Federal Trial Courts Flashcards, test questions and answers
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What is Federal Trial Courts?
Federal trial courts are the trial courts of the United States federal court system. They are the intermediate level federal courts between the United States district courts (the first tier) and the Supreme Court of the United States (the last tier). Federal trial courts hear both criminal and civil cases, which involve claims or disputes between parties in areas such as contract law, property law, family law, immigration, bankruptcy, or other areas of law. Federal trial courts are presided over by judges who are appointed by the President and confirmed by members of Congress. These judges serve for life terms unless they retire or resign from their position. Federal judges decide cases based on facts presented to them in court proceedings as well as applicable laws and precedents set forth in previous decisions. The federal court system is divided into 94 District Courts across 50 states within 11 regional circuits with at least one circuit court per state plus a separate court for Washington D.C. The District Courts may also refer cases to specialized appellate tribunals such as bankruptcy appeals panels or tax appeals panels which do not have judicial review powers but nevertheless provide expert opinions that can be used to bolster legal arguments in higher-level appeals. Federal Trial Courts have jurisdiction over matters that involve violations of federal laws or involve claims between litigants with diverse citizenship status where there is an amount greater than $75,000 in dispute; these matters often arise through statutes passed by Congress regulating issues like commerce and immigration. The Supreme Court stands as a final arbiter over all other lower-court decisions within its jurisdiction; it has original jurisdiction over certain types of cases such as those involving foreign diplomats or those challenging executive actions taken under color of office so long as there is no other tribunal with sufficient authority to address an issue before it reaches the Supreme Court’s docket. All other matters heard by federal trial courts will eventually be subject to appeal before either a circuit court panel composed three randomly selected justices from one particular appellate circuit; if any part remains unresolved after appeal then that decision may ultimately reach review before all nine justices sitting en banc on the Supreme Court bench itself.