Sociological Concepts Essay
The term sociology is derived from the term social which basically refers to a behavior majorly associated with human beings. Many a times it has been stated that human beings are social beings. However looking at the term sociology from a broad point of view; we realize that sociology entails more of rules and regulations that govern a people in a given society. Other people describe sociology as in-depth and keen study of behavior of a people in the society.
In addition sociology also to some extent attempts to explain the different behaviors of human beings.This study incorporates the relation of one human being with another and also the biological processes in the bodies of human beings that make them behave in such manner. From the simple definition of sociology given above, it is clear that there are several sociological concepts that emerge. What is a concept? Simply defined, a concept is an idea or a thought that is developed in an attempt to explain something mostly, the existence of something.
There are various sociological concepts that characterize a society. Some of the major sociological concepts include racism.By definition, racism is a form of discrimination where the major criterion that is used to discriminate is the race from which one comes from. A society is made up of people from different backgrounds. When we talk of backgrounds the major reference is in relation to races, nationalities and even in some countries tribes.
Normally in every society there is a particular race that is considered more superior than the rest. For that reason the superior race dominates the rest and in some instances overshadows them in all sociological concepts especially economically. There is always a notion that some races genetically are superior to others.Therefore those races that are believed to be superior will always want to protect themselves from contamination as they would call it from inferior races.
This they do by attempting to destroy the inferior races so that only the superior races survive. This has a great effect on a society that is made of people from various races. One may ask, how does racism affect a society? A society cannot develop both economically, socially and in any other way if they are not united. The major effect of racism is that it disunites people making them fight one another instead of uniting with one another.The major effect of racism is that it slackens or hampers growth of a society.
Poverty It is yet another major sociological concept. Poverty basically refers to the inability to acquire or provide oneself with basic requirements. Basic requirements refer to those very essential things that are required for a human being to survive or to ensure that they sustain their lives. It is thus important to note that one may not have all they need to live comfortably in the society but they may not be regarded as poor if they are able to meet their daily basic needs.Before going very deep into the discussion, one thing that is important to note is that almost all sociological concepts are interrelated.
This basically means that one sociological concept emerges as a result of the existence of another. Poverty is regarded as a sociological concept as it greatly affects a society. If some people in a given society have been stricken by poverty it only means that firstly there is a possibility of inequality as far as resources are concerned so that there are some who have excessive resources while other do not have at all.As a result, another major sociological concept that will be discussed later in this discussion known as social classification emerges.
This is where there is distinct grouping in a society where people group or classify themselves according to their social status. Those who do not have much in terms of resources and are regarded as poor are marginalized in a class of their own while those who are rich and have it all are in a class of their own.Experience has it that those who have got the resources look down on the poor and more often than not they end up exploiting them especially in terms of labor. Usually the poor are made servants or even slaves of the poor. Inequality and uneven distribution of resources thus characterizes the society that we live in today. Discrimination is also a major sociological concept which has had a great impact in various societies in the world today.
As mentioned earlier, almost all sociological concepts are interrelated. For instance, discrimination may somewhat be likened to racism.By definition discrimination is failing to give equal recognition and or attendance to all people. The main difference between discrimination and racism is that the latter is actually a form of discrimination based on a person’s race. Thus discrimination is one of the sociological concept that is real in the society and that has affected various societies greatly. Normally what happens is that people in a given society are basically marginalized and denied rights which they are entitled to for belonging to a certain group.
There are various lines of marginalization or discrimination the major ones being the gender, race, tribe, ideological believes as opposed to the characteristic, behavior and attributes of a person. It is such an unfair social concept as someone is marginalized by virtue of belonging to a particular group which may not be of their own choosing. For instance nobody chooses what gender or tribe or race to belong to. It is thus very unfortunate and extremely unfair and unjust to discriminate someone against such lines. However discrimination is a sociological concept and it does exist in our societies.
Many are the times for instance a person from a country goes to another country and is denied some services some of which are basic like house accommodation or even food for the simple reason that they are from a different race from the hosts. It is also common phenomenon especially for those countries where there are several tribes for people to wan to identify with their culture and look down upon the cultures of other tribes. As a matter of fact this discrimination goes to the extent that people from different tribes are not allowed to intermarry.As mentioned in the beginning of the discussion sociology entails the study of behavior of people who are regarded as social beings. This in essence means that sociology entails the all round day to day life of human beings. In simpler terms, sociology involves very many aspects and that it may not be possible to exhaustively discuss all sociological concepts.
Social cohesion is a sociological concept which can be simply defined as togetherness or the act of unity in a society. Normally this is the concept of uniting and doing things that are of benefit to the society at large as a group.Social cohesion is not always common in societies especially because of the earlier discussed social concepts. However it doe exist. Normally some of the concepts discussed earlier like racism, poverty and discrimination hamper greatly the social concept of social cohesion. This is so because if the earlier discussed concepts exist in a society then it would be virtually impossible to be able to have togetherness in such a society which is actually the meaning of social cohesion.
Every society has its own beliefs and customs which act as guidelines in their day to day activities.People in the society have firm following of their customs and beliefs and will not veer from them come what may. The problem now comes in as the world keeps on advancing and some people slowly either start abandoning the norms, customs and beliefs of their society or better still they question the need for having these beliefs. When a people in the society reach such a stage there is no longer any social cohesion and instead what is witnessed is a lot of discrimination and slowly there begins to creep in inequality as far as resources are concerned leading to poverty.Thus as much as some social concepts lead to other, presence or existence of some of the social concepts lead to absence of others. Accommodation is yet another major sociological concept that has a great effect on various societies.
When we talk of accommodation we are referring to the ability to fit in a community that is characterized by people of different kinds. People in a society could be different by virtue of their ethnicity or race; they could also be different by virtue of the fact that they do not share a similar cultural background or values norms and beliefs as discussed earlier.For that reason it then follows that especially due to lack of inequality as far as the resources are concerned we find that there is classification of people according to their social classes with the poor being in a class of their own and so are the rich. It thus becomes extremely difficult to ensure social cohesion and equally accommodation in the society lacks. Normally the rich will not feel comfortable as they are always safeguarding their wealth against the poor whom they always suspect that they will steal from them.
The poor on the other hand are not comfortable because of the inequality and unfairness in distribution of resources. There is thus no accommodation for anybody in the society. Deviant behavior is yet another major sociological concept that is demonstrated in almost every society. (Bob, 2000 Deviant behavior simply defined is any behavior that goes against or falls short of the ordinary behavior expected of a humans being in a society. Usually in any given society there lacks not a group of people, who always behave contrary to the expectations of the society.
They may behave either against the norms and beliefs of the society or against the set rules of the land or simply behave in a manner that is out of the ordinary. Every society has their own mechanisms in which they are able to deal with people with this kind of behavior. Normally most of the societies punish people with such behavior by having punitive measures taken against such people (Weber, 1992) As one may have noted in the cause discussion there is much emphasis that is laid on the interrelation on the various sociological concepts that there are.Earlier in the discussion there has been a mention on customs and beliefs where some people consider their values beliefs and norms to be superior and better than those of other societies and this is actually a major cause of lack of social cohesion in a society. So then ethnocentrism is also major sociological concept that has great effect on a people in the society.
As the name suggests ethnocentrism is an element or a concept of self centeredness. This means that one is so selfish that they will just not give an opportunity other cultures to thrive.They are always thinking of their cultures considering them more superior and more efficient and apparently more recognized than other cultures in the society. This is yet another sociological concept that prevents social cohesion as a sociological concept to thrive. So then why are sociological concepts in a society important? Is it important to identify the various sociological concepts that there are in a society? Can there be a society that has no sociological concepts. These are among many of the questions that people ask themselves especially when studying sociology in general and also the various sociological concepts.
To begin with the sociological concepts are extremely important in a society. This is so because they are the ones that define a society. Going back to the beginning of this discussion one realizes that sociology basically involves studying the manner in which a human being who is referred to as a social being behaves and the various reasons that that make him behave in this manner. This thus is important to identify correctly the various sociological concepts that characterize a society.
This helps one to easily know what a society is all about just by studying their various sociological concepts.It is not possible to have a society that has no sociological concepts. This is so because it is not possible for a people to lack a behavior whether good or bad. It is thus not possible to have a society that has no sociological concepts whatsoever. The only thing that one may note is that sociological concepts differ with various societies so that each society has its own sociological concepts that characterize it. Some concepts overlap so that you find that some societies have some sociological concepts which are similar to those of other but only some but not all.