The Process of Kidney Transplant
A kidney transplant is one of many transplants that are being done today. It has improved since the first kidney transplant.
The medication that they use for rejection is improving each day. Since they found a medication there are few rejections. There are side effects of the anti-rejection medication. Once a kidney has been transplanted in to a person the kidney could last 20 or years. Kidney transplant are being done every day and the main is because of renal disease, which means that they can no longer keep you alive without a new kidney.Most people that go into renal disease are because of diabetes.
The only way a person can live is go through dialysis and a kidney transplant. The kidney transplant is very costly and most insurance will cover most of it. The transplant takes several hours and the stay at the hospital could be from days to weeks. The prognosis is getting better each year. They are finding more ways to help rejection.
There is gap that keeps other race beside Caucasian. There are different kinds of kidney transplant. There is waiting list that a person that needs to be on to resive a kidney.There is two ways a transplant takes place.
If a person wants to know how to donate their organs there are many ways to do that. The first kidney transplant done with a cadaver was done in Evergreen Park, Illinois on June 17, 1950 on Ruth Tucker she was 44 years old (Time). She had a kidney disease called polycystic kidney disease. After 10 months the kidney rejected but even with that she did live another 5 five years. The reason is because at that time they did not have any immunosuppressive therapy.The first donor transplant was on December 23, 1954 on Richard Herrick the donor was his twin brother Ronald Herrick in Brigham, Boston (MailOnline).
Richard lived for 56 years. The Doctor that preforms the transplant was Dr. Joseph Murray. Dr. Murray had won a Nobel Prize for his duties to perform this surgery. According to the article Transplant Drugs by Peters, all patients are started on some type of medicine at the time of or shortly after the kidney transplant operation.
Medicines are scheduled usually for once or twice a day doses, and the timing of certain medications remains an important part of treatment.The selection of drugs and various doses is a bit different in the immediate post-transplant period while the patient is in the hospital, as compared to the outpatient/long-term care setting. In addition, medicines given in the hospital are monitored by staff so patients have a lesser role in directing their own drug use. For that reason, we will consider the common medicines patients take at home.
Peters also says that medications used principally in the outpatient setting are often given in some combination so that patients are taking two or three anti-rejection drugs.These medications usually have several different names for the very same drug. They are Cyclosporine, Prograf, Imuran, Cell Cept and Prednisone. These all prevent certain cells from causing rejection. The side effect is mostly all the same.
They may include high blood pressure, cause abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea, joint pain, and cholesterol elevation. In most patients. But with careful monitoring this side effect can be controlled. .
When a person is diagnosis with renal failed there doctors will recommend dialysis. This is a machine that filters the blood and taking out the cells that is harming the kidney.When a person goes on dialysis they first will get a shunt that usually goes in the arm so that the tubes that is connected to the dialysis machine is easier to put in the arm instead of sticking a neddel in the arm. Being on dialysis will increases a person live long tell they are able to resive a kidney. According to Harrison she states that the mortality rate will increases 85% after 18 months. However after adjusting for discrepancies in risk profile, there was still a 50 % lower relative risk of mortality between 31 to 365 days in favor of transplantation.
In the adjusted model, mortality under 30 days was lower, in transplant patients compared with those who remained on dialysis. Even patients with diabetes had a 67% lower risk of mortality at one year compared with those who remained on dialysis. Oniscu said “we should judge the elderly by their biological rather than their chronological age” (in Harrison). The cost for a kidney transplant is very costly but the good news is that most insurance will cover the transplant. A transplant is approximately $100.
000 for the first 90 days that is for uncomplicated transplant.According to the medical center of the university of Maryland The cost of kidney dialysis averages about $44,000 per year per patient Kidney transplant procedure costs can range widely but most average from $25,000 $38,000 for a kidney transplant which covers the Hospital, Operating Room, Supplies, staff, nurse, surgeon and medications in hospital. Transplant surgery and medical care for the first year following surgery was $89,939. After the first year, costs for the transplant patients averaged $16,043; mostly for medications to prevent rejection.
In the article from Englesbe, Dimick, Fan, Basr and Birlmayer states Medicare pays hospitals over $200 million in payments. According to a large body of research African- Americans suffer kidney disease at higher rate than white. They are likely to be placed on a waiting list but are less likely to get a kidney . The reason is according Shelton ,To the transplant gap keep more black waiting for kidney because of the tissue types . This put the black patients at a disadvantage and the reason is that they mostly likely to find a compatible tissue atch with another africn-american and also there are fewer black that are a donor.
According to this article the long wait shows a chart the percent of kidney transplant patients on the U. S waiting list five or more years. This show that 45%is black 29. 5% is white 17.
1%is Hispanic 5. 8 are Asian and 2. 7% is other. The waiting list for a kidney transplant has been expanding by 3000 to 4000 patients each year.
According to the UNOS data base as 4/5 2011 the wait candidates are 72,213 and the transplants in December 2010- January 2011 were 28,664 and the donors for December –January were 14,506. This shows that there were more people that receive a kidney to the donors.The reason is that donors are ever low and that they encourage people to become a donor. They are different ways to be a donor and it does not cost anything but it does save lives.
There are two types of transplant. The first one is through a living donor and the other is from a cadaver (disease person. ) Both transplants have to go through test to make sure that the kidney will not reject. In the living donor is when a blood relative or close friend not related by blood may choose to have one of their two kidneys removed for transplantation.The cadaveric donor is a person with irreversible brain damage who has been declared brain- dead and whose family has agreed to donate the organs for transplantation. In transplantation blood and tissues must be tested to make sure that they are a match (National Kidney Foundation).
There are several test they must be done and they are including laboratory test , cardiac evaluation, including EKG, urologic screening studies, pulmonary function test, noninvasive vascular studies, GI workup, and abdominal imaging (UK Health Care).Today 70,000 Americans are waiting for kidneys, according to the United Network for Organ Sharing, which maintains the national waiting list. Last year, roughly 16,000 people received one (about 40 percent are from living donors, the others from cadavers). More are waiting for livers, hearts and lungs, which mostly come from deceased donors, bringing the total to about 92,000. In big cities, where the ratio of acceptable organs to needy patients is worst, the wait is five to eight years and is expected to double by 2010. Someone on the organ list dies every 90 minutes.