected to be between 375,000 and 389,000 which would bespeak a rise of over 50 per cent from that in 2002.

“ Ripening can be defined as the procedure of progressive alteration in the biological, psychological and societal construction of persons aˆ¦aged 60 or over ” ( Stein and Moritz, 1999 ; 4 ) .

Harmonizing to Greenstein ( 2006 ) societal research is abstract in general in that the constructs are non easy measured because of the subjectiveness of the subjects and that a manner of deriving a obscure step within the research is to inquire the participants their degree of satisfaction or dis-satisfaction in relation to the sub-themes.

Ageing has a direct biological diminution and because of this quality of life has been regarded to be straight linked by the wellness of the individual versus ill-health. But wellness being defined by the World Health Organisation cited in ( Bond and Corner, 2004:2 ) “ as a province of complete physical, mental and societal well-being ” have resulted in the construct that quality of life is much more complex and varied depending on other factors instead than being traditionally associated entirely with wellness ( Bond and Corner, 2004 ) .

Definition of Quality of Life

Quality of life is non scientifically measureable in that it is really subjective to the single depending on their experiences of ageing and that the footings wellbeing and life satisfaction are frequently used as a agency of deriving an penetration into the grade a individual positions that they are sing quality of life ( Vincent, Phillipson and Downs, 2006 ) .

Research has shown that quality of life is subjective to the individual, Abrams ( 1973 ) cited in ( Bond and Corner, 2004:4 ) defines quality of life “ as the grade of satisfaction or dissatisfaction felt by people with assorted facets of their lives ” .

This literature reappraisal will move as a base for a thesis that will research the positions of older adult females in Cavan as to the factors that contribute to quality of life.

The definition of what is quality of life is non easy determined and many writers offer different spheres as the precedence but in fact the precedence will be subjective to what the single older individual steps as the most of import facet to them ( Nay and Garratt, 2009 ) .

There has been much focal point on what is quality of life in recent old ages in footings of societal policies that have in bend directed service proviso and supplying attention that is impacting positively on a individual ‘s quality of life harmonizing to Vincent et Al ( 2006 ) .

Quality of life harmonizing to Nay and Garratt ( 2009 ) typically measures general wellness, physical, cognitive, sexual and emotional operation while besides mensurating the felicity of the individual but it is subjective to the individual in that what one individual positions as of import may differ from another individual. Factors such as employment, societal webs, societal activities, self-identity, fiscal security and cognitive and physical map are considered to impact on quality of life ( Renwick et Al ( 2003 ) cited in Nay and Garratt, 2009 ) .

Besides that quality of life in relation to older people is frequently used as an assessment step of whether a service is back uping the demands of its clients in that it is non merely a step of measure of life but that the life has quality within it so that the results of supports or services are impacting positively on quality of life ( Nay and Garratt, 2009 ) .

That measuring of quality of life is sometimes measured within one sphere such as general wellness while others measure cover several spheres. But in general the largest measuring of quality of life is the construct that it is straight connected to the wellness of the individual and their satisfaction sing their wellness ( Nay and Garratt, 2009 ) . Therefore “ Health Related Quality of Life ” is a term that is frequently used by service suppliers as a directive for their attention proviso ( Nay and Garratt, 2009:352 ) .

Concentrating quality of life within the spheres of general wellness can make what is called the “ disablement paradox ” in that older people instead than sing their diminution in wellness as an index of low quality of life that the outlook of inevitable physical and wellness diminution has resulted in other factors such as societal webs and their overall wellbeing as the spheres used to mensurate their position of quality of life and that it is assumptive to see that general wellness is the exclusive step of quality of life ( Carr and Higginson, ( 2001 ) cited in Nay and Garratt, 2009:353 ) .

Harmonizing to Vincent et Al ( 2006 ) people will see wellness, societal webs and criterion of life as of import factors within their lives but that the importance of the factors will change as the individual returns along their life class.

Research beginnings have shown the complexness in specifying the cardinal factors within quality of life and the initial reading by the research worker highlighted that the many elements could be slackly grouped within three sub-themes in relation to quality of life: ( 1 ) physical factors – general wellness and physical mobility, ( 2 ) economic factors – income, and criterion of life and ( 3 ) societal construction factors – societal webs, cultural environment but farther reading has emphasised that even though these constructs are applicable that spread outing them farther will let greater geographic expedition and description.

In that harmonizing to Stuart-Hamilton ( 2000 ) that concentrating on a narrow of spheres could ensue in some spheres looking more of import within the research than they perchance are.

That domains such as wellness, income, and environment have an impact on a individual ‘s life satisfaction in general and are all inter-related but that the personality of the individual will besides impact on the how they measure their life satisfaction ( Stuart-Hamilton, 2000 ) .

Walker ( 2005 ) suggests that as quality of life has no distinguishable cardinal factors that most research focuses on wellness, environment, employment and relationships. That the environment has within it the physical, societal, cultural and economic elements that can either enhance or cut down quality of life. Health has within it general wellness and the physical, mental and emotional wellness of the individual. Employment screens income and can be related to the wealth of the individual.

The cardinal constructs with respect to quality of life as suggested by Hughes ( 1990 ) cited in Bond and Corner ( 2004 ) are:

( 1 ) Physical environmental factors which include quality of adjustment, entree to public services such as stores, conveyance and other public services such as libraries and other leisure mercantile establishments.

( 2 ) Social environmental factors which include household members, societal webs, the degree of support gettable from household and societal webs and the degrees of leisure activities that the individual is involved in.

( 3 ) Socio-economic factors which include the general criterion of life, the income available to the individual and other agencies of wealth.

( 4 ) Cultural factors which include the age, category, gender and spiritual propensity of the individual.

( 5 ) Health factors which include general wellness, mental wellbeing of the individual and physical mobility.

( 6 ) Personality factors which include whether the individual is an optimist or pessimist, will all impact on the subjectiveness by the individual on their step of life satisfaction.

( 7 ) Autonomy factors which include the grade that a individual has the capableness to do their ain determinations.

( 8 ) Satisfaction subjective to the single – the degree of satisfaction over all the countries of their life that they judge as of import.

There is no unequivocal on what factors contribute to quality of life, hence ( Arnold ( 1991 ) ; McDowell & A ; Newell ( 1996 ) cited in Nay and Garratt 2009:355 ) suggest that the measuring of quality of life should include

“ nonsubjective indices such as economic fortunes and lodging, those that step subjective facets such as morale, felicity and life satisfaction and those that contain both nonsubjective and subjective constituents, such as wellness related quality of life ”

But harmonizing to Bond and Corner ( 2004 ) the subjective and nonsubjective facets are interrelated an illustration of this being in that the nonsubjective component of wellness related quality of life could be subjectively non of import to the older individual who as of yet has non experienced any wellness issues that they view as impacting on their quality of life.

There is a position harmonizing to Stuart-Hamilton ( 2000 ) within society that the busier the life of an older individual the more quality of life that they have. That the subjective step of life satisfaction can be straight linked to the activities that an older individual participates in that give a significance to their life can be straight linked to one of the theories of ageing – Activity Theory ( Bond and Corner, 2004 ) . That an index of life satisfaction can be the grade that an older individual maintains activities within their community, in that the more activities indicate higher degrees of life satisfaction. Bond and Corner ( 2004 ) disagree and agree with elements of this theory in that they province that although societal webs and activities can keep and back up physical and mental wellness such as cut downing depression that ageing has a biological component that can impact on wellness and reduces an older individuals societal web as confidantes become sick or finally die and that it is incorrect to anticipate an older individual to prosecute in degrees of activities to the grade that they did when they were much younger. Stuart-Hamilton ( 2000 ) suggests the construct that prosecuting in activities for the interest of them does non let the older individual the ability to do their ain picks and that within the proviso of services for older people that by presuming that any activity is better than none could be straight linked to the application of Disengagement theory whereby it is believed that the older individual accepts that decease is eventual and hence prepares for decease by taking to dis-engage from society and that besides it has a map of reenforcing the expected procedure of ageing in Western Society.


And its nexus to wellness:

One component within a individual ‘s personality is that it will associate to their picks with respect to their life styles such as diet, exercise all which can help the life anticipation of a individual but what if the individual ‘s personality has within it a negative mentality will this impact on how they view the ripening procedure and the biological diminution and that instead than seeking to better their physical wellbeing by a healthier life style that they approach decease and unwellness as ineluctable and so cut down their activities and disengage from society ( Stuart-Hamilton, 2000 ) .

Link between psychological wellbeing and personality and wellness:

Research has shown a nexus between physical wellbeing and mental wellbeing in that harmonizing to Whitbourne ( 1987 ) cited in Stuart-Hamilton ( 2000 ) people that exercised and had degrees of what they measured as physical wellbeing had a general feeling of overall well-being but hence could it be said that people that have a hapless physical wellbeing are more less satisfied with life ( Stuart-Hamilton, 2000 ) .


Preference for lifestyle nexus:

That the personality of a individual whether they are an introvert or extravert will besides impact on the life style they choose in that if they are an introvert it will likely follow that as they are older that they will non seek out societal activities ( Stuart-Hamilton, 2000 ) .

Disengagement theory Cumming and Henry, ( 1961 ) as cited in Stuart-Hamilton, ( 2000 ) suggest that as people get older that they automatically start to withdraw from society in grades as if in readying for decease and this is besides supported by society in that the constructions have come to anticipate this detachment. This detachment harmonizing to Stuart-Hamilton ( 2000 ) can be as a consequence of many factors such as unwellness, loss of household members, low income that does non supply for activities and besides their personality type in that what if they are introvert or extravert and that detachment theory has been criticised for the overall image that older people are cutting ties with society in readying for inevitable decease. Harmonizing to Maddox ( 1970 ) cited in Stuart-Hamilton, ( 2000 ) this detachment may merely be a an facet of the individual ‘s personality and that it is non an component of ageing at all. Merriman ( 1984 ) cited in Stuart-Hamilton ( 2000 ) besides criticises disengagement theory and provinces that ageing policies within many states encourage that older people have an high profile within their community.

Activity theory was proposed as a manner of battling detachment theory harmonizing to Stuart-Hamilton ( 2000 ) in that it was proposed that the more activities that an older individual engaged in the better their life satisfaction. But this does non let for picks for the older individual and what if their personality is such that implemented activities is incorrect ( Stuart-Hamilton, 2000 ) .

Issues related to mensurating Quality of Life

There are issues associating to the measuring of quality of life in that the spheres are both subjective and nonsubjective. The “ nonsubjective indices, such as economic fortunes and lodging ; those that step strictly subjective facets, such as morale, felicity, and life satisfaction ; and those that contain both nonsubjective and subjective constituents, such as Health Related Quality of Life steps ” ( Arnold, ( 1991 ) cited in Nay and Garratt, 2009:355 ) .

Vincent et Al ( 2006 ) agrees that there are both nonsubjective and subjective spheres but unlike Nay and Garratt ( 2009 ) attributes societal factors within the nonsubjective spheres by saying that the figure of societal webs that a individual has is objectively measureable but that the quality of these societal webs is a subjective component. Likewise Vincent et Al ( 2006 ) states that wellness although measureable in footings of whether an unwellness was present and hence objectively measureable that the sphere is besides subjective in that the importance of wellness to quality of life will depend on what the single positions wellness to be.

The position by Vincent et Al ( 2006 ) that the significance of what is wellness is subjectively defined by the person is illustrated by the “ disablement paradox ” as per ( Carr and Higginson, ( 2001 ) cited in Nay and Garratt, 2009:353 ) . In that older people instead than sing their diminution in wellness as an index of low quality of life in that the outlook of inevitable physical and wellness diminution have resulted in other factors such as societal webs as the spheres used to mensurate their position of quality of life and that it is hence assumptive to see that general wellness is the exclusive step of quality of life ( Nay and Garratt, 2009 ) . Anderson & A ; Bury ( 1988 ) cited in Vincent et Al ( 2006 ) province that people can set to illness and develop get bying accomplishments so that the unwellness no longer factors as a important sphere to the individual and this would therefore impact the measuring of wellness within quality of life research. Health and physical operation as an nonsubjective step in the spheres of quality of life are mentioned continually and can in its simplest signifier harmonizing to Nay and Garratt ( 2009 ) be that if a individual has a status or scope of unwellnesss be considered to hold a low quality of life. But what if the accommodations suggested by Anderson & A ; Bury ( 1988 ) cited in Vincent et Al ( 2006 ) were adjustments such as medicine or lifestyle alterations and were to set how the unwellness impacts on the individual could it so be considered that although the wellness position remains the same but that the adjustments have resulted in the significance of what is wellness to non be defined by unwellness or physical operation. Therefore in relation to this research the purpose is to research the subjectiveness of what the participant positions as wellness and if any adjustments have impacted on the significance of what is wellness.

Economic factors such as criterion of life are objectively measured harmonizing to Nay and Garratt ( 2009 ) in that income can be an index of a criterion of life but harmonizing to Vincent et Al ( 2006 ) this nonsubjective step has to be balanced by the subjective step of what is the outlook of a criterion of life and harmonizing to Stuart Hamilton ( 2000 ) will be straight linked to past experiences of criterion of life in that if a individual has in the yesteryear had a peculiar criterion of populating the subjective step will be linked to whether the same criterion of life was expected by the individual or non. Therefore in relation to this research with respect to economic factors as a sphere within quality of life old criterion of life and outlooks of criterion of life as an older individual and direct experience will be explored.

Harmonizing to Vincent et Al ( 2006 ) quality of life has no scientific measuring that can specify the exact nonsubjective grade of quality of life because there are so many fluctuations of what is quality of life. That the experience of life may back up or belie what the nonsubjective step describes as quality of life.

Qualitative and Quantitative Methods:

Quantitative methods are frequently the agencies of deriving information sing what is quality of life but utilizing quantitative methods will non let for the subjectiveness of single experiences and their positions on quality of life. That utilizing structured questionnaires still conform to the research worker ‘s position of quality of life and does non let for the geographic expedition of the positions of the older individual. That these attacks do non let for the “ symbolic nature and significance of life to the person ( Vincent et al, 2006:158 ) . Taking the position that as the individual returns along the life class that their position of life will stay the same.

Stuart Hamilton ( 2000 ) suggests that the life class? ? ? ? ?

Another challenge in relation to mensurating quality of life and with peculiar mention to older people is that there can be such differences between each individual in that as they age the experience in relation to physical, societal, emotional, sexual and cognitive operation is non every bit homogeneous an experience and that these differing experiences will impact on what factors are cardinal to quality of life ( Stewart et Al ( 1996 ) cited in Nay and Garratt, 2009 ) .

The scene that the older individual lives within will impact greatly on the factors that are viewed as subscribers to quality of life in that if a individual is populating within a residential unit that this group orientated puting will hold different modus operandis and regulations in comparing to an older individual populating within community in general, and that for those within a residential scene that research has shown that “ self-respect, self-government and engagement and adjustment of occupant demands ” were considered to be the factors that impacted on quality of life ( Nay and Garratt, 2009:357 ) .

That measuring of quality of life demands to see the spheres that are considered subscribers within quality of life and that how the research is conducted in that the manner that inquiries are asked can make a prejudice. As already stated biological diminution is a natural facet of ageing hence if an index of quality of life were to be considered the degree of physical operation it would be inappropriate to inquire the participant if they were physically able to make every bit much and for every bit long as they used to when they were younger and that this would non be a realistic index of quality of life harmonizing to Nay and Garratt, ( 2009 ) .

Measurement tools are World Health Organisation Quality of Life Instrument ( whoqol ) ( Skevington et al 2004 ) , cited in Nay and Garratt, 2009.

! ! ! nexus that the subjective component is why the usage of interviews and that the positions of older people are the ballad experts but non frequently asked? ? ? ? ? ?

Qualitative instead than quantitative as a tool within the research in order to let for the subjective and ballad! ! ! ! ! ! Interviews instead than questionnaires

What are the tools usually used? ? ? ? ?


This literature reappraisal has explored the construct of quality of life and that the factors that are considered to lend to quality of life are varied and can incorporate subjective and nonsubjective constituents and that older people in order to mensurate quality of life should non be viewed as a homogeneous group.

Find any nexus to ageing theories! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

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