Use Of The Human Capital Theory Sociology
Use Of The Human Capital Theory Sociology

Use Of The Human Capital Theory Sociology

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  • Pages: 7 (3441 words)
  • Published: July 24, 2017
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Human Capital Theory advanced by Backer ( 1985 ) states that persons are rational existences. Therefore, they make picks to put in human capital ( i.e. instruction and preparation ) in order to increase their productiveness in their occupations thereby future net incomes. Persons with higher productiveness are rewarded with higher wage ( i.e. those who have invested in human capital will have higher rewards because pay is the wages given for the usage of labour productiveness ) ( Becker, 1985 ) . Similarly, it is assumed that as figure of old ages in work additions, it increases the degree of accomplishment through experience. Hence more experient workers will be more productive and will hold higher wage.

Selectivity Hypothesis

The 2nd account for the matrimony premium is put forwarded by the Selectivity Hypothesis which states that work forces with higher net incomes and higher productiveness potency are likely to get married because they are valued more in the labour and matrimony market ( Backer, 1985 ; Ginther and Zavodny 2001 ) . Nakosteen and Zimmerman ( 1997 ) construe the observation of higher rewar

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ds for married work forces as an consequence of the mate choice procedure done by adult females. Therefore, work forces with higher net incomes are more frequently selected for matrimony. For work forces, their likeliness of matrimony depends on their net incomes and some personal traits ( Chun and Lee, 2001 ) . The properties that lead to success in the workplace ( duty, honestness, dedication etc. ) convergence with the properties that lead to success in happening and maintaining a partner ( Backer, 1985 ; Ginther and Zavondy, 2001 ) . As work forces with higher income are besides less likely to disassociate than those of work forces with lover income ( Waite and Galladher, 2000 ) , male with higher incomes are most likely to acquire married and when married, less likely to disassociate, hence likely to hold higher net incomes than single work forces.

However, the Selectivity Hypothesis does non explicate why adult females are likely to be married. If high net incomes or fiscal security increases the value of work forces in matrimony market, the adult females with high net incomes or with higher productiveness potency are likely to postpone to get married or prefer non to get married. However, increasing classless gender-role attitudes may extenuate this hypothesis and as stated by Waite (1995) , there are other important benefits of matrimony for adult females.

Productivity Hypothesis

This hypothesis is based on the function of traditional family specialisation or division of labour by sex where work forces are assumed to fall in workforce whereas adult females are assumed to travel in domestic labour. Therefore, work forces are regarded as more productive in labour market as they have spend more clip to their calling and labour market ends ( Chun and Lee, 2001 ) . Furthermore, married work forces have more commitment to their occupations, the

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are rarely fired and often promoted, and in add-on receive a larger portion of the net incomes distributed harmonizing to single public presentation ( Backer 1985 ) . Backer ( 1985 ) states that work forces have competitory advantage in labour market whereas adult females have competitory advantage in family work. In this respect, the single or individual work forces have to specialise in both the labour market and family plants, which causes them to exercise more clip and energy. Waite ( 1995 ) besides suggests that married work forces are likely to be benefited from both economic and societal benefits.

This hypothesis is non able to explicitly explicate the matrimony premium for adult females. The empirical surveies that investigate the emerging grownups ‘ work and household committednesss ( Brielby and Brielby, 1989 ; Brown and Dickman, 2010 ) reported that college work forces and adult females were every bit committed to work and household. Stickney and Konrad ( 2007 ) found that adult females with classless attitudes ( career-oriented and independent ) have significantly higher net incomes than adult females with traditional attitudes ( household oriented and dependent on their work forces ) . However, does matrimony increases the productiveness of adult females? Treas and Widmer ( 2000 ) province that married adult females likely to prefer to remain at place or parttime work one time they have preschool kid and they prefer to travel back to full clip work merely after the kids leave place. This discontinuance at work and penchant over parttime work may cut down the productiveness of married adult females. Some surveies observed that adult females are penalized for their maternity by undervaluing their competences and by paying lower get downing wages ( Peterson and Morgan, 1995 ; Corell, Benard, and Paik, 2007 ) . Byron ( 2010 ) besides suggests that pregnant adult females are penalized for their publicities and discriminated for firing. As married adult females at work are likely to be pregnant as of their maternity, they are likely to endure from low paid or unpaid plants.

Summarily, the single theoretical accounts emphasized the single degree features, like degree of instruction and preparation, work experience, and behavioural traits as factors act uponing net incomes inequality between married and single adult females.

Structural Approach

Structural attack believes that persons are shaped by the bigger constructions of society. Structural theories focus on the interrelatednesss between the larger societal constructions or establishments of the society, and besides how these constructions and establishments affect persons in the society ( Ritzer and Goodman, 2004 ) . However, in structural linguistics construct, single is non the capable affair of analysis in both research and theory building, and psychological reading of human behaviours is non entertained in sociological apprehension ( Mayhew, 1980 ) . Therefore structural attack argues that net incomes inequality is a structural phenomenon, and it is determined by the organisations and organisational construction. The occupation places in organisational construction are based on an organisational hierarchy frequently proprietor, directors and workers, in falling order, where places towards the top receive higher rewards than places towards the lower hierarchy. Furthermore, Coverdill

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