The Roman Catholic Church Theology Religion
The Roman Catholic Church has been damaged and hampered for so long, about 30 old ages after the drift of the Second Vatican Council, because Christianity still remains undivided ( Nilson, 14 ) . Even the council itself claims this lesion in the state of affairs of a divided Christianity. The Council of Vatican II ‘s Decree on Ecumenism, Unitatis Redintegratio states that “ the Church herself finds it more hard to show in existent life her full Catholicism in all its facets ” ( Unitatis Redintegratio, # 4 ) . This division within Christianity brings dirt in the mission of the Church. Hence, the first portion of Decree on Ecumenism states that “ division among Christians amendss the most holy cause of prophesying the Gospel to every animal and blocks the manner to the religion for many ” ( Unitatis Redintegratio, # 1 ) . It is non merely a dirt but Christian disunity is a stumbling block, a hinderance for unfastened duologue among Christians ( Lowery, 2 ) .
In the book of Mark Lowery “ Ecumenism: Striving for Unity amid Diversity ” , he answers the inquiry “ what causes the division or separation of Christianity historically? ” . In order to understand to the full the Christian disunity, one should brood on the historical context from which the Christian division started. Lowery presents the two chief epochs of history were Christian disunity began. First is the 11th century from which Christianity split into two chief divisions, ( 1 ) the Eastern Churches and ( 2 ) the Western Churches. The 2nd epoch is the clip of Protestant Reformation during the 16th century ( Lowery, 11-12 ) .
During the 8th and 9th century of the Church history, there were two larger parts of the church: the Roman Church and the Byzantine Church. The Byzantine Church which is besides called the Church of Constantinople, flourishes and develops her power during the 10th century. It extends throughout Greece to the states such as Bulgaria, Serbia, Romania and Russia. Her influence is good established in the Eastern patriarchates of Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem, every bit good as in the Slavic states. On the other manus, the Roman Church has been spread throughout the Western universe. The development and flourishing of each church causes struggles and division. The first epoch of disunity which is the 11th century is conditioned by assorted factors such as cultural, political and economic differences. Subsequently, these differences develop and turn into a theological wrangle and even chaos in spiritual patterns. This consequences into an unfastened division between East and West and the two becomes stranger to each other. The Christian East is to be known as the Orthodox or Eastern Church while the West is called the Catholic Church ( Lowery, 48-49 ) .
The 2nd epoch of Christian disunity is during the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. The centuries predating this Reformation there were unfortunate and distressing province of diminution within the Roman Catholic Church counterpart in its pontificate and authorization. The Catholic Popes sold leading stations in the Church to the highest bidders or even gave so to their relations or friends. There where maltreatments that happened within the Roman Catholic Church during this clip. The maltreatment in worship that the Catholic Popes accepted heathen patterns ensuing into superstitious and charming pattern of worship that subsequently became platitude within the Church. Furthermore, there were utmost allegorical in explicating Christian religion. During this Dark Age of the Church, indulgences or commuting was at tallness. The Christian faithful asked to purchase indulgences and therefore to be assured of a shorter stay in purgatory. Redemption can be sold through indulgence. Governments in the Church abused this pattern in order to get wealth and good life. A tragic and unfortunate sum of hapless leading and merely kick ignorance led to these maltreatments. And the phase was set for a thorough reclamation in the church ( Lowery, 65-66 ) .
In 1519, a monastic named Martin Luther, he decide to contend the maltreatments within the church. He claimed that God ‘s grace could non be purchased that ‘s why he nailed his 95 theses in agreement with the incorrect patterns of that clip in the church. Luther wanted to prosecute public argument and to advance the desire for Church ‘s reclamation. He was responding opprobrious signifiers of mediation between God and humanity. Roman Catholics had so gone to the other extreme by leting superstitious and charming patterns to be considered mediation of God ‘s redemption to the humanity. But subsequently in 1521, unluckily Martin Luther was excommunicated by the Catholic Pope and declared outside the jurisprudence. On the other manus, the desire for Church ‘s reclamation of Luther had resonated positively in the Black Marias of many people. He attracted many followings ensuing into the evident disunity within the Roman Catholic Church. Later on, Protestantism had been developed important traditions of its ain. Luther and his followings for their traditions replaced the authorization of semisynthetic tradition with the authorization of God ‘s word ( sola scriptura ) , which is a life and critical world. Here started once more the division within Christianity ( Lowery, 67-68 ) .
After those epochs of Christian disunity, there exists a startling complexness to the many other divisions of Christianity. These divisions were caused non merely by certain groups differing approximately spiritual thoughts and patterns but besides a huge interplay of assorted factors such as theological, political, socio-economic and psychological facets. Added to this intricate interplay is the fact that opposing parties are merely unwilling to openly dialogue with each other ( Lowery, 12 ) .
The old ages of isolation from one another or the divisions of churches and Communion, including the Roman Catholic Church, have developed outlooks and patterns that genuinely injured the really critical function of the Church herself. John Nilson in his book entitled Nothing Beyond the Necessary: Roman Catholicism and the Ecumenical Future, he claims that for the reclamation of the integrity of the church, she requires for faithful discipleship and effectual mission and so much so, the leaders and members of the church should hold to give up for the interest of fidelity to Christ. This may be the monetary value that each peculiar church must pay for the integrity that is now critical to the verve of the whole church of Christ today ( Nilson, 65 ) .
Christian ‘s disunity brings forth the wickedness and ignorance of every Christian and from one another. These wickedness and ignorance affect Roman Catholicism at times and even barricade the way to church integrity. So to talk, the church at every degree of its communal life demands to do specific, concrete and existent ( Nilson, 66 ) :
“ aˆ¦that continual reformation of which she ever has need, inso far as she is an establishment of work forces here on Earth. Therefore if, in assorted times and fortunes, there have been lacks in moral behavior or in church subject, or even in the manner that church instruction has been formulated must be carefully distinguished from the sedimentation of religion itself, these can and should be set right at the opportune minute ( Unitatis Redintegratio, # 6 ) .
This realisation gives rise for the Church ‘s duty of Christian integrity. The Church has received the power to be the seeable mark of rapprochement in Christ ; hence she bears in herself the redress for all the amendss and hurts of the divided Christian religion. She is more responsible for Christian integrity for she contains the Godhead mission that the Church receives from her bridegroom, Jesus Christ. Thus, the church is the ecclesia called together by the Lord ( Baum, 33-34 ) . This can be seen in the Gospel of John:
“ aˆ¦that they may all be one. ” ( Jn 17:21 )
This could be the leaping board of the Second Vatican Council to advance a more concrete and orientated oecumenic motion. Before the completion of the council, in 1961, one of the unequivocal plant of Pope John XXIII was the formation of the Secretariat for the Promotion of Christian Unity. This official organic structure within the Catholic Church is the first to demo an ecumenically oriented that promotes echt integrity of all Christians. When John XXIII died in 1963, Pope Paul VI continued the bold plan of reclamation. And the twelvemonth after that, in 1964, the Vatican II Council issued the Decree on Ecumenism, Unitatis Redintegratio, which was a to the full developed on oecumenic divinity. The Decree advocates the reclamation on all foreparts toward the end of “ full ecclesiastical reunion ” . For the reunion to take topographic point “ there must be willingness to larn from one another, to go reciprocally enriched by each other ‘s hoarded wealths, and to turn together ” ( Lowery, 32-33 ) .
Here lies the great passion of the late Pope John Paul II in advancing Christian Unity. In his full papacy, he fosters an Inter-Christian duologue which is normally known as ecumenism. Fr. Lhem in his testimonial to the Beatification of Pope John Paul II in May 1, 2011, he cites the different plants of the great Pope with respect advancing Christian Unity. He besides gives in his testimonial message the effect of the Pope ‘s Encyclical Letter which is the “ Ut Unun Sint ” , the encyclical of the Holy Father on committedness to ecumenism. Fr. Lhem states that encyclical Ut Unum Sint clearly explicated that “ it is necessary to return ever to what the Catholic religion Teachs about the integrity of the one Church of Christ so as non to overlook another facet of capital importance: non-Catholic Churchs are true Churches on history of what is Catholic in them. Their ecclesiality is based on the fact that “ the one Church of Christ has an operative presence in them ” and they are non to the full Churches -their ecclesiality is wounded- because they lack elements proper to the Catholic Church. In other words, acknowledging that these communities, which are non in full Communion with the Catholic Church, have the character of Churches besides means needfully that these Churchs are parts of the one Church ” .
In similar mode, this survey proposes to analyze Pope John Paul II ‘s “ Ut Unun Sint ” that would give the research worker and even the readers on how Pope John Paul II worked barely in advancing Christian Unity.
Statement of the Problem
This survey wants to cognize on how Pope John Paul II, in his whole papacy, renders the duty of furthering ecumenism or the Inter-Christian Dialogue with the other Christians who are outside the Catholic Church. The undermentioned inquiries are the chief concerns of this present survey.
What is ecumenism?
Who is Pope John Paul II claims as “ the Pope of all Christians ” ?
What are the stairss of Pope John Paul II in advancing a “ full Communion ” in the Church?
How does Pope John Paul II foresee the oecumenic motion in the close hereafter?
Significance of the Study
Karol Jozef Wojtyla was born on May 18, 1920 in the little Polish town of Wadowice. At the age of 58, he received the grace to go the papacy and the caput of the Roman Catholic Church on October 16, 1978. He became known with the pope name Pope John Paul II, the first non-Italian Catholic Pope elected after 456 old ages. In about 27 old ages in his papacy, Pope John Paul II became good known because of his great workss and works as the caput of the Catholic Church ; every bit good as in his great humbleness and spiritualty. He even had a greater involvement in ecumenism – the integrity of Christian Churches. In his old ages of papacy, there were meaningful attempts have been made to guarantee at least greater integrity and duologue among all Christians. This has been one of the top precedences of Pope John Paul II as the retainer of the retainers of God. And subsequently he was claimed as the “ Pope for all Christians ” ( Szulc, 13, 203 ) .
Therefore, this survey offers the great apprehension of ecumenism in the head of Pope John Paul II. It will show that Pope John Paul II was one of the pioneering Catholic Popes who took a great involvement to accommodate and unify the divided Church or the disunity of Christians. The present survey promotes the great workss and plants of Pope John Paul II in his papacy and his seeable actions of ecumenism.
As we all know that Pope John Paul II had a large bosom for the Filipino Catholics. This was manifested during his trial here in the Philippines. In one of his visits, he said and he even invited every Filipino Catholics to go on one ‘s religionism and one ‘s humbleness. Therefore, this survey will show to every Filipino the oecumenic side of Pope John Paul II ; that this great Catholic Pope wished to to the full hold on the “ full Communion ” in the Church. The stairss of ecumenism of Pope John Paul II which are presented in this survey could give inspiration for every Filipino Catholics. This present survey might ask for for those Filipino Catholics who wished to come in into an unfastened duologue to the non-Catholic Church and advance oecumenic motion here in Philippines.
Pope John Paul II manifested in his papacy his low bosom, his sanctity and the joy of Church integrity. Because of this illustriousness of the Catholic Pope, he received a highest approval from God that he was beatified as Blessed Pope John Paul II on May 1, 2011. This survey could bring forth some records of the great plants of Pope John Paul II in his papacy. Therefore, this survey would lend in understanding and exposing the life of Pope John Paul II. Furthermore, this present survey could be a utile beginning for the future research with respect the ecumenism in Church.
Scope and Boundary line
The range of this survey is on the thought of ecumenism or the Church ‘s end toward “ full Communion ” in the head of Pope John Paul II. The survey will travel through the two of import letters of the Roman Catholic Church with respect ecumenism. The first missive was issued by the Second Vatican Council which is the Decree on Ecumenism, Unitatis Redintegratio. This decree exposes the duty of the Church that holds the redress on the amendss and hurts of the division of Christian Churches. The 2nd missive was the encyclical missive of Pope John Paul II on the committedness to ecumenism “ Ut Unum Sint ” which was issued on May 25, 1995, in the 17th papacy of Pope John Paul II. These two major beginnings of this present survey will show the different stairss and actions of Vatican II Council and Pope John Paul II toward the end of “ full Communion ” within the Christian Churches.
This survey besides will look upon the duologues between the Roman Catholic Church and the other Christian Churchs that were took topographic point in the papacy of Pope John Paul II. The research worker will show three duologues on order to see the true purpose of rapprochement of Pope John Paul II to other Christian Churches. And besides to see how those other Christian Churches respond to these duologues done by the Roman Catholic Church.
It is of import to this survey to brood into the historical background of the division of the Christian Churches. On the other manus, the research worker intended non to demo the whole history of the early Churches and the cause of its separation but instead this survey will show merely the two chief epochs where the division happened. The first epoch is the separation of the Eastern Churches and the Western Churches during the 11th century and the 2nd epoch is during the Reformation that occurred in 16th century.
Last, the survey will expose to us the life of Pope John Paul II as the caput of the Roman Catholic Church and non the whole of his life. The survey will brood much on the old ages of Pope John Paul II ‘s papacy specifically those old ages that worked upon the rapprochement and the integrity of the Christian Churches.
The research worker of this survey uses the narrative method of research. This method is utile for the expounding of the history of division within the Christian Churches, the oecumenic motion of the Second Vatican Council, every bit good as in the expounding of the oecumenic actions of Pope John Paul II during his papacy. The expounding of the two major beginnings, Decree on Ecumenism, Unitatis Redintegratio issued by the Vatican II Council and the encyclical missive of Pope John Paul II “ Ut Unum Sint ” , will be explicitly done in this survey.
This survey is library grounded that the research worker relies on the handiness of beginning stuffs in the library. Other beginnings in the cyberspace, web sites and even internet diaries are besides in a great aid most particularly those commentaries on the Decree on Ecumenism and in the encyclical missive of Pope John Paul II. With all of these given informations and entree, the research worker is in no uncertainty that one can manage to reply the job at manus.
Reappraisal of Literature
There are two major beginnings that this survey uses. First is the Decree on Ecumenism, Unitatis Redintegratio which was issued in the twelvemonth 1964, a twelvemonth after the decease of Pope John XXIII. The 2nd beginning is the encyclical missive of Pope John Paul II on the committedness to ecumenism which entitled “ Ut Unum Sint ” . This missive was promulgated in May 25, 1995 during Catholic Pope ‘s 17th papacy.
In 1964, the Second Vatican Council ‘s Decree on Ecumenism which is Unitatis Redintegratio, with a to the full developed oecumenic divinity, was issued. This new edict advocated the Church reclamation towards the end of “ full ecclesiastical reunion. For reunion to take topographic point, the papers stated, there must be willingness to larn from one another, to go reciprocally enriched by each other ‘s hoarded wealths, and to turn together. Upon the issue of this edict, there began the first hard stairss on the route to the attainment of Christian integrity ( Lowery, 37 ) .
In 1995, the encyclical missive of Pope John Paul II on committedness to ecumenism was promulgated. This was entitled “ Ut Unum Sint ” , inspired from the really supplication of Jesus at the hr of his passion, “ that all may be one ” ( Jn 17:21 ) . The chapter one of papers stated that this supplication is the Christ ‘s mission that Christ bestowed in the Church. The Catholic Pope added: “ Therefore, it is perfectly clear that ecumenism, the motion advancing Christian integrity, is non merely some kind of ‘appendix ‘ which is added to the Church ‘s traditional activity. Rather, ecumenism is an organic portion of her life and workaˆ¦ ” ( Ut Unum Sint, # 20 ) . The chapter two of this papers entails the actions and the stairss of the papal council to advance ecumenism. Last, chapter three presents the oecumenic accomplishments get downing from the motion of the Second Vatican Council until the Pontificate of Pope John Paul II.
Historian Guiseppe Albergio tells in the chapter four of his book A Brief History of Vatican II the large measure for oecumenic motion. The chapter states that the Church is a Communion. Recognizing this by the Second Vatican Council, the council summoned and convened to organize an official organic structure within the Catholic Church that was ecumenically organized and oriented ; therefore ensuing into official organic structure which the council called the Secretariat for the Promotion of Christian Unity.
Author Jon Nilson in his book Nothing Beyond the Necessary: Roman Catholicism and the Ecumenical Future, presents that it is truly clip for the Roman Catholic Church leaders to set the committedness to Church integrity into action and travel beyond merely prosecuting in oecumenic duologue. Just like Pope John Paul II, Nilson besides proposes in this book some specific enterprises from which the Roman Catholic Church could set about to attest its integrity religion with other Christian Churches.
Professor Mark D. Lowery develops in his book Ecumenism: Striving for Unity Amid Diversity the oecumenic position within the Christian Churches every bit good as the history of ecumenism during the Second Vatican Council. He besides presents in this book by different chapters the history of division and separation of Christian Churches.
The book The Catholic Quest for Christian Unity written by Gregory Baum besides presents the demand for rapprochement and the integrity of Church. This can be seen in his first chapter of the book which states the duty of the Church to rectify the unwellness of division within the Christian Churches. To unify is the very mission of Christ and this mission was bestowed to the Church, the bride of Christ.
And for the information of Pope John Paul II ‘s life of his papacy, the research worker uses two books. The first is the book written by Peter Hebblethwaite which entitled Introducing John Paul II. On the chapter 12 of this book, it exposes the first old ages of papacy of Pope John Paul II while speaking to other Christians. The chapter states the desire of the Catholic Pope to take good action for the oecumenic motion. One of these actions is the personal duologue of the Catholic Pope to the other Church leaders.
The 2nd is the book written by Tad Szulc entitled POPE JOHN PAUL II: The Biography. The writer presents the life of the Catholic Pope from being child as Karol Josef Wojtyla to going Catholic Pope as Pope John Paul II. This book offers an insightful portrayal of the life of the two hundred 64th pope, from his birth to the 17th twelvemonth of his papacy, his avid desire for Christian integrity and to hold “ full Communion ” within the Christian Churhes.
There is a reappraisal on the encyclical missive of Pope John Paul II “ Ut Unum Sint ” done by Cardinal Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir, a Patriarch of Antioch for Maronites. Cardinal Ratzinger ( Pope Benedict XVI ) requested him to do a reappraisal on the committedness to ecumenism. The reappraisal gives the sum-up of the encyclical and ends up by a decision.
Another article was written by Fr. Lhem in April 13, 2011. His article entitled Pope John Paul II and Ecumenism: A Tribute on his Blessedness on May 1, 2011, presents the different plants of the Catholic Pope with respect Christian integrity. He besides wrote the different thoughts of Pope John Paul II with regard ecumenism.