Sociology class notes


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Seeks to explain, describe, and predict human behavior Not concerned with individual human beings Concerned with human beings In reaction to other human beings Puts emphasis on group behavior (two or more people) (small group/large groups) Looks at group social interaction, social behavior an influence of social structures on people How old Is sociology? 200 years Why did sociology (as social science develop)? Who was the founding father of sociology? Main contributions of Sociology Early Augusta compete: Founding father of sociology, coined the word sociology

How Is sociology different from other social sciences? Emilee Druthers: influenced development of functionalism 4 types of suicide by Druthers: Egoistic: Mentally ill, lonely, social outcast, depression Altruistic: Kamikaze pilots, seclude bombers, cult members, obligation to the group, Fatalistic: Inmates, elderly, terminally ill, hopelessness Anomic: Anyone who can’t deal with chaos, such as stock market crash or 1929- Insecurity Anomie: When collects norms are questions, much social change, Institutions are weakened, family, religion.

Gender norms are questioned; values and belief systems are questioned Theory of structural functionalism 1 If a structure exists in society its because its functional, the social structure exists because it works Social structures: anything external to people that has ways of affecting us, like religions, schools, Any pattern of social organization external to people that has a way of influencing us. Example: Family Peers Media Religion School Exams Laws Marriage 3. This theory explains that society s a large social system with inter relation parts, all working together for a reason 4.

If something in society is present its because it works for some part of it, it not it eases to exist, if something continues to exist in society its because it works, 5. Glitches happen. This throws that part of the social system in a state of imbalance. When the situation is rectified, that part of the social system goes back to a state of equilibrium. 6. If you want to understand why something exists in society look at its relationship with some other parts of the social system.

It must be contributing in some way to some part of it Otherwise it would cease to exist The conflict theory: 1: Karl Mar’s ideas led to the development of this theory 2. Two social classes: argosies( ruling class) proletariat( working class) 3: There has always been a history of the exploitations of the ruling class on the working class( Its all about power and money) 4: Marx argues that the powerful will also use different social The ruling ideas of any age the ideas of its ruling class. Microbiology vs..

Microbiology Macro is concerned with large external social structures affecting people. Macro- is conflict and functionalism( because, it influences large groups of people) Micro- symbolic and exchange ( deal with trying to help and analyze small groups, to et inside their spaces, get in their heads, try to understand why they act the way they do. If a situation is studied, a researcher will look at external reasons for causes, economy, environment access to education, strength of the family unit in Canada.

Augustus comet: the founding father of sociology, coined the word sociology Emilee Druthers: Influenced development of functionalism Karl Marx: Led to development of conflict theory involving the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Max Weber: Influenced development of Symbolic Interaction Theory. Exchange Theory: In all relationships, there is a constant “give and take” When people give more then they receive on a constant basis, they start feeling more dissatisfied with the relationship or situation.

Important to compromise, not be selfish, not “take each other for granted, not take advantage of people. Communication is key in order to understand each other’s expectations (this is why things can get difficult) In a relationship each should be giving 60-70% ideally. First essay question: How would you explain the discipline of sociology to a friend( 3 points) You could discuss the following The focus of sociology Macro/micro sociology How sociology is different from psychology or social work. TTS difference because a social worker goes to look into the family and see why certain things affect people(live with them, collect data), why sociology, looks into the entire society you could also explain how the application of the exchange theory or the theory of symbolic interaction could help you in relationship or in your career Basic 4 people to know for chapter 1 Augustus compete Emilee darkened Karl Marx Max Weber Canadian Sociology: First sociology department in Canada: was McGill university 1925 Later sass’s: fewer than 50 sociologists taught in Canada. Chapter one continued:

What is sociology work How old is sociology Why did sociology( as a social science) develop Who is the founding father of sociology How I sociology different from other social sciences Does sociology use other social sciences to understand social phenomena? What is the sociological imagination? (Why higher divorce rate, why people marrying later) What is meant by a persons Culture? We share: Values, beliefs, morals, language, knowledge, art, technology….. Culture is the way of life of people What is a subculture? A culture within the dominant culture A subset of the larger dominant culture

A group that has retained its own distinctive set of beliefs, customs, morals, etc. With assimilation to the general features of the wider general culture. Subcultures could be based on ethnicities Subcultures could be based on religion What is a counter culture: It IS a subculture but how does it differ Its value, morals, beliefs are antagonistic to those of the mainstream culture. Culture diffusion: Is when you take something from another culture and adapt it to your own because it works. Technology Music Fashion Cars Norms: Rules of acceptable behavior people in a culture adhere to.

Mores: serious violation of a norm, often illegal or gross disrespect. Folkways: mild violation of a norm, based, more on tradition or etiquette Taboo: violation of a norm that is serious and universally forbidden (cannibalism, incest) Ethnocentrism: Ethnocentric: one thinks that their culture is the best and everyone else’s is inferior. – one thinks culture is superior, becomes very narrow minded Cultural relativism: Is the reverse of being ethnocentric Xenophobia: fear of the unknown Sanction: Positive sanction: reward when you adhere to a norm Negative sanction: punishment when you violate a norm Could be mild or serious

Cultural Lag: On average it takes people forty to fifty years to catch up with any major changes in the society Culture shock: Emotional discomfort of dealing with a different culture, could be mild to severe Sapphire whorl hypothesis: language culturally determined and leads to different interpretations of reality, hypothesis modified to language influences behaviors and interpretations of reality. Second Essay Question: Answer all: 2 points What is the difference between hip hops and rap Hip Hop, is the the subculture beginning in the early sass’s that included break dancing, graffiti, rap music, style of clothing

Rap, rhymed poetry recited in rhythm rooted in oral, African traditions of story telling. How, when and where did rap music first originate Cool DC Here( Aka: Clive Campbell)- started in 1973(bloc parties) Started the idea of talking over music “The breakable”- the percussion break of songs, using two turntables. Big in the African American community- system scene) to the Bronx What were the lyrics saying from the early sass’s to the late sass’s Rap groups until the late asses communicated pain and sense of hopelessness in American ghettos. When did against rap, make its first appearance. How did the lyrics change?

Against rap originated on west coast in late eighties. A sub genre depicting thug life and experienced of inner city youth. A strong voice of social and political commentary gave way to a misogynistic lyrics glorifying that lifestyle. By applying the labeling theory, how might the lyrical content have affected some of today’s youth? Colonization Complex, lifelong, learning process, Where people learn to behave in manner appropriate to the values, norms, rules of their social group, culture and society, People learn how to interact with other People learn social skills required for participation in social life Primary colonization:

First twelve years of a persons life, the first five being the most influential The child strongly internalizes the values of “significant others” as their world They take on the values, attitudes, morals and expectations of their parent’s and make them their own The most powerful colonization a person experiences Parents thus have a tremendous impact on the child’s self esteem and self concept.

Takes place from adolescence on We take on values and norms of peers, social group and culture(media, school) Cooley’s looking glass self theory we Judge ourselves according to the feedback we get from others people mirror back o us appraisals of ourselves the key word is interpretation.

The individuals interpretation may/may not be accurate We tend to be very vulnerable when we are young FOR QUIZ George Herbert meads theory on the self self as subject “l”: this is the spontaneous, creative, individualistic, unconventional, impulsive part of the self Self as object “ME”: this is the social self, the yielding of a persons individuality of the constraints of social norms. This is the part of you that conforms, that tries to “fit” in. Generalized other: This is a term referring to the understanding and awareness of what others expect from and you in terms of how o think and act within the group or culture.

CHAPTER 13,4 Classical conditioning Conditioning by association, constantly used in advertising Rationalization Because of a new role, situation, environment, a person is required to replace or abandon established patterns of: behavior, attitudes, values, norms It’s the process of breaking down old behavior patterns and replacing them with new ones. Total institution there is a physical barrier to outside world such as locked doors, high walls, barbed wire people tend to be stripped of their professions, given uniforms, and individuality is taken away.

The person is now part of a group gender, religion, ethnicity, race….. Stereotypes in mass media? Patriarchy- Male dominance at all social levels, Mean world syndrome: Because there is so much violence In television, as a result people become more fearful, heavy television viewers are more likely to think that their neighborhood is unsafe and to assume that violent crime is rising Desensitizing: Idea that repeated exposure to media violence cause a reduction in emotional response Self fulfilling prophecy: You hear and it becomes true because you make it true and believe it. Genetics vs..

Colonization Aggression: The average male tends to be more aggressive because of their higher amounts of testosterone. (A. G. S females) Intelligence: No differences in I. Q Verbal Skills: Females tend to do better in verbal abilities, however research has proven this to be due to colonization. Math skills: No genetic differences, all colonization Visual- spatial abilities: Some genetic differences, tend to favor males, could be legacy of “Hunting and Gathering Society’ Sound intensity and body language cues: Genetic differences do exist, favoring females who are more susceptible to both. Nurture:

No genetic differences exist, however the female is less likely to abandon the child Empathy and compassion: No genetic differences, all colonization Brainstorming organization: left and right hemispheres of brain connected by nerve fibers called “corpus callous” When left or right side injured, males have more impairments. This suggests that abilities of left and right hemisphere of brain for females might be more evenly distributed. What are some genetic differences between males and females? Aggression Visual impairment Brain organization Body language How early does one identify themselves as female or male?

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