Teaching Essays – Behaviour Children Mainstream

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Behaviour Children Mainstream

Researching Difference and Diversity

As a Teacher of Additional Support Needs in a secondary school in North East Scotland I intend to look into Difference and Diversity and the move from Particular Educational Needs to Additional Support Needs and Inclusion. How it affects my ain pattern and that of my school.

Having been a mainstream secondary school instructor for 14 old ages before going an Extra Support Needs instructor, I have learnt from experience and listening to co-workers, that behavior seems to play a major portion in the inclusive schoolroom. Colleagues have commented in the yesteryear that they don’t mind those kids with ‘Special Needs’ , it is those with behavioral troubles which cause the jobs. This train of idea is corroborated by Paul Croll and Moses ( 2000 ) . They interviewed Head Teachers from both Special Schools and Mainstream, and LEA Officers.

‘The position that kids whose behaviors challenged the mainstream should be in separate proviso was a widespread one:

“We can non get by with EBD [ emotional and behavioral troubles ] kids in the mainstream.” ( Primary Head )

“I am really committed to integrating in rule, but it is really hard to hold disturbed kids in mainstream schools.” ( Primary Head )

“Some emotionally and behaviourally disturbed kids make excessively great demands on staff. It’s non clean on other children.” ( Primary Head ) ( Croll and Moses 2000, p6 )

Besides, cited by J Allan ( 1999, p10 ) , Armstrong and Galloway have noted a inclination of instructors to retrace kids with emotional or behavioral troubles as ‘disturbed’ ( 1994:179 ) , with the deduction that these are outside the duties of mainstream schoolroom instructors.

It is for this ground I intend to look at the behavior of a little group of first twelvemonth students in my schoolroom, and seek to set into topographic point some schemes to assist cut down the frequence of unwanted behaviors, which hopefully, will travel some manner in advancing inclusion within my schoolroom pattern and therefore enabling them to entree more mainstream categories in the hereafter.

The unwanted behavior could stem from a figure of factors including their place life, environmental influences, equal force per unit area, personality, self assurance and ego regard, to call but a few ; which will be discussed subsequently.

When sing difference and diverseness, many people think of stereotypes, such as, cultural diverseness, gender differences etc. The job with a stereotype nevertheless, is that no one person conforms to it precisely, and yet, in the educational institute it is persons that we are covering with therefore, we place the accent on geographic expedition of single differences, and non stereotypes.

Make these differences truly mean that some kids and immature people are uneducable and have to be segregated and placed in particular schools? Previous trains of idea were that those with ‘special needs’ would be better off in particular schools. By puting them in such institutes, the instruction of the remainder would non be hindered.

Harmonizing to Thomas and Loxley ( 2007 ) one of the first Particular Schools in the UK was The School of Instruction for the Blind, in Liverpool 1791, besides mentioned in The Warnock Report ( p8 ) . During the Nineteenth Century Special Schools were established for the blind, deaf and dense kids. During the 20ThursdayCentury Special Schools grew in figure until they catered for around 2 % of the school population.

In the early portion of the century people with larning troubles were referred to as feebleminded, idiots and imbeciles.

Many of the particular schools were started by voluntary organisations for students with specific disablements. They were seen as more helpful and less intimidating to pupils with disablements.

‘The term particular educational demands began to come into usage in the late sixtiess as a consequence of increasing dissatisfaction with the nomenclature used in the Handicapped Pupils and School Health Service Regulations ( 1945 ) , which classified handicapped kids into 10 classs harmonizing to their chief disability. There was, furthermore, an increasing consciousness of the frequence of acquisition and other troubles impacting children’s advancement and accommodation in ordinary schools’ . ( Ronald Gulliford, ( Ed ) 1992 p1 )

Before the Warnock Report it was normally believed that particular educational demands stressed that the shortages were from within the kid. This came from a medical or psychological point of position which implied that the person was in some manner ‘in deficit’ . The demand for particular educational proviso was related to the construct of disablement of head or organic structure. The 1944 Education Act defined 11 signifiers of disablement but did non include groups of kids who were considered to be uneducable due to the extent of their disability. Disabilities were described in medical footings except for educational sub-normality and maladjustment which were more hard to clear up, proposing that there was a cut-off point between normal and unnatural. In 1970 statute law was introduced which stated that local instruction governments had to do particular educational proviso for all types of disablement, but this did non stipulate whether it should be in separate schools or categories. This resulted in particular instruction being considered as that which merely took topographic point in particular schools. ( Sally Beveridge 1999 )

The Warnock commission was set up to reexamine the proviso for kids with mental and physical disablements and produced the study in 1978. It promoted a broad scope of particular demands, instead than distinct classs and helped to organize the footing of the 1981 Education Act’s policies on particular educational demands ( SEN ) , which introduced a different attack to the definition of kids with SEN:

‘A kid will hold a particular educational demand if s/he has a acquisition trouble necessitating particular educational proviso. The ‘learning difficulty’ includes non merely physical and mental disablements, but besides any sort of larning trouble experienced by a kid, provided that it is significantly greater than that of the bulk of kids of the same age’ . ( 1981 Education Act, p1 )

The Act stated that the instruction of kids with SEN should be carried out in ordinary schools where possible. The Act emphasized an attack that is in favor of inclusion and integrating, instead than separation and isolation. This attack recommended that kids with particular demands should be treated as persons, and that the kid should hold a learning support instructor with them in the schoolroom, instead than being taken out of the category.

Since the Warnock study and the 1981 Education Act, statute law has been bit by bit catching up with the recommendations.

The most recent statute law is The Education ( Additional Support for Learning ) ( Scotland ) Act 2004, in which the term ‘Special Educational Needs’ has been replaced with ‘Additional Support for Learning’ .

The Act states that ‘A kid or immature individual has extra support demands for whatever ground, the kid or immature individual is, or is likely to be, unable without the proviso of extra support to profit from school instruction provided or to be provided for the kid or immature individual. In relation to a prescribed pre-school kid, a kid of school age or a immature individual having school instruction, proviso which is extra to, or otherwise different from, the educational proviso made by and large for kids or, as the instance may be, immature individuals of the same age in schools ( other than particular schools ) under the direction of the instruction authorization for the country to which the kid or immature individual belongs.’ ( Education ( Additional Support for Learning ) ( Scotland ) Act 2004, p1 )

This definition seems to be similar as in the 1981 Education Act antecedently mentioned, although the Education ( Scotland ) Act 1981 did non reference that the ‘learning difficulty’ included physical and mental disablements, as did the Act in England.

Does this mean there are no existent alterations in policy? Is everything precisely the same as before but with a different name?

The Additional Support for Learning Act introduced a new model for back uping kids and immature people. The Education ( Scotland ) Act 1981 needed instruction governments to do a generalprovision in their countries to run into such demands. The 2004 Act requires education governments to do equal and well-organized proviso for extra support as is required by the kid or immature individual with extra support needs’ .

This goes further than doing a general proviso, such as particular schools. The instruction authorization has a responsibility to supply the necessary extra support to every single kid or immature individual who needs it to profit from instruction. It besides has to place kids and immature people with extra support demands and to reexamine their go oning demands and the sufficiency of stairss taken to run into them. Staff and resources from within the peculiar schools attended by these kids or immature people have a function in enabling an instruction authorization to carry through these responsibilities, as do staff and resources from its ain services and from other bureaus. ( Concentrating on Inclusion, p7 )

Children may necessitate extra support for a broad assortment of grounds. A child’s instruction could be affected by issues ensuing from:

  • larning environment
  • inflexible curricular agreements
  • inappropriate attacks to larning and learning
  • more able kids
  • kids with English as an extra linguistic communication
  • household fortunes
  • homelessness
  • parental drug or intoxicant abuse
  • kids who are parents
  • kids who are carers
  • kids looked after by the local authorization
  • disablement or wellness demand
  • motor or centripetal damage
  • specific linguistic communication damage
  • autistic spectrum upset
  • larning troubles
  • Attention deficit disorder
  • depression or other mental wellness jobs
  • societal and emotional factors
  • kids who are being bullied
  • kids who are enduring racial favoritism
  • kids who are strong-arming
  • kids with behavioral troubles ( Govan Law Centre, internet beginning )

This is far from being a complete list and does non intend that every kid suiting one of the above classs needfully has extra support demands. This will depend on the sum and type of support required by the single kid.

There are many more factors that are now considered under The Education ( Additional Support for Learning ) ( Scotland ) Act 2004 compared with the old Act. Children with English as an extra linguistic communication are now included whereas antecedently they were non, they were non viewed as holding particular demands, but they are now recognized as necessitating support to entree the course of study.

Besides, parents now have the right to:

  • Ask their child’s instruction authorization to happen out whether your kid has extra support demands.
  • Request a specific type of assessment and/or scrutiny for your kid when their instruction authorization is suggesting to officially place whether they have extra support demands.
  • Receive information or advice about a child’s extra support demands. ( Enquire 2006 )

All local governments should hold policies in topographic point to guarantee they are staying by the act. The authorization in which I work has assorted policies and guidelines in topographic point, including:


  • Entree to Education for Pupils with Disabilities/Additional Support Needs Strategy 2005-08
  • Race Equality Policy and Strategy 2005-08
  • Centripetal Support Service Quality Assurance Policy
  • Extra Support Needs Policy Framework.

Policies – Under Development

  • Disability Equality Scheme


  • Guidance on the Education of Looked After Children and Young Peoples
  • Bettering Access to the School Environment & A ; to Communication for Parents and Visitors.
  • How good is our Educational Psychology Service – Draft Snapshot.
  • Bettering Physical Access to Education.
  • Riding for Pupils with Additional Support Needs.
  • Safety and Good Practice on Education Excursions.
  • Supporting Pupil ‘s entree to the course of study utilizing ICT ( ASPECTS ) .
  • Swiming for Pupils with Additional Support Needs.

Guidelines – Under Development

  • Autism Support.
  • English as an Extra Language.
  • Integrated Assessment Framework – Draft Operational Guidelines
  • Motor Coordination Difficulties.
  • Centripetal Support Service Guidelines.

The Additional Support Needs Policy Framework was produced in January 2007 as 6

Nerve pathwaies to Policy brochures and the rules behind the policy are printed in each brochure:

‘The Additional Support Needs Policy Framework and the Pathways to Policy Pack for Supporting Children’s and Young People’s larning guarantee that all kids and immature people are provided with the necessary support to assist them work towards accomplishing their full potency with regard to their personality, endowments and mental and physical abilities. It promotes collaborative working among all those back uping kids and immature people’ .

In September 2005 HM Inspectorate of Education was asked by Scots Curates to supervise and measure the consistence, effectivity and efficiency of instruction governments in implementing the Education ( Additional Support for Learning ) ( Scotland ) Act 2004 and to guarantee that processs for execution were in line with the responsibilities of the Act 2004 and the associated Code of Practice.

In 2007 HMIE produced the Report on the execution of the Education ( Additional Support for Learning ) ( Scotland ) Act 2004.

The study states that most governments were effectual in guaranting that their processs for implementing the Act were in line with the responsibilities of the Act and the associated Code of Practice. The most effectual had built on bing good pattern and developed joint strategic attacks with other bureaus to run into the demands of kids and immature people with extra support demands. However, governments varied in their effectivity in implementing the cardinal demands of the Act. ( HMIE 2007 )

The study provided guidelines for betterment and was made available to schools in February 2008, to enable them to measure their execution and effectivity of current statute law ; the Education ( Additional Support for Learning ) ( Scotland ) Act 2004 and Inclusion.

Following this study some schools including the school, in which I work, are keeping CPD Sessionss for staff on the execution of the Act and Inclusion, and ways frontward.

Inclusion is non a new phenomenon, it has been recommended in educational statute law since the Warnock Report in 1978. In fact it has been spoke about during the 1960’s,

As cited by Josephine Jenkinson, Dunn’s ( 1968 ) statement against segregated particular instruction and in favor of integrating was that progresss in the development of individualised, self-paced course of study in regular instruction would let pupils with disablements to be accommodated in the regular category, if they were provided with a programme designed by a specializer instructor to run into their demands and in which they could come on at their ain gait. Integration could be made possible by extremist goings in school organisation, affecting a greater accent on squad instruction, dirt categories and flexible groupings. ( Jenkinson, 1996. p 15-16 )

This implies that there should be a alteration in the course of study and how it is delivered, to run into the demands of all students, and that specialist instructors should be working with schoolroom instructors to be after and present the course of study.

Historically “integration” was the term used in the 1980s, but this came to be seen as puting handicapped kids in a mainstream scene, without supplying the support they required and leting them to be at that place every bit long as they were able to suit into the bing systems and civilizations. It is now acknowledged that the inclusion of handicapped, and kids with extra demands, involves traveling much further, and altering the policies, patterns and attitudes within the school.

The Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education provides the undermentioned definitions of inclusion in instruction, from the Index for Inclusion in instruction ( Booth and Ainscow 2002 ) , besides cited by Thomas and Vaughan 2004 ( p183 ) :

  • Valuing all pupils and staff every bit.
  • Increasing the engagement of pupils in, and cut downing their exclusion from, the civilizations, course of study and communities of local schools.
  • Restructuring the civilizations, policies and patterns in schools so that they respond to the diverseness of pupils in the vicinity.
  • Reducing barriers to larning and engagement for all pupils, non merely those with damages or those who are categorized as `having particular educational demands ‘ .
  • Learning from efforts to get the better of barriers to the entree and engagement of peculiar pupils to do alterations for the benefit of pupils more widely.
  • Sing the difference between pupils as resources to back up acquisition, instead than every bit jobs to be overcome.
  • Admiting the right of pupils to an instruction in their vicinity.
  • Bettering schools for staff every bit good as for pupils.
  • Stressing the function of schools in edifice community and developing values, every bit good as in increasing accomplishment.
  • Fostering reciprocally prolonging relationships between schools and communities.
  • Acknowledging that inclusion in instruction is one facet of inclusion in society. ( Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, internet beginning )

Why do we necessitate inclusion?

Whatever their disablement or larning trouble kids have a portion to play in society after school. An early start in mainstream playgroups or baby’s room schools, followed by instruction in ordinary schools and colleges, is the best readying for an incorporate life. Education is portion of, non separate from, the remainder of kids ‘s lives. Disabled kids can be educated in mainstream schools with appropriate support.

As discussed by Ainscow ( 1999 ) , Inclusion is a characteristic of the Salamanca Statement which was agreed by 92 authoritiess and 25 international organisations in 1994.

‘The statement argues that regular schools with an inclusive orientation are the most effectual agencies of battling prejudiced attitudes, constructing an inclusive society and accomplishing instruction for all’ . ( Ainscow 1999, p74 )

Cited by Thomas and Vaughan ( 2007 ) , Rustemier argues that segregated schooling breaches all four rules underpinning the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. These rules are:

  • Non-discrimination ( Article 2 ) – all kids should bask all rights without favoritism and on the footing of equality of chance ;
  • The best involvements of the kid ( Article3 ) ;
  • The right to life, endurance and development ( Article 6 ) – development is meant in its broadest sense, including physical wellness but besides mental, emotional, cognitive, societal and cultural, and ‘to the maximal extent possible’ ; and
  • The positions of the kid ( Article 12 ) – kids have the right to be heard and to hold their positions taken earnestly in affairs impacting them.

Rustemier goes on to reason that inclusion has come to intend about everything but the riddance of exclusion. And that the current instruction system excludes and segregates big Numberss of kids from mainstream instruction because of larning trouble, disablement, and behavior, despite claiming to hold inclusion as its end. ( Thomas and Vaughan, 2004, p 23-24 ) .

Joe Whittaker discusses, in an article which appeared in the Greater Manchester of Disabled People’s Magazine ‘Coalition’ , the harm he believes is inflicted on handicapped kids and their local communities by a system of particular schooling and segregation. He farther argues that inclusive instruction will be prevented from being implemented in any meaningful manner whilst this system continues.

‘Over the last 50 old ages different authoritiess have told us that we are traveling towards “ integrating ” , where handicapped kids and non-disabled kids work together in the same school and where everyone has equal chances. However, at the same time the same authoritiess have stated that there will ever be a demand for some kids to travel to segregated particular schools, and statute law was introduced to guarantee this would happen’ . ( Joe Whittaker 2001: pp. 12-16 ) [ See appendix1 ]

Despite the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the turning figure of people in favor of Inclusive mainstream schools and the closing of Particular Schools, Government statistics show that there has been an addition in the figure of Independent Special Schools in Scotland over the past few old ages. The figure of publically funded particular schools in single countries of Scotland has besides changed. Some countries such as east Ayrshire show an addition while others show a lessening in the figure of particular schools. There has been a important addition in students with Additional Support Needs go toing both Primary and Secondary mainstream schools. There has besides been an addition in the figure of students with IEP’S go toing mainstream secondary schools. [ See tables1, 2: appendix 2 ]

There are many grounds why secondary students are deemed to necessitate extra support in school. Harmonizing to the statistics there are 1,816 students with Social, emotional and behavioral trouble ; 1,403 of these being male childs and merely 413 misss. The statistics show that there are significantly more male childs with extra support demands than misss. [ See table4, appendix 2 ]

A Scots Executive National Statistics Publication gives the undermentioned information, along with the statistic tabular arraies in appendix 2:

Particular schools

  • There were 34 independent particular schools in 2004, compared to 33 schools in 2003, and 32 in 2002.
  • There were 1,132 students in independent particular schools in 2004, an addition of eight per cent over 2003.
  • There were 334 instructors ( FTE ) in independent particular schools in 2004, a 17 per cent addition from 2003. There were 3.4 students per instructor in 2004, a lessening from 3.7 in 2003.

Particular Educational Needs

There were 1,349 students with a Record of Needs and/or an Individualized Educational Programme. This is an addition of 105 ( eight per cent ) from 2003. The largest classs of chief trouble of larning were societal, emotional and behavioral troubles ( 22.6 per 1,000 students ) and specific larning troubles in linguistic communication and/or mathematics – including dyslexia ( 6.7 per 1,000 students ) . ( Scots Executive, Internet Source )

Why is it that at that place seems to be more male childs than misss identified as necessitating Additional Needs?

One ground could be that male childs are seen as more rambunctious than misss, therefore reported as holding behavior jobs, another ground could be that more appraisals of male childs have been carried out, compared to misss ; ensuing in an addition of incidences and prevalence. There is besides the general premise that girls mature more rapidly than male childs.

Cited in ‘A survey of kids and immature people who present disputing behaviour’ – literature reappraisal, Cole et Al ( 1998 ) ( 1999 ) established that there were 10s to twelve times more male childs than misss in English EBD schools and over three times as many male childs as misss in PRUs ( Pupil Referral Units ) . This creates really existent troubles in guaranting that misss have a suited equal group if they attend a ‘mixed’ EBD school ( see besides Cruddas and Haddock, 2001 ) . Egelund and Hansen ( 2000 ) noted a 5:1 male child: miss ratio in unintegrated proviso in Denmark. In Scotland, Lloyd and O’Regan ( 1999 ) study that over 80 % of the students in specialist proviso for SEBD are male childs. Fortin and Bigras ( 1997 ) , note that boys to a great extent outnumber misss in Canadian literature on EBD. ( Ofsted 2005 )

This literature reappraisal was commissioned by Ofsted as portion of a large-scale study to inform the study ‘Managing disputing behaviour’ . Ofsted commissioned the University of Birmingham to transport out this research to inform subsequent fieldwork, and gives the premise that the Gender instability is International, and Social Emotional and Behaviour troubles is one of the classs that creates the most jobs. In November 2002 BBC News Online reported Schools in England were placing more male childs than misss as necessitating particular aid with their instruction.

‘New statistics on the gender of those with particular demands reveal for the first clip that 64 % are boys and 36 % misss. The gender spread is even wider in the most terrible instances – those with formal “ statements ” of demand: 72 % are boys and 28 % misss. Experts say the grounds are ill-defined but that – polemically – a big factor might be instructors ‘ perceptual experiences of what constitutes debatable behaviour’ .

It was besides reported that kids with particular educational demands are being turned away from schools because of frights that they could impact their place in exam conference tabular arraies. Children with’ particular needs’ history for about nine-tenths of lasting exclusions from primary schools, and six-tenths of those from secondary schools. Almost five times as many male childs as misss are excluded from school. This corroborates Rustemier’s statement that the instruction system excludes big Numberss of kids, particularly those deemed to hold ‘special needs’ .

The study stated that misss and male childs are more or less every bit likely to hold physical disablements, but male childs are far more likely than misss to hold specific larning troubles, autistic upsets or emotional or behavioral jobs.

Medical grounds were discussed, and Richard Byers, an SEN expert in Cambridge University ‘s module of instruction, was quoted as stating that some signifiers of particular need – notably autism – were diagnosed much more frequently in male childs than in misss. More and more instances of autism were being identified, so more male childs were said to hold SEN. But there was a bigger, “ greyer ” facet to the issue, particularly where kids in mainstream schools were identified as holding societal, emotional or behavioral troubles – once more, many more of them male childs.

Florid felt that we identify one sort of societal, emotional or behavioral trouble which tends to be in male childs more frequently than misss. ” This might be that for all sorts of societal and cultural grounds instructors perceived male childs to be more debatable than misss. So there was an over-identification of male childs with SEN – and likely an under-identification of misss ‘ demands. The Department for Education was quoted as stating that there appears to be some grounds that professionals, including instructors, are likely to place male childs as holding SEN peculiarly in relation to behaviour. ”

The BBC besides reported that the editor of The Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, Lani Florian, said the gender spread might be every bit high as 10 to one in the instance of emotional and behavioral jobs. Peoples had put frontward assorted theories, to make with cistrons and endocrines, for case – but none had been conclusive. “ It has been said that the schoolroom is merely a friendly environment for misss – but that ‘s merely a theory excessively, ” Dr Florian said. “ We truly do n’t cognize. ” ( Gary Eason, BBC News online 2002 )

This study has been discussed by assorted people on a GTC forum as summarized by Allan Witherington – ( efacilitator )

Many of the subscribers have offered observations from their ain experiences in the schoolroom that confirm the frequently described differences in attitude, larning manner and attainment between male childs and misss. Boys were said to be noisier and to lose involvement more rapidly, whereas misss were quieter, more brooding and better able to cover with written undertakings. No-one contested the fact that the gender spread is existent. A relentless subject was the demand for instructors to present lessons offering a assortment of larning experiences to provide for the different acquisition manners of all those in the class’ . This was said to be ‘a tall order’ . When discoursing the quotation mark from a DfES interpreter as stating, “ There appears to be some grounds that professionals, including instructors, are likely to place male childs as holding SEN peculiarly in relation to behaviour. ” The inquiry was asked “are they proposing that the perceptual experiences of the professionals are wrong? Are we merely losing the particular demands of misss because they are less obvious” ? There seemed to be no reply to this! ( GTC forum, internet beginning ) Equally good as the gender issue, and it being reported that male childs are more likely to be identified with Autism and EBD, harmonizing to the antecedently mentioned statistics table 4 ( appendix 2 ) , in 2006 there were 19 grounds for support for secondary students with Additional support demands compared with The 1944 Education Act which defined 11 classs of disablement.

Possibly the more recent Government Policies and enterprises have contributed to the addition! With the construct of Inclusion there are now more kids and immature people identified with extra demands go toing mainstream schools whereas in old old ages they would hold been segregated into particular schools, the extra rights of the parents could intend that more parents are bespeaking appraisals for their kids if they think there is a job, ensuing in more kids necessitating extra support. There are many other grounds which were non antecedently recognized as Particular Educational Needs such as some household fortunes, strong-arming etc.

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