I-The “Digger” Stereotype
I-The “Digger” Stereotype: Justification of genocide Judge by prior Native encounters Few practiced agriculture, inferior Digging of roots, gold Facilitated the intense racism and brutal violence against Indians Inferiority of California Indians: easy to push aside/no match for civilized white society I-Acorns *Acorns helped confirm the digger stereotype. They were important to Indigenous tribes because they were a mall stable of food. They had high preservatives and often one harvest could yield two years worth. Also form of Innovated with the use of trial and errors. 7 types of Oak trees
High in fat, tannic acid Abundant => Staple resource (50% caloric intake) Center of many cultures (Alone) Pulverize to flour, meal (warm water leach off tannic acid) I-Animals (Religious Belief) *The Idea that everything has a tangible life form associated with It and these many spirits create the balance in the world. Some would hunt and if they found less deer than they figured that the gods were mad and that they were hiding the animals. World = Diversity of spirits (Animated by spirits) Clash with Christianity/Missions No concept of sin 2-Yum Crossing Captain Juan Battista De Anza
Exploratory expedition Mechanically, CA 1774 20+ people Indian guide Sebastian Tribal (fled from San Gabriel) Quean Indians-Gila/Colorado River Junction Palm-Quean leader 1780-two small villages June of 1781-Yams attacked Spanish. 1781-asses closed land route 3-Junipers Sera *First father of the missions beginning in 1769 up until 1784. He was responsible for opening 9 missions. Between 1769 and 1790 over 5000 natives converted to Catholicism. Symbolized missionary experience/system and Spanish colonialism Famous for skill In public speaking Performed self-mortification
Exemplified the colonial ideals of 1 6th century Spain Controversial figure 55 years old (physical limitations) Religious head (Portola) Franciscan order 1769-San Diego 1784 Death: 9 missions/4 prosodies/5,OHO Neophytes 3-Disease & Population Dynamics No evidence of intended infection Fragmented communities/destroyed families => children/mothers seek food/refuge at missions Measles killed all 7 yr old) protection Spanish culture of Patriarchy/Honor = casual attitudes toward sexual exploitation Behavior of soldiers lead to Indian revolts 3-Tularemia Republic of Hell Wetlands (Central Valley) 0,000 yogurt/Motto Treacherous terrain => dangerous pursue fugitives, raiders, new recruits Refuge escaped Natives/Launching place for raids on missions Horse trading network: Engaged in stealing/funneling horses (interior West) Autonomous/Powerful communities = weakness of Alt CA -similar to New Mexican communities = Apaches/Comanche in the Southwest 3- Estonian Locale-landing leader Rebellion: San Jose, 1828-1829 Passes to visit friends/relatives in the interior Sent message to Father Duran declaring rebellion Defeated two Spanish expeditions Australians River-Spring of 1829
Mission San Jose: Sought pardon/forgiveness Role of protective ingratiation by an influential neophyte Significance of Tularemia as a refuge/place of resistance Togetherness: Language & Shared resentment of Spanish/Missions/Colonists -unite former rivals/distinct culture groups 4-California Banknotes Production of hides for manufacturing of leather: -industrial belting, shoes, saddles, hats and clothing Hides: $1 to $2 Common medium of exchange in a society with very little circulating currency Soaked in ocean to soften, Pickled in a vat of brine, Scraped clean to remove fat/residues, Spread out in sun, Dry then transported to a boat Dana: Process 25 hides/day… Warehouse 44,000 processed hides Very dangerous/difficult work (Hazardous surf) 4-Richard Henry Dana Two Years Before the Mast (1840) Hired to work on the ship Pilgrim out of New England Recorded descriptions of Mexican Californians economy Views of California society/Californians environment -influence how future migrants perceived CA Process 25 hides/day Warehouse stocked with 44,000 processed hides 4-Vaqueros Cowboys kick cattle/10 mil acres of pasture Indians-trained in equestrian arts/Liberia cattle culture
Roundup: herded loose cattle, branded and castrated calves, slaughtered animals Skills: horsemanship, lassoing, branding, manufacturing of leather products Leather and Tallow 6-Johann Augustus Suttee *Gold was found in Stutter’s mill in 1848. People from all over the world migrated to this part of the world to work on at his goldfields. Swiss immigrant 48,000 acre grant from Mexican governor (confluence of Sacramento/American Rivers) Stutter’s Fort (New Helvetica): Estate with farms, livestock, artisans Intends to build an empire: relies on Indian labor 1841 buys out Russian properties (Fort Ross) Helps/Exploits early emigrants from the US 6-Sam Brannon *After gold was struck at Stutter’s mill, Brannon was able to make large amounts of money by selling good and services to those who worked at Stutter’s Mill.
He was considered the first publicist of the California Gold Rush Mormon entrepreneur (settled after persecution of Morons) Owner of the California Star Newspaper Gold discovered: Colombo, South Fork of American River -downplayed reports until had to investigate/confirm -bought as much mining equipment (store outside Stutter’s Fort) May 12, 1848 Announced “Gold! ” Californians first millionaire Mining the Miners $5,000/day Died poor (divorce, poor investments/lawsuits, alcoholism) 6-opportunity in the Goldfields *At first everyone had an opportunity to work in the goldfields 6-Mining the Miners 6-overland Trails Alternatives: -Isthmus: most expensive, fastest -Cape Horn: 17,000 miles/5 months/1849: most common East Started in Iowa/Missouri Traveled along watercourses 1849: ask… Sass: kick -?2,000 miles/4-5 months TIMING key Animals often died/discard heavy possessions Wagon 2,500 lb, 6-8 oxen/trains spanned 6 miles 1851 Cholera Epidemic: discouraged 1,sass 7-The Foreign Miner’s Tax Supreme Court Case stating that if a chessman witnessed a white man commit a crime then it was not valid because a Chinese man was inferior. 16 dollars a month, first targeted to Californian and Chilean. This was repealed in 1851, and then in 1852 became $3. Meant to discourage non-whites from entering the gold fields Provides roughly half the revenue for the state Underwrites acts of terrorism and ethnic cleansing 1850: required Californian, Mexican, Chinese & other Immigrants to pay $16/month Drove most Mexicans & Californian out of mining -Explicit violation of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Repealed 1851 Reinstated in 1852: large numbers of Chinese (reduced to $3-4/month) Remained in effect until Civil Rights Act of 1870 1870: California more than $5 million (25-50% of state annual revenues) 7-The Mode War Irony of “Digger” stereotype -Whites attack “inferior” Indians, when prepared, suffer heavy casualties November 29, 1872-June 1, 1873 Oregon reservation 1864: Mode territory eroded by farms, ranches and other Anglo settlements US military pursue Captain Jack: 150 Mode, 60 fighting men. Battle of Captain Jacks stronghold (military 25 casualties/Mode zero) 7-Joaquin Marietta He was a fabled bandit known as the Robin Hood of El Dorado who may of lived during the Gold Rush in the asses. He was known to rob from whites. He symbolized the resistance against white economic and cultural domination. 853 Anglo murdered brother, raped wife, beat him (horsewhipped) Represents an inversion of real power relations Reflects the divisive character of Gold Rush society One person’s villain is another’s hero (Zero) 7-landing Indenture Act *Legislative act for the government to offer protection to Indians. This created a continuation and expansion of the peonage system to secure labor or cattle for inches. Settlers were able to capture Natives. Often Raided. From 1845 to 1870: 150 to ASK Act for the Government and the Protection of Indians Composite of various initiatives Allowed native children to be indentured, consent of parents (Boys 18, Girls 15) White ranchers to procure Indian labor Forbid Indian burning: $200 fine/25 lashes “In no case could a white man be convicted of any offense upon the testimony of a Indian. 8-Slackens Transformed environments Mining debris deposited along banks of rivers and streams Buried farmland, structures/killed orchards, livestock, crops 1878 Farmer W. H. Drum: farmland destroyed 8-The Comatose Lode Silver George Hearst Technology for mining Hard rock mining 8-Hard Rock Miners tunnels 9-Mussel Slough (Myth) Located along the Southern Pacific Railroad in Tulane County (Hanford) 1870: Tulane Basin largely undeveloped 1876 Hanford emerged as new rail town 1879: First intensively-cultivated and extensively irrigated small farming regions 1878: Settlers’ Grand League, 500 men (resist occupation by Southern Pacific Railroad) Held secret meetings, wore red robes and masks (ASK) 9-Theodore Judas “Crazy Judas” Engineer Promote railroad (Sacramento to Folsom)
Lobbyist for transcontinental Railroad 9-The Big Four (Huntington, Charles Cocker, Mark Hopkins, Leland Stanford) to develop railroad- upper middle class merchants from Sacramento with $16,000 Businessmen: modest wealth Connections: Republican Party Pacific Railway Act Central Pacific Railroad Chinese labor 9-The Wheat Bonanza ASSES Isaac Friendlier: International network of banks, warehouses, shipping companies, factories Vast tracts of land/cheap labor Hugh J. Glenn: ask acres/l ,OHO laborers/$kick in machinery, draft animals/million bushels 1890: 41 million bushels (peak) Ended in asses: overproduction, competition & glutted market 9-Sunniest Act 1885: O per capita… 1914: 40 per capita 1893: California Fritterer’s Exchange (1 k growers/200 packing facilities) 200 brands => Sun Kissed (Sunniest) 1895: Florida freeze 1909: 75% of all citrus Exclusion Act Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Renewed in 1892 Repealed in 1943 (World War II) *The original Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Associations in San Francisco in 1882.
They attempted to legitimate the Chinese and to change certain stereotypes cassock. Including prostitution. They encouraged them to live more moral lives. Informal gobo. Of SF Chinese immigrant community in the late 19th century: Hire white attorneys/ feed hungry/find Jobs/nursing the sick/burying the dead/ship remains to China Theme: institutions that develop in absence of gobo. Services 10-Paper Sons & Daughters *After the Chinese Exclusion Act was signed in 1882, people presumed that there would be less immigration. Chinese Americans would travel back to China and claim boys and girls as their own. From 1882 to 1940 over a million immigrated to America.
Tactic to get through system (Exclusion Act) 10-Angel Island Detention Center Ellis Island of the West, Processed over a million Chinese between 1910 and 1940. Due to 1882 Chinese exclusion act, many people spent years waiting for entry. Poems and Graffiti. 1910-1940 immigrant processing center/detain/interrogate Chinese immigration as the US first concern about controlling borders Aimed at Chinese Immigration (Exclusion Act) kick Chinese Immigrants 1910-1940 Detained: 2 weeks-6 months (some as long as 2 years) 10-WAP *Created by David Carney in the asses, their aim were against the Chinese immigration and the Central Pacific Railroad, who hired them.
They were key monuments and advocates of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. Denis Carney: Irish Immigrant Anti Chinese/Corporate (Money) Part II: Essay (70 Points) Instructions: Two of the essay prompts below will appear on the exam. You must answer one of them. 1) What does Californians early history reveal about relationships between structure and agency? Choose at least three of the following examples for your analysis of the ways people both actively shaped and were transformed by historical environments and processes in Californians past: Pre-colonial California Indian resource use, Outpouring & Estonian, Dame Shirley & Lucy Standard Wakefield, The Mode, Theodore Judas & the Big Four.
Structure: What is actually possible based on the larger environmental, economic, political, social, and cultural contexts and strong forces that shape the worlds people inhabit Agency: The ways that people shape those forces and worlds through choices and actions with all of their intended and unintended consequences and how people adapt to what they view as conventional, desirable, obtainable, possible, probable, and unavoidable Lucy Standard Wakefield Husband New Haven, CT (divorced after arriving in California) Moved to Platteville: l have been toiling hard for the last two and a half years and am still doing almost incredible amount of work averaging 20 dozen pies weekly with my own hands without any one to fetch so much as a bucket of water. ” Routine: 14-her days 240 pies/week at $1 [pie “There is no way for a woman to make money except by hard work of some sort….
I have no doubt she might take home over and above her expenses coning, while here, and going home, $3000, in three years, but they would be three years of toil, hardship, and in some respects severe privations, though if she came over the plains he would be prepared to consider California comforts, luxurious, especially at this late stage of our improved and improving comforts. ” Deck. 1851 2) Drawing upon lectures and at least two readings (the Shirley Letters, Michael Managerial article, and/or D. Michael Bottoms’ An Aristocracy of Color), answer the following prompt. Migrants flocked to California from the late asses through the asses to pursue opportunities. How did relationships between race, gender, and economic opportunity shape Californian society during these decades?