Research into running speeds Essay Example
Research into running speeds Essay Example

Research into running speeds Essay Example

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To investigate the impact of different lane curves (lanes 1-8) on running velocities, sprint reaction, and land contact time.

Abstract: This study aimed to examine how various lane curves (lanes 1, 4, and 8) influence running velocities, sprint reaction, and land contact time. Six sprinters participated in the study (n=6) with an average age of 21.7 ± 3.8 years.

The analysis of the topics focused on their Sprint times, reaction to false starts, and land contact to assess their pace form. This assessment was conducted through three trials using picture footage and timing. After the trials, the information was analyzed using Statistical analysis in SPSS to compare the results within each other and with their own previous results.


The results revealed a significant difference between the lanes, with lane 4 having the fastest time of 11.383 ± 0


.4, (


(1, 9.6) = 6.549,


< 0.05).

Decision: The survey findings contradict the biomechanical aspect, indicating that sharper path bends can result in faster dash velocities. However, this may be attributed to a psychological issue among sprinters and managers. Keywords: Sports, Biomechanics Fast, Runner, decelerate

Chapter 1: Introduction Running on a curving path is crucial in sprinting events (Mero, Komi & Gregor, 1992). However, studies suggest that running on a curved path is slower compared to running on a straight path (Keller, 1973). The International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF) specifies that the curve section of a 400m path can have a width ranging from 65cm to 69cm depending on country regulations (Mero, Komi & Gregor, 1992). In the United States, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) establishes guidelines for path width (Greene, 1985). For curves on

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400-meter path at NCAA-regulated events in the US., it is recommended to have a width between 66cm and not exceeding 69 cm (Mureika ,2008). Previous studies aimed to understand how speed is affected when running on a curve in order to consistently change direction around it. According to Keller(1973), generating medial/lateral(ML) land reaction forces are necessary.

Decreased perpendicular land reaction forces and increased land contact clip are primary constituents that cause a sprinter to decelerate in maximal running velocity while on the curve (Keller, 1973). Previous studies have not examined how differences in lane assignments and average sprint velocity over the race length affect performance on the curve. Lane assignments have always been crucial for sprinters in events involving curves. Centrifugal force on the curve creates a biomechanical disadvantage (Keller, 1974).

The force discussed in this text is a result of changing from a straight line to a curved line (Mero, Komi & Gregor, 1992). When running on a curve, the athlete's foot is subjected to high centripetal forces. These forces are determined by the athlete's body mass (m), running speed (V), and the radius (R) of the curve, which is related to the assigned lane for each runner. In a 200 meter race, it is widely acknowledged that the lane assigned to the sprinter can significantly impact their performance and results (Alexandrov & Lucht, 1981). The centrifugal force causes runners to expend extra energy by pushing outward as they navigate the curve (Greene, 1985).

Sprinters often choose to run in the front-runner lanes, which are lanes 4 and 5, because it gives them a better understanding of what is happening in the race compared to starting in

the outer lanes like lanes 7 and 8 (Green, Plunk, Sherman, Gillespie, Martin, 2001). Previous studies have shown that sprinters in the outer lanes experience a smaller decrease in running speed. Even on a standardized 400 m track, there can be differences of up to 0.4 min seconds between the interior lanes (lanes 1,2,3,4,5) and the outer lanes (lanes 6,7,8) (Jain, 1980).

This is a significant disability in athletics, where the winner is determined by differences as small as 0.01 seconds (Greene, 1985). Previous studies on the biomechanics of sprinting have shown that sprinters can achieve higher velocities in the outer lanes, specifically lanes 7 and 8 (Mureika,1997). In comparison, most athletes prefer running in lanes 3 and 4, as they feel they can run faster in those lanes (Mureika,1997). Previous research has concluded that the outer lanes require less centrifugal force because sprinters have to navigate a smaller curve during the race (Alexandrov & A; Lucht, 1981).

Through interviews and questionnaires, research has found that sprinters tend to dislike the outer lanes because they believe they are slower (Mureika, 1997). The fastest sprinters in the world typically have a short pace length and a stride frequency of 2.6 meters or 5 steps per second (Mann, 2005). Previous studies have shown that the force applied during land contact is an important factor in running speed (Weyand, Sternlight, Bellizzi, & Wright, 2000). Stride frequency consists of two components: ground contact time and flight time (Weyand, Sternlight, Bellizzi, & Wright, 2000). Stride length and stride frequency are the two main biomechanical factors that influence running speed (Kaufmann & Kunz, 1981).

Previous research on highly performing sprinters has indicated that the

best sprinters tend to have less ground contact (Mann & Herman, 1985). The forces generated during sprinting are so great that athletes spend more time in the air (Mann, 2005), despite not significantly increasing their leg speed through the air (Weyand et al., 2000). Sprinters who perform better have a higher stride frequency, reducing their foot-ground contact time (Mann & Herman, 1985). This poses a challenge for sprinters aiming to enhance their speed as they must lengthen their strides.

A sprinter needs to generate more force within a shorter duration of time in order to achieve success (Mann, 2005). Reaction time (RT) refers to the time taken by an athlete to respond to a stimulus, such as the sound of a starting gun (Schmidt & Gordon, 1977). The athlete's reaction time plays a vital role in their race since it can affect their performance outcome (Schmidt ; Gordon, 1977).

The impact of the chemical reaction clip on success in modern path and field is one of several factors (Bruggemann & Glad, 1990). In events such as sprinting, the start reaction clip is measured in milliseconds (ms) from the gun signal to the jock's response in the starting blocks (Steinbach & Tholl, 1969). Over-training can result in a decrease in reaction time for a jock (Doherty, 1985). This start reaction can contribute to around 1 or 2% of a sprinter's overall performance (Helmick, 2003). This study aimed to assess the variations in running velocities, sprint reaction, and land contact clip caused by different outdoor track curves in lanes 1, 4, and 8 at Crystal Palace National Sports Centre.

Chapter 2: Methodology
This chapter's research received ethical approval

from the Local Research Ethics Committee of St Mary's University. The survey included a total of six male sprinters, comprising four recreational athletes and two full-time high-performance competitors (average ± s: age= (21.7 ± 3.8 years). All participants had a personal best time of 11.64 ± 0.64s in the 100m dash and had experienced injuries within the past six months. To select the participants, the researcher reached out to a local sports club manager to find two male sprinters aged between 20-24, as well as contacting two other male sprinters via phone calls. The participants were given information sheets either through email or in person.

The athletes received a written informed consent form and an information sheet explaining the purpose of the study. They were aware that data would be collected during their training sessions at Crystal Palace National Sports Centre. The study took place towards the end of the indoor season for four out of six athletes. Prior to starting the practical portion of the study, the athletes were given the option to warm up. Some of the athletes had already warmed up before the survey due to earlier training.

The 6 sprinters were instructed to complete a race consisting of three 100m dashes within the curved section of the track. The race started at the 200m starting line. The sprinters had the option of using their starting blocks and each chose to do so. They were also able to adjust their personal blocks to suit their competition level and achieve the best reaction time. Additionally, the sprinters wore their own performance spikes. Each dash involved three runners at a time, aligned in Lanes 1, 4,

and 8, at the staggered starting line for the 200m race (Figure 1.1). Cones were placed at the end of the 100m curves to indicate when the runners had completed the full 100m.

The jocks then completed their dash and were given a 15-minute break between each performance. The performances were recorded using Go Pro HD cameras placed at the start, 50m into the curve, and at the end of the curve (100m). The jocks' split times for each performance were recorded using Casio stopwatches operated by an examiner. Each split time was recorded for a 100m distance for each jock, and any false starts were also recorded. This process was repeated two more times while each athlete switched lanes at the start of each performance. In total, the jocks sprinted three rounds.

The process is repeated for the other three jocks. Once all information is collected, they are thanked and told to contact the writer if they want a transcript of the survey's paper. After the practice, the collected information and picture recording are uploaded to concentrate x2 picture analysis package. This analysis is primarily used for a detailed examination of different motions in activities and athletics in order to improve jocks' performance (Beichner, 1996). Within the video analysis, the stride length form of each jock is measured through slow movements and pauses to determine if they are a long or short strider.

After analyzing the image, the split times, false start, and stride length of the athletes in each lane were entered into SPSS (Statistical analysis in a societal scientific discipline). SPSS is a software used for fast and accurate data analysis and

presentation. The software can visually represent data to reduce errors (Wellman, 1998). Using SPSS, a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was conducted to analyze the results of the dash test.

Chapter 3: Consequences

Figure 1.3 illustrates the average results of all sprinters who competed in lanes 1, 4, and 8.

The table presents the differences in times for each lane, with lane 4 having the fastest average time. The discrepancy between each lane is approximately ± 0.464. Figure 2.0 shows a comparison table of each lane and the athletes' average performance results. There was a notable difference in speed between lane 1 and lanes 4 and 8. The p-value for comparing lane 1 to lane 9.6 is 6.549 with a significance level <0.05.

Lane 4 exhibited a significant difference in comparison to lanes 1 and 8 regarding the running lane associated with rush Phosphorus (p < 0.05). Lane 8, in contrast to lanes 1 and 4, demonstrated a significant difference in the running lane associated with rush Phosphorus (p < 0.05).

Chapter 4: Discussion

The results of this study indicate that at the end of the 100 m curve run, lane 4 had an average advantage of 0.464s and 0.10s compared to lane 1 and lane 8, respectively. The largest variations in running velocity were expected to be observed in the figure 4 curve. The study found that sprinting velocity was significantly slower when running in lane 8 due to the decreased radius of the path curve. Sprinters were 0.4% and 0.7% slower in lanes 1 and 8, respectively, compared to running in lane 4.

The average clip in the survey was 11.383, compared to the jock's 100m personal best

of ± 11.64. The findings suggest that running on the curve could potentially result in faster times for the jock. A previous study conducted by Mureika in 1997 explored the performance of the 100m race. This study included three different dash conditions: a 45-meter sprint on the straight section of the track, a 45-meter dash with 21 meters on the curved section, and a 45-meter dash with a 15-meter curved section. Ground reaction forces were measured at the 37-meter point for each dash using a Kistler force plate.

Force plates are commonly used in biomechanics research labs and outdoor tests to measure ground forces involved in a participant's movement (Adrian, 1995). These plates are large, heavy metal plates with one or more attached detectors that provide an electrical output and measure the force being exerted (Alexander, 1992). The study's results indicated that sprinting speed significantly decreased as the radius of the curved path increased. The results showed a 2.6% decrease when running a 21m curve and a 4.7% decrease when running a 15m curve compared to running in a straight lane.

The survey findings contradict the current survey because the jocks in the survey ran the consecutive portion of the path together. The survey suggested that using a force home base could provide more accurate information on the amount of force exerted by the jocks when turning. By analyzing the changes in running velocity between each curve, it becomes apparent that lane 4 has the highest velocity, particularly at the middle of the path (Kelso, 1977). According to physicists, sprinters in outer lanes like lane 8 have an advantage over those in inner lanes like lane 1

or 4 due to the wider curves in the outer lanes (Kelso, 1977).

However, the current survey revealed a significant difference in the public presentation times of the smuggler, demonstrating that they run faster in the inside lane. This finding from the survey could lead to psychological implications for the sprinter, as it has been suggested that sprinters may be psychologically affected when running in the outer lanes, which may hinder their ability to perform at their optimal speed (Ross, Leveritt & Riek, 2001). Previous studies conducted by Green et al. (2001) involved questionnaires with sprinters about which lane they believed to be the fastest for running, with Lanes 1, 4, and 8 being similar to the lanes used in the current trials.

The results of the survey revealed that none of the sprinters had selected lane 8 and 76% had chosen lane 4. The survey suggested that the sprinters may have been influenced by the fact that the fastest times in the world are typically achieved in the middle lanes of the 200m race. This can have an impact on performance as better dash times determine lane assignments for championship races (Peronnet & Thibault, 1989). Previous studies in 2001 found no significant difference in performance times based on lane placement for the same athlete. However, the survey demonstrated that participants in this study believe that their lane assignment positions them to follow the outside lane runner during the initial stage of the 200m race. They believe this gives them an advantage because it allows them to gauge their own performance by comparing their proximity to or distance from the outside lane runner in the second half

of the race (Peronnet & Thibault, 1989).

Chapter 5: Decision

The survey findings can aid managers and athletes to better understand how different curves on the 200m track affect sprinting speeds. If the average sprinter from our survey runs 200m at maximum speed in lane 1, the time could possibly be 23.1 seconds. For the same sprinter in lane 8, the time could be 22.7 seconds. This survey demonstrates that sharper bends on the track can result in faster maximum sprint velocities. The study also reveals that lane assignment differences can significantly impact sprinters' performance and progression through heats in competitions.

Although the time differences in public presentation between each lane are expected to be less than 0.1 seconds, this could still impact the athlete's final position. Further investigation is needed to understand the psychological impact of lane placement when running the curved part of the path. It has been noted that outer lanes, like lanes 7 and 8, can provide biomechanical advantages for runners on the curve (Kelso, 1977). However, many sprinters argue that they perform better in interior or in-between lanes based on their personal best performances (Green et al., 2001). This statement contradicts the principles of natural physics mentioned earlier in the study (Kelso, 1977).

According to numerous smugglers, running in the outer lanes, like lane 8, can put the jock at a psychological disadvantage because they cannot see their opponents (Peronnet & Thibault, 1989). The study revealed that any biomechanical advantage obtained from sprinting in the outer lanes would become null or possibly overridden by the psychological disadvantage of being in that position (Kelso, 1977).

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