Comparison Of Masculinism And Sexism Sociology Essay Example
Comparison Of Masculinism And Sexism Sociology Essay Example

Comparison Of Masculinism And Sexism Sociology Essay Example

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  • Published: August 31, 2017
  • Type: Case Study
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In order to examine the two books in the second chapter of my thesis, it is necessary to have a theoretical foundation regarding political orientations. I will explore the fundamental ideas behind masculinism and sexism before ultimately drawing comparisons between them.

Definition of Masculinism

Masculinism is a political ideology that originated during the second wave feminist movement in the 1960s and 1970s. It emerged alongside concepts such as sexual politics, patriarchy, and gender-based division of labor. Scholars have since then analyzed masculinity's material, social, and intellectual aspects concerning gender relations. The ultimate objective of masculinism is to eradicate patriarchal structures that are based on sexist beliefs.

The confusing aspect of determining the specific meaning and boundaries of societal political orientations related to masculinity is surprising. According to Haywood and Mac an Ghaill's book "Men and Malenesss", societal relations ar


e built on a fixed source. For example, early feminist studies believed that women's oppression stemmed from the male body. Conversely, poststructuralist theorists have highlighted the ambiguity of meanings. Therefore, without an identifiable source, we are left with a lack of straightforward answers.

The perceptions of adult males, maleness, and masculinism are intricate, evolving, and paradoxical. Brittan employs the term 'masculinism' to illustrate the "ideology of patriarchy" in order to highlight the conceptual conflict. This implies that masculinism promotes the notion that males possess inherent superiority, which I perceive as a form of sexism. Throughout various historical periods, males have been depicted as more dominant, capable, successful, and fundamentally distinct from females. According to Easthope's interpretation, the concept of maleness can be traced back to ancient Greece and Rome. However, in my understanding, the ideology of masculinism contradicts sexism. Haywood and

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Mac an Ghaill define masculinism as encompassing perspectives, practices, and institutions characterized by masculine traits.

It is occasionally utilized to compare the consistency of the underlying processes of masculinity to the historical diversity portrayed in 'male' styles'. I agree with this viewpoint and there is much more to discuss. Many centuries ago, beginning with the first man on Earth named Adam, men assumed the responsibility of dominance over the weaker gender, namely women. The patriarchal ideology can be traced back to the teachings of Aristotle.

The concept of the province in this work was seen as a natural society, similar to a family, with a teleological purpose. It was believed that the topics should be governed by a parental figure, reflecting Aristotle's viewpoint. This idea influenced anthropological theory, as well as the understanding of the biological family as the fundamental societal institution. These ideas became popular in the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. However, the familial appeal only gained political significance when viewed from a secular perspective. The patriarchal household, dominated by males, served as a political role model.

Aristotle distinguished between the family's "economic" relationships and the political relationships that existed within the state. According to his teleological views, the progression from family to state formed the basis of his beliefs. Jean Bodin, a French legal scholar, adopted and expanded on Aristotle's ideas. Notably, Bodin introduced the concept of absolute, indivisible, and inalienable sovereign power.

He asserted that paternity's authority was inherent and divinely bestowed. According to Christianity, the Decalogue's command to show respect to parents became popular and eventually held political significance. "Honor your father and your mother", which is the Fourth Commandment in Roman Catholicism

and Lutheranism and the Fifth in Anglicanism, began to advocate for the natural duty to obey all authoritative figures, such as masters, teachers, clergy, and magistrates. In England, due to the exclusion of "mother" from the commandment, people directly associated it with the independent authority of the male monarch. It became a citizen's obligation to obey their majesty.

The philosophy of the catechism was founded upon the scriptural commandment of paternal right and political relations. This belief was often utilized in political territories, legal documents, and theological writings. It aligned with the social structures of many countries, like England. In literature, the unrestricted authority of the sovereign was often likened to the limitless power of fathers in a traditional, patriarchal household.

The idea was that the universe would be in harmony, with the economy, political relations, and family not opposing each other. This concept, along with Aristotelian political theory on anthropological history, formed the basis of an implicit belief system in Europe known as patriarchal philosophy. Sir Robert Filmer, an English political theorist, was the first to derive political duty from the patriarchal origins of authority. Among the authors who interpreted patriarchy, he was the most direct and influential.

Filmer's readings were used to criticize royal authorization in the 17th century. His work, Patriarcha, discussed the theories of Stuart England and political authors. John Lock criticized his work in Two Treaties of Government (1690), referring to it as "the current Divinity of the Times". Filmer argued that the role of a father was the right given by God to Adam, from which all nature derives. Filmer's theories were a combination of biblical history, deductions from the structure of

family administration, logical arguments, and interpretations of English constitutional practice. Ultimately, his theories were based on the concept of sovereignty introduced by Bodin.

The text emphasizes the indivisible and absolute nature of all authorization, asserting that its power originates from God and nature. The transmission of this power occurs through inheritance, specifically from Adam's grant to subsequent heirs. Even if the true heirs are unknown, the power remains integrated. As the universe was divided among Noah's sons and separate states were established at the Tower of Babel, the patriarchal nature of power prevails, including even successful usurpers. The scriptural history of the Hebrews, ancient Greece and Rome's secular patterns and doctrines, as well as England's political history all consistently validate this patriarchal power. Filmer's argument is built upon the premise that patriarchal and political power possess their own distinctiveness rather than being metaphorical or analogous. This commitment to strict individuality allows Filmer to critique theories based on the state of nature and social contract.

The aforementioned philosophies assumed that humanity was naturally free in its "original" state, with authorities and political relations being established either to correct nature's flaws or to fulfill God's plan. In contrast, Filmer argues that subjection to governance was humanity's original condition. He asserts that since individuals have always been capable of parental authority and there is no distinction between paternal and political power, there was never the innate independence necessary for people to institute government themselves. As government is not a human creation but a divine one, it must be controlled by royalty rather than the "people." Rulers are accountable solely to God and not to their subjects.

Both Charles Leslie, an English

Nonjuror in the early 18th century, and Jonathan Boucher (1738-1804), an American Tory curate during the Revolution, defended Filmer. A similar version of the patriarchal philosophy was asserted by the French bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet (1627-1704) in his Politique tiree diethylstilbestrols propres words de l'Ecriture Sainte (1677-1679). Locke's main task was to confirm the Aristotelean separation of familial and political authority and he accepted a non-teleological version of that position. This modified "Lockean" history, which describes the anthropological evolution of politics from the primitive or "prepolitical" family, remained the standard explanation of government origins throughout the 18th century. It can be found in the writings of Francis Hutcheson (1694-1746), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), David Hume (1711-1776), and most other political theorists who wrote about the origins of the state.

The complete realization of Locke's accomplishment would not occur for at least a hundred years. However, in his response to Filmer, Locke established a basis for understanding government as a fictional human creation that could be limited by a constitution. This concept persisted for thousands of years. In the 19th century, the situation gradually started to change due to the emerging feminist movements. Eventually, women gained the opportunity to assume leadership roles and obtain equal rights. They were granted access to proper education and could pursue any occupation, just like men.

Upon analyzing the diagrams, it becomes apparent that there was initially an aim to achieve equal distribution of power between genders. Nevertheless, the emergence of feminism led to an unforeseen outcome. Women's power exceeded equality and continued to grow, as evidenced by diagram no. X which illustrates the dominance of women in contemporary society.

In the figure of instances

we can run into the cogent evidence for the state of affairs. As stated in The Decline of Males by Lionel Tiger, it is widely accepted to publicly indicate men's inferiority in, for example, advertisements. In Manhattan, a sign in a store window was saying: "Why experiment on poor defenseless little animals when they could use my husband?". It would cause much controversy to make a similar advertisement about a woman.

In 1996, Nynex's telephone repair trucks carried a message that said: "You were wrong. Name her." This innocent message emphasized the emphasis on men, but it is now evident that women are gaining confidence and power while men's confidence is declining. The dominance of what was once known as the "weaker sex" is becoming more noticeable.

Women are primarily responsible for raising children alone and are recognized for working more hours and earning higher salaries than men. Moreover, in terms of education, female students tend to outperform their male counterparts. Additionally, women have attained the right to vote and are progressively assuming leadership positions in politics, including becoming politicians themselves. Conversely, during Lionel Tiger's school years in the 1950s, the conventional family structure prevailed without any questioning wherein women received limited education, worked temporarily, and prioritized child-rearing after getting married.

The societal expectation for adult males is to assume the financial responsibility for the household, which some view as exploitative. Conversely, women who choose to stay at home are often perceived as disadvantaged. The role of being a homemaker or mother is becoming progressively more challenging, while employment and personal fulfillment continue to hold significant importance in society.

Previously, being single and labeled an "old maid" was

seen as negative. However, today, being unemployed is regarded as even more questionable and controversial. This shift in perception derives from present attitudes and is additionally influenced by the current financial state of our economy.

Throughout history, women have gained autonomy over their bodies through the use of contraception. The pill allowed them to delay having children and choose when to start a family with the father. As more women choose to stay single, there is an increasing number who become single mothers. In divorce cases, it is still typical for mothers to be granted custody of their children. According to The Decline of Men, 38% of absent fathers have no visitation or custody rights over their own kids. It's understandable that these fathers encounter challenges in supporting children they rarely see.

Within the ongoing household circle, individuals who deviate from societal norms become outlaws. In 1995, the Million Man March of African-American males shed light on the fact that 660,000 absentee male parents exist, standing with the 60% of single mothers. Despite all the changes influenced by feminism, men have been stripped of their traditional societal roles and have not been provided many new avenues for fulfillment. Women have even entered traditionally male-dominated domains like warfare. It seems logical to assume that men's apparent heightened involvement in sports and pornography can be somehow justified by the fact that they are trying to find new outlets to express their inherent masculinity, which they are otherwise obligated to suppress.

Maybe the hostility between men and women, commonly linked to feminism, actually reflects women's dissatisfaction and disappointment towards men's incapability of supporting family life. In earlier times, it was simpler

for a man to earn sufficient income to sustain himself and a family of four. Nowadays, a father's salary is often inadequate for maintaining a three-person household. Men might not be fully conscious of losing this quiet struggle but may experience some vague discomfort.

They may fail to comprehend their situation and may become even more confused wondering what women truly desire. There have been weak attempts to create a men's movement in order to transform personal feelings into public action and commentary. However, among men, nothing has emerged as effective and ambitious as among women. One of the men's groups that briefly succeeded in attracting attention and supporters were the Promise Keepers. Unfortunately, it had to dismiss its entire staff in 1998 due to lack of support. As mentioned in the Decline of Males, there are no equivalent national organizations in the United States, apart from some commendable men's studies programs at universities, that would represent men's interests like the National Organization for Women does for women.

Meanwhile, Lionel Tiger cautions that the graduates of women's studies activist programs eventually transition to positions of influence, such as politicians and decision-makers. This transition happens naturally over time. The feminist movement of the 1960s and 1970s marked the initial wave of changes and also served as a highly effective catalyst for further progress. It involved a vast array of speaking engagements, conferences, and workshops focused on gender issues.

A large number of books and urgent statements were written, with reading and discussing them becoming a prominent feature of a significant shift in understanding and awareness regarding sex and gender in industrialized countries. Despite the generally peaceful tone of

the arguments, some animosity arises. Feminist ideology supports the opposing situation, fueled by moral outrage and aggravated by frustrated male isolation. The formerly balanced interaction between the two sexes has been disrupted by various events. The first being the introduction of contraceptive pills, which gave women control over childbirth.

The effectiveness of second work forces in the workforce has been declining. This is in part why they are often labeled as potential useful fathers. Women tend to view themselves as burdens instead of helpers as couples. Instead of contributing resources, males may just consume them.

They have the ability to bring in employment opportunities, but do not provide support to the household unit. They may not be significant, but they pose a persistent issue. Tiger imposes a specific way of speaking on the field of biology, which affects the lives of all individuals. He predicts that in the near future, our society may resemble those of primate species that prioritize females and their offspring, while males compete for reproductive access to females and a position of power. Undoubtedly, many passionate feminists would gladly embrace this idea.

The author of The Decline of Males presents two intriguing possibilities for understanding the current metaphorical situation. Initially, he refers to the biblical birth scene where Mary gives birth to a child. She lacks housing and resources, with no apparent family members available to help her.

Despite being sheltered, both the mother and child require additional support, attention, and resources. Thankfully, the three wise work forces offer a compelling solution to address the challenges faced by new mothers, which is comparable to modern-day welfare.

The community is represented by three providers. Joseph,

being the male parent of Baby Jesus, is clearly in the shadow as Mary is a virgin. Old Joseph does not play an important role, while the society warmly welcomes the mother with a child.

He is not the biological father, so he does not have to support the family financially; it is the responsibility of the state community. Such reaction from people and government is positive and welcomed. Unfortunately, we can find here a rather negative image of a modern man. Like Joseph, he becomes "an important ancestor, if not a genetic one, for an unexpected reason. As I have already mentioned before, women took control after the introduction of a contraceptive pill.

There has been a significant change in societies, not only in the increasing number of abortions but also in the decreasing awareness of men about the issue of paternity. Men are less concerned about the potential pregnancy and are not taking responsibility for their actions, as they perceive it as solely a female concern.

With the increase in casual sexual encounters, men can no longer be confident about their true paternity. In many cases, they are not even aware that they will have a child. Women have taken on all the responsibilities of parenthood. More and more women are choosing to do so intentionally, as they strive to be independent and modern mothers, often including being single mothers.

What is crucial is that even if the father of the child wants to fight for his rights to custody in court, he is always at a disadvantage. Additionally, men are at a disadvantage in marriage when it comes to paternity leave, which is becoming increasingly uncommon.

Margaret Mead, in her 1949 book Male and Female, described paternity as "a human invention." It is widely understood that being a mother is completely natural, while being a father is considered artificial.

The condition of the workforce is declining. Many males are currently displaying only vulnerability, reckless despair, and economic incompetence. Despite this, the prevailing public perception of males remains as oppressive, potentially bothersome, self-interested patriarchs. Approximately two generations of women have already gained control over childbirth. They have been accompanied by a strong redefinition of sexual values primarily led by women and feminists. Injustices based on past norms are now diminishing.

Legal policy and societal efforts have been implemented by both men and women to support and improve the occupations and lives of women, sometimes at the expense of men. In response, men, as couples, voters, and fathers, have shown bitterness, frustration, demoralization, and confusion. It is considered appropriate for government to require all-male schools like The Citadel to admit women, while all-female schools are not affected. Nihilistically sexist remarks, like Gloria Steinem's "A woman without a man is like a fish without a bike," have become slogans printed on T-shirts.[16] Men want to show off, like butterflies.

It is a biologically ancient system that screens males, regardless of their size. Similar to prehistoric gatherers, it aims to find resources for copulation, such as firemen and war heroes.

ADD drugs - their illness is simply being male. Boys prefer drama affecting the construction and use of objects. In certain countries, as many as 25 percent of young men are either in prison, on parole, or in some other severe relationship with the criminal justice system,

and they are unlikely to maintain healthy connections to civilian society. (p75) | Less than 5 percent of all inmates in {New York} state are ever visited by anyone. (little38).

Young males, especially African Americans, are increasingly prone to commit suicide. They also remain the demographic most likely to engage in crimes such as murder, rape, gang violence, looting, terrorism, mistreatment of prisoners, and various other offenses against moral and legal standards. These crimes are often attributed to male virtues such as bravery, physical strength, emotional resilience, and clear thinking. According to Freud's theory, our ongoing behavior is influenced by biology on a subconscious level, as he connected our emotions and current behavior.

Whether we call it the Idaho or the unconscious, it can be seen as human nature, an inherent part of who we are. Just as our physical bodies are reflected in the prehominid bones discovered in Ethiopia and East Africa, this aspect is passed down to us, whether we desire it or not.

( 93 ) Adam and Eve - 94. Hobbes and Aristotle 97. The new normalcy has diminished the potency and scope of male dedication to both the productive and reproductive aspects of life. This gives rise to significant societal problems, particularly among those restless, unfulfilled young men - many of whom become another generation of absent males in the broader adult society. ( 117 ) "Men place greater emphasis on physical attractiveness compared to women, while women attach more importance than men to intangible factors (e.g.

, socioeconomic position) . "121-little 2 She has pick; he has none - must work to back up household. It is non clear if the political orientation

is a acrimonious response to the nonfamilial behaviour of work forces or its cause. And new economic and educational enterprises by adult females that will alter the societal order lend practical force to ideological urgency.

(135) The workforce consisted of selfish users and privileged princes who prolonged a system against the interests of their vulnerable female relatives. (171) Single motherhood is based on the mother's lineage. Males perform poorly in school. The assumption of inherent male wrongdoing is no longer valid when a breach of optometry regulations is identified.



229. Differences are held to reflect imperfect chances for adult females or resistasnt hostile action by work forces or a complex combination of similar factors. (small 9) 238 Some adult females define themselves skillfull Some adult females define themselves skillful and opportunistically as members of a sort of functional minority group despite the fact that adult females are the bulk. (240) Assigned by adult females to a "patriarchate" non of their choosing, work forces however look about for the concrete marks of their presumed kingly position. But when they look in the mirror, there is no Crown to be seen. (241) Work force are alienated non merely as Marx said, from the agencies of production but besides from the agencies of reproduction.

(249) In groups, the corporate with common involvement is not effective.

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