The Role of Technical Teacher Education
States of the universe are classified as developed or under developed based on the degree of instruction of its people and their ability to utilize cognition. accomplishment and attitude to interpret scientific thoughts in go toing to the jobs of world. Technical instruction is the right sort of instruction that is capable of developing persons to interpret thoughts into merchandises that will help world to make things with easiness. The instruction of proficient topics is conducted by the proficient instructor.
This paper is of the position that the proficient instructor who is decently trained and is working under ideal environment can develop younger coevals that will be free of poorness. accomplish cosmopolitan basic instruction. empower adult females. cut down child mortality. combat HIV/AIDS and develop planetary partnership. therefore accomplishing the MDGs mark. The paper made recommendations among which is for the MDGs to follow the underside to exceed manner of support and the demand for the MDGs to incorporate proviso of financess peculiarly for purchase of preparation tools. equipment and substructure for proficient instructor preparation.
Introduction Education is seen as an agent of development in any society of the universe. that is why societies that are educated are looked at as developed societies and less educated as developing societies. This is so because the developed societies use instruction to develop things that will work out predominating jobs of world in the signifier of merchandises of engineering. These merchandises are developed by citizens of these states utilizing accomplishments. cognition and attitudes acquired through preparation in scientific disciplines and proficient based topics.
It is in realisation of these facts that the Federal Republic of Nigeria ( FRN ) ( 2004 ) stressed that. scientific discipline and engineering shall go on to be taught in an incorporate mode in the schools to advance in the pupils the grasp of practical application of thoughts. This type of instruction if acquired will supply pupils with marketable accomplishments that can be used to bring forth occupation chances and instead cut down poorness.
It should nevertheless be noted that. preparation can non take topographic point unless there are instructors that are decently trained in proficient instructor preparation establishments to impact the needed accomplishments. cognition and attitudes in the pupils. That is why Olaitan ( 1986 ) sees the instructor as an agent of altering people attitudes. beliefs and values utilizing the right technique. Similarly Adeoye ( 2008 ) noted that the instructor is the king-pin of quality in instruction and development of the society.
In the same visible radiation Garba ( 2002 ) posits that the success of technological development of any state begins with the quality of proficient instructors as no instruction system can lift above the quality of its instructors ( FRN. 2004 ) . The millenary development ends ( MDGs ) is a planetary scheme aimed at cut downing poorness. hungriness. insecurity. gender inequality. accomplish cosmopolitan basic instruction. cut down child mortality. better maternal wellness. combat HIV/AIDS. malaria. guarantee environmental sustainability and develop a planetary partnership for development.
This paper is of the sentiment that the accomplishment of the MDGs can best be aimed at if the right quality and measure of proficient instructors are produced. The paper therefore discusses proficient instructors readying and production in Nigeria. the MDGs and the nonsubjective relating to instruction. the function of proficient instructor instruction in realisation of MDGs mark. Factors impacting proficient instructor instruction in recognizing the ends of the MDGs and recommendation were offered. Technical Teacher Preparation and Production Programme in Nigeria.
There is ever the demand to make an consciousness of the jobs. which arise in a peculiar profession and to better on the degree of competences for covering with such job ( Adetunji and Victor ( 1997 ) that is why the National Policy on Education ( 2004 ) . indicates that. teacher instruction shall go on to be given major accent in all educational planning and development. it farther stated that instructor instruction shall be structured to take awareness of alterations in methodological analysis and the course of study. by guaranting that instructors are to the full exposed to invention in their profession.
This is most needed by the proficient instructor because of the dynamic nature of the universe of engineering and its consequence on the instruction of proficient topics. Ali ( 1992 ) stressed that with the advert of the twenty-first century engineerings. the requisition of sound academic cognition and professional accomplishments are cardinal in the preparation of instructors. particularly in the usage of modern methods and engineerings for learning their capable country.
Foel and Fritz ( 1998 ) noted that teacher instruction is sing new formats that combine conventional ( Traditional instruction bringing system ) with germinating engineering in order to reassign cognition to pupils. That is why Goro ( 2000 ) call for a new expression at the preparation of instructors. particularly the proficient instructors because the present educational system’s peculiar concern is that instructors must be oriented towards development of practical accomplishments in the trainees.
The proficient instructor is he who is a maestro of the trade. in the same mode is able to leave the correct and up-to-date accomplishments ( Olaitan 1986 ) . in a similar position Dambe and Garba ( 2007 ) looked at the proficient instructor as a instructor who posses practical and theoretical cognition of his career. has clear apprehension of the pupil he teachers. and ensures that he increases in the cognition of his field at all clip. The preparation procedure of a proficient instructor therefore calls for a balance of theoretical and practical cognition.
In a command to develop instructors that will posses the needed cognition that Ali ( 1992 ) looked at developing the proficient instructor. by utilizing the concurrent cause attack. where professional trade accomplishments and academic content are pursued in analogue. This manner of preparation is the most popular attack used for proficient instructor preparation. However. another school of idea was that the proficient instructor should foremost be practically skilled in that capable affair before shiping on pedagogical accomplishment acquisition.
Goro ( 2000 ) portions the same position as he indicates a support for station alumnus preparation in instruction after a professional preparation in trade. Whatever the attack. the accent should be on striking a balanced cognition that will enable the instructor impart the needed accomplishments in an appropriate mode. This is necessary because the success or failure of technological development of a society begins with the quality of work force ( instructors ) responsible for developing the engineering instructors.
Olaitan ( 1996 ) looked at the proficient instructor preparation in Nigeria to include the formal and informal preparation. The informal is done at the place or household degree. and the apprenticeship degree. the alumnuss of which will be functioning as Masterss to develop others. However. the formal preparation of instructors is in three phases. the Nigeria certification in instruction ( NCE ) which prepares instructors for learning in junior secondary schools. There is besides the alumnus and postgraduate proficient instructor instruction programme.
In the same position Abdullahi and Sa’i ( 1998 ) pointed out that proficient instructor preparation is provided in three phases viz. the graduate student. the unmarried man and the Nigerian Certificate in Education ( Technical ) degrees. There are nevertheless two manners of fixing proficient instructors at the NCE degree for learning in the junior secondary schools’ the two manners are in understanding with two vocational administrative theories of double and individual controls ( Olaitan 1996 ) .
Consequently. the individual control is a state of affairs whereby proficient instructor instruction is housed in establishment that are offering strictly proficient instructor instruction classs e. g. Colleges of Education ( Technical ) . whereas the double control is when proficient instruction Porgramme are run in the same establishment with other classs like humanistic disciplines. societal surveies. history. pure scientific discipline as obtains in conventional colleges of instruction.
Students of Technical Education Programmes at the NCE degree are expected to take classs from general country in Technical/Vocational Education. general Education. Education and Entrepreneurship Education. and are subsequently expected to specialise in one country before graduation. Students are farther expected to pass 12 ( 12 ) hebdomads of industrial fond regard ( NCCE 2002 ) after graduation ; the merchandises are expected to learn introductory engineering at the junior secondary school degree. As of now there are 20 five ( 25 ) Colleges of Education offering NEC ( Technical ) courses in Nigeria.
( NCCE. 2007 ) . At the alumnus and station alumnus degrees. the preparation of vocational proficient instructors take topographic point in the Universities. As at now the five Universities of engineering viz. . Federal Universities of Technology. Akure. Bauchi. Minna. Owerri and Yola are running grade and graduate student programmes in Technology Education and other Vocational countries. Other Unversities such as Ahmadu Bello Unversities Zaria. Benin. Calabar. University of Nigeria Nsukka. Uyo. and Ibadan run grade and graduate student programmes in vocational proficient instruction.
It should be noted nevertheless that. some colleges of instruction are presently running programmes taking to the award of a unmarried man grade in Technical and vocational Education as affiliate colleges of Universities ( NCCE 2002 ) . The millenary Development Goals ( MDGs ) The vision of developers of the MDGs was on the general concern to make away with jobs impacting the citizens of their states. That is why they aimed at making schemes towards decrease of poorness. hungriness. diseases. increase entree to instruction. wellness. lodging and sustainable direction of the environments resource.
In the development of the MDGs and schemes for accomplishing the ends. 189 states of the universe met in New York in September 2000. and signed the millenary declaration which has come to be globally known as the millenary Development Goals ( MDGs ) . The primary end of the leaders of these states in developing the MDGs is to turn to the jobs confronting fellow work forces. adult females and kids such as low poorness and dehumanising conditions to which more than a billion people across the universe are subjected to. ( Umar. Suleiman & A ; Adamu. 2009 ) .
Consequently Dung-Gwon ( 2009 ) . noted that the MDGs have 8 ends. each has one or more marks and several indexs. He farther study that. in 2002. there were 18 marks and 48 indexs. In 2007. 4 more marks were added. To this consequence. states of the universe have besides added their ain marks and indexs to run into their aspiration. This is so because the degrees of development of assorted states are non the same. so besides prioties vary among states. The MDGs is hence. a general blue print for development of states of the universe.
Dung-Gwom ( 2009 ) states that the general MDGs ends statement across the states are as follows: 1. Eradication of utmost poorness and hungriness 2. Achieving cosmopolitan primary instruction 3. Promote gender equality and adult females empowerment 4. Reducing child mortality 5. Improve maternal wellness 6. Combat HIV/AIDS 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a planetary partnership The general ends of the MDGs have within it three that are instruction related. Iyortyer ( 2010 ) noted that. the three ends that chiefly impacts on the instruction sector are:
Achieving Universal Basic Education ( Goal 2 ) Promotion of gender para or equality ( Goal 3 ) Combat HIV/AIDS. malaria and other diseases ( Goal 6 ) Three ends out of eight concentrating on instruction certainly indicates that a precedence to instruction is a measure towards the attainment of other aims. as stated by Iyortyer ( 2010 ) that instruction is an instrument for development of any state. an counterpoison to poorness and the key for unlocking natural resources. In malice of these and the commendable ends and schemes towards accomplishing the MDGs in Nigeria. records still reveals that much is desired.
In line with this Ibrahim ( 2006 ) states that. Nigeria Millennium Development Goals Report for 2004 and 2005 shows that Nigeria is far off the grade in footings of execution of many ends of the MDGs. Similarly Igbugo in Umar. Suleiman and Adamu ( 2009 ) asserted that. there is a serious uncertainty if Nigeria can accomplish the MDGs by the mark 2015. So besides Igbuzor ( 2007 ) reported that even though Nigeria is a signer to the MDGs. it is yet far from accomplishing the MDGs. furthermore he maintained that it is deficiency of political will that is the greatest stumbling block to the accomplishment of the MDGs. in Nigeria.
Based on the MDGs study and personal observations of the indices it is clear that much is desired. This paper is of the sentiment that proviso of preparation that equip the person with salable accomplishments will greatly take Nigeria to the accomplishment of the MDGs. Role of Technical Teacher Education in Realization of the MDGs Technical instructor instruction programme is a programme that train instructors of technically based trades who are expected to learn in junior secondary schools and proficient colleges. The merchandise of which are the state hereafters applied scientists and discoverers.
The function of proficient instructor in the accomplishment of MDGs will be discussed in line with the eight MDGs as follows: 1. Eradication of utmost poorness and hungriness. Even though study of MDGs 2005 shows slide diminution in poorness from 65. 5 % in 1996 to 54. 4 % in 2004. Much is still desired as the 54. 4 % is still high and should pull concern bearing in head that Nigeria is a rich state with hapless people. With a proficient instructor programme that is able to bring forth extremely trained proficient instructors. The instructor should be able to develop future coevals of pupils that will possess the needed accomplishment in assorted trades.
The accomplishment acquired will make occupations that will do the person either self employment or be employed by any employer of labor. Federal Republic of Nigeria ( 2004 ) indicates that. proficient instruction is a agency of fixing for occupational field and a agency of relieving poorness. 2. Achieve Universal Primary Education The MDGs study 2005. shows that there is great betterment in literacy degree. nevertheless. Iyortyer ( 2010 ) revealed that the mark of the MDGs indexs maintain that big literacy rate for 15-24 old ages will better to make 89 % in 2015.
While gender equity and just entree to basic and go oning instruction for grownup will be pursued towards run intoing up the mark. To accomplish this mark. there is the demand for instructor that will be responsible for instruction of trade. poesy and the Basic engineering. The instructor that is trained for such is the proficient instructor. 3. Promote Gender Equality and Empowerment One of the marks of the MDGs is to guarantee that gender disparity is eliminated. and equal entree to instruction is same for both male childs and misss. However Dung- Gwom ( 2009 ) indicates that the per centum of male childs is 82 % in 1990 and 79 % in 2004.
This shows that male childs still account for greater per centum of primary school students. Much is still desired. and it is one of the duties of the instructor to sensitise parents as they live in the society with the parents and the students. 4. Reduce Child Mortality With more educated female parents who have acquired accomplishments for employment. mortality rate of the kid will be extremely reduced. as most of the causes of child mortality are poverty related.
Similarly with a coevals of immature endowments equipped with proficient accomplishment. the accomplishment can farther be used in the proviso and care of medical equipment that will be used in decrease of kid mortality. 5. Improve Maternal Health The MDGs study 2004 shows that maternal mortality was 74 per 1000. This rate is high and can merely be reduced if female parents are equipped with accomplishment to gain a life. The accomplishments of the proficient instructor can be directed to the female parents for authorization. 6. Combat HIV/AIDS. Malaria and other Diseases In Nigeria the incidence of HIV/AIDS has been on upward tendency since the diseases was discovered in the state 1. 8 % 1999. to 5. 8 % in 2000 ( Nigeria. MDG Report 2005 ) .
A good figure of the septic individuals are every bit. populating under poorness. with no occupation and so they could non afford the eating demands even if the drugs are free. The state of affairs would hold non been the same if they have learnt proficient accomplishments to supply services for wage. 7. Ensure Environment Sustainability To prolong the environment. there is the demand to hold the cognition. accomplishments and attitude of making such. Umar. Suleiman and Adamu ( 2009 ) studies that approximately 70 % of the urban inhabitants in Nigeria live below poorness bench grade and their status is non bound to better much between now and 2015.
This can be better if a good figure of Nigerians are equipped with accomplishments in proficient trades such as Building care. Design and plumbing. Vehicle care etc 8. Develop a Global Partnership for Development The universe is going a planetary small town. this is much so because of the coming of technological merchandise particularly in the country of information and communicating engineering ( ICT ) . With ICT information is obtained and utilised. However to make that one need the basic preparation to understand the engineering and the kwon how of using it. Challenges of Technical Teacher Education in Recognizing the MDGs.
Technical instructor instruction can make a batch in the realisation of the MDGs. but the followerss have stood as a barrier. 1. Lack of equal support Technical instructor instruction being a proficient oriented programme requires tools equipment and substructure without which proficient instruction can non be said to be offered. It is nevertheless clear that general support to instruction in Nigeria is far from the expected. Onyidoh ( 2006 ) noted that. the money allocated to education falls short of the UNESCO’s recommended 25 % of one-year budget ; he farther noted that the allotment from 2003 to day of the month is hardly in the scope of 1.
83-5 % allotment to instruction. This might certainly non be plenty to provide for the support of establishments that are characterized by. leaking roofs. unpaved floors. unsanitized conditions and general image of disregard. This state of affairs can non vouch preparation of proficient instructors with the needful accomplishments for the preparation of younger coevals in our junior secondary schools that are expected to pave manner for the technological promotion of Nigeria 2. Administrator’s attitude.
Even with the low degree of support in the budget. other bureaus such as the Education trust fund ( ETF ) do intervene. It is nevertheless too bad that a batch of establishments of higher acquisition can non accesses the fund due to rigorous conditions for accessing the ETF money which does non give much room for recreation of the fund. And for the fact that most of these decision makers are non at that place because they have involvement in the system. . they prefer to give up the ETF than follow due procedure to entree it.
Talking on the administrator’s attitude Onyidoh ( 2010 ) noted that decision makers have small involvement in establishment they are heading. because frailty Chancellor of the Exchequers. provost and curates appointed in Nigeria today are politicians in the academic robes. 3. MDGs attack to funding Due to corruptness and non-commitment of leading of establishments they have found the MDGs money easy to catch than the ETF. because the MDGs money bash came straight to them in the name of so call desk officers who in most instances are the good male child and misss of the leaders of the establishment.
That is why in many instances undertakings already financed through other agencies are tagged MDGs undertaking and after review. tickets can be replaced. that is the game as usual. 4. Absence of substructure Technical instructor instruction necessitate substructure such as workshops. schoolrooms and the needful equipment. This substructure is absent or non plenty in most of the establishments that are responsible for developing the proficient instructors. The state of affairs will do the instructor unable to supply the right preparation to the junior secondary school pupils who are expected to be the future applied scientists. technician etc that will travel Nigeria frontward.
5. New Technologies The preparation to be given in junior secondary schools by proficient instructors should be to present them to the universe of engineering and arose involvement of the pupils in pick of career and to take pupils to hold intelligent apprehension of the increasing complexness of engineering ( FRN. 2004 ) . The uninterrupted innovations of new technological merchandises that most of the establishments instructors are non familiar with the operation rules of the new engineerings.
For the preparation to be relevant. it must bear a direct relationship with that in the industries. houses or concern required to enable pupils fit into their careers after graduation ( Aguisiobe. in Garba and Nuhu. 2007 ) . The bing state of affairs in establishment is far from the province of art as some of the machines were in being since the 1970s or 1980. They can non supply any preparation on new engineerings of whatever degree. 6. In-sincerity of Nigerian leaders. Most policy statements in Nigeria sound good. but when it comes to implementation the job arises.
This is so because as policies are implemented those in governments will get down to plane for what to personally acquire out of it. Take for case the issues of cosmopolitan basic instruction programme. it has a policy that student will be provided repasts during school hours and that primary school instructors wages will be 5 times through 2015. At the get downing skeletal eating was provided but as it is. the whole money targeted for that intent are in peoples pocket or used for purchase of expensive vehicles. Second there is no record apart from the 27 % addition which some provinces are even yet to pay that instructor have of all time experienced.
But yet these governors and their agent are portion of the understanding and have much for such. Recommendations In order to turn to the challenges the undermentioned recommendations are provided. 1. There is the demand for the MDGs to incorporate proviso of fund peculiarly for the proviso of preparation tools. equipment and substructure. 2. The attitude of the decision makers needs to be checked by the engagement of host communities and assorted trade brotherhoods in the executing of all MDGs undertakings through close monitoring and rating. 3.
MDGs attack to support should follow the underside to exceed attack. merely as is done by the ETF. This will cut down the rate of corruptness. 4. There is the demand to re-train the proficient instructors on land. in the country of new engineerings. and the integrating of the new engineerings. such as phone fixs. computing machine circuit design etc in the course of study of proficient instructor preparation establishments by so making the course of study will be functional and relevant. 5. Leaderships should be honest in managing issues to make with the MDGs mark. for the programme to win. Conclusion.
The paper was of the focal point that. to accomplish the MDGs in Nigeria. there is the demands to hold a sort of instruction that will enable the scholar get accomplishments. attitude and cognition that will take to occupation creative activity. And that sort of instruction can be provided by the decently trained proficient instructor. However challenges abound for the proficient instructor preparation and the instruction of Basic engineering at the junior secondary schools. REFERENCES Adullahi. M. L. & A ; Sa’I. H. R ( 1998 ) . Schemes for bettering vocational and proficient instructor Preparation in Nigeria.
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