Boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure Essay Example
Boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure Essay Example

Boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure Essay Example

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The boiling point indicates the temperature at which a liquid transforms into vapor due to equal external and vapor force per unit area, while the melting point signifies the temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid as a result of lattice prostrations. For Period 3 oxides, there is a trend from metallic oxides with elephantine ion constructions on the left to molecular oxides on the right. Among these oxides, MgO, sodium peroxide, and aluminum oxide exhibit significant melting and boiling points because of their robust ionic bond and elephantine construction of ions. The energy required for stronger ionic bonds results in elevated boiling and melting points. Aluminum oxide possesses higher melting and boiling points relative to MgO since Al3+ ions possess greater charge density than Mg2+, polarizing O2-'s electron cloud that produces inte


nse covalent construction in ionic bonds. Silicon (IV) oxide's covalent bond and elephantine covalent structure produce higher melting & boiling points compared to phosphorus (V) oxide or Cl(I) oxide. Across Period 3 oxides, there are varying tendencies concerning their order of melting & boiling points: MgO > Al2O3 > SiO2 > Na2O2 > P4O10 > Cl2O - influencing H20 interactions differently for each of these oxides. Sodium peroxide and magnesium oxide both react with water to form basic solutions that increase in temperature due to an exothermal reaction.Sodium peroxide fully dissolves in water and creates an alkaline solution, as shown by Na2O2 + 2H2O > 2NaOH + H2O2. Magnesium oxide only partly dissolves in water and produces a slightly basic solution with a pH of approximately 9, according to MgO + H2O > Mg(OH)2. Aluminum oxide and silicon (IV) oxide d

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not react with water as they are insoluble due to their properties. Aluminum oxide is an ionic compound that has covalent characteristics and strong intermediate force which results in high lattice energy requiring considerable energy to break the bond. Silicon (IV) oxide takes on a giant covalent structure that has sturdy bonds which are difficult to break down. Phosphorus (V) oxide and Cl (I) oxide release heat when added to water, resulting in exothermal reactions despite being insoluble themselves. Adding these oxides causes complete dissolution along with violent reactions which increase the acidity level while releasing heat into the environment. When P(V) oxide reacts with H2O it leads to the creation of phosphorous acid, whereas hypochlorous acid results from Cl(I) oxide reacting with H2O; these reactions can be represented by P4O10 + 6H2O ?4H3PO4 and Cl2O + H2O ? HOCl respectively.The pH value for Na peroxide among period three oxides is at14.9 while those for Mg oxide, aluminum oxide, Si(IV), are all at7.On the other hand,P(V)oxide hasa low pH value of1whilethe pH valueforCl(I)oxideis slightly higher thanthatforP(IV).Throughout this duration, the pH values decrease from Na peroxide to phosphorus (IV) oxide due to variations in atomic number and electronegativity differences between components and O. Consequently, the acid-base nature of these oxides shifts from basic to amphoteric to acidic properties. Ionic oxides act as basic anhydrides while covalent ones often function as acidic anhydrides. The high electronegativity differences between Na and Mg with O lead them to lose valence electrons, resulting in compounds like Na peroxide or Mg oxide being considered ionic and basic substances. Conversely, small electronegativity disparities among Si, P, and Cl with O create

covalent compounds like Si(IV) Oxide or P(V) Oxide that possess acidic traits instead. Aluminum forms a partially covalent ionic compound because of its electropositivity difference with O which causes the deformation of O2- electrons towards Al3+. Its amphiprotic characteristic stems from its acidity as well as its baseness. Metallic oxides such as Na peroxide, Mg oxide, and aluminum oxide conduct electricity well when they are liquid because of free mobile ions present within them; thus making them good electrolytes.Silicon(IV) oxide is a covalent compound while P(V) oxide and Cl(I) oxide cannot conduct electricity either in solid or liquid form due to their lack of free mobile electrons or ions.Period 3 oxides, which consist of sodium peroxide, magnesium oxide, and aluminum oxide, are held together by ionic bonds. While they can dissolve in water, organic solvents like hexane cannot hydrate their ions. On the other hand, covalent molecules such as Si(IV) oxide, P(V) oxide and Cl(I) oxide are soluble in hexane due to weak Van der Waals forces that hold both these compounds' molecules together with those of organic molecules.

It is crucial to handle Na peroxide and P(V) oxide with care during experiments because they possess a caustic nature that can irritate eyes, skin or lungs causing significant harm. Sodium peroxide is also an oxidizer requiring careful handling during experimentation. For safety measures while experimenting with period 3 oxides, it's recommended to observe their appearance beforehand to reduce danger/error occurrence.

After adding distilled water and stirring with a glass rod when the temperature stabilizes thermometer reading should be taken. To measure period 3 oxide powder accurately use clean dry spatulas so as not create any parallax errors

while reading the thermometer.

Moving from left to right across period 3 elements' properties change from basic to acidic. The oxides of Na peroxide, Mg oxide, Si (IV) oxide and P (V) oxide all appear white powders. Large ionic structures hold together Na peroxide and Mg Oxide through strong ionic bonds while Si (IV) Oxide has a large covalent structure held by strong covalent bonds.The molecular structure of P (V) oxide is simple and held together by weak covalent bonds. In the first step of this experiment, Table 1 instructs to observe and document the physical state and color of each period 3 oxide sample at room temperature. Four boiling tubes are arranged side by side with 3.5cm3 of distilled H2O poured into each tube, measuring its initial temperature using a thermometer. Add Na peroxide, Mg oxide, Si(IV)oxide, and P(V)oxide into their corresponding boiling tubes respectively while stirring carefully for thirty seconds. Note the final solution's temperature and color before adding three universal index solution beads to each tube. Compare its color against the chart provided and record its pH value too. Repeat this process for every oxide sample until establishing the pH of distilled H2O in the fifth boiling tube through comparison with three universal index solution beads added to it.

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