Second Industrial Revolution
The first industrial revolution had started in Great Britain in the second half of 18th Century. This phase covered the period from 1760 to 1880 and was marked by great technological innovation in agriculture methods and manufacturing industry in Britain and subsequently rest of Europe and America. Science paved the way for the new age of steam power and chemical inventions by broadening horizons of human information and knowledge (Stearns, 19). By 1880, the first industrial revolution had created an advanced industrial and economic situation throughout the western society.
It had set in motion the convergence of distance, ideas and cultures.The second phase of industrial revolution that started near 1880 and lasted until 1950 was result of the four interrelated factors. 1: Industrialization outside the west. 2: Redefinition of West’s industrial economy. 3: Growing involvement of non-industrial parts of the world and 4: Intensification of international impact (Stearns, 89). Industrialization outside the west brought the new countries especially Japan and Russian in the purview of the second industrial phase and created a new angle of labor politics as well as business acumen that developed in consonance and reaction to the prevalent industrial practices in the west.
Redefinition of West’s industrial economy caused massive expansion of the industrial sector, gave rise to urban systems, and created completely unique sets of requirements in materials and services that were beyond the technological scopes of first revolution. This factored the invention of electricity, internal combustion engine, communication technology, airplanes and brought sweeping changes that completely changed the face of world. Massive use of steel and cement are also prominent factors that led to second phase of industrial revolution.Involvement of non industrial parts of world provided the raw materials for subsequent industrial growth, mainly of European regions.
Petroleum, coal, timber, minerals, and various critical sources were supplied by the non industrial parts that factored the growth of industries and economy in the second phase (Stearns, 96). Second phase of Industrial revolution also witnessed expansion of terroterial scope of the revolution due to increased international interaction. The result was that USA and Germany moved ahead of Britain in development and utilization of technologies.It also saw remodeling of industrial systems on corporate trends. This factored increased the available capital tremendously to achieve the expensive phases of second phase with ease.
Among all these four factors the most important factor is redefinition of West’s industrial economy as it signified the limitations of advancements made through first industrial revolution and crated the requirement of its second phase ensuring that technological transition continues in a smooth and unbroken flow.Whereas the first revolution was marked by use of machines to help manual workers, the second phase was characterized by replacement of labors by the machines and rapid industrial production. The second phase of industrial revolution modernized the world more than ever, and set the firm foundation of subsequent of computer, information technology, genetic and agricultural revolutions that have become hallmark of human progress and continue to define our world even today.ReferenceStearns, P. N.
1998. The Industrial Revolution in World History. Westview Press. Boulder, CO.