Pattern of Pre-Match Competitive Anxiety in Elite Male Rugby Union Players Essay Example
Pattern of Pre-Match Competitive Anxiety in Elite Male Rugby Union Players Essay Example

Pattern of Pre-Match Competitive Anxiety in Elite Male Rugby Union Players Essay Example

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Significant advancement into the apprehension of anxiousness in athletics has been made in recent old ages with the assistance of research by such research workers at Burton ( 1988 ) , Gouldet Al.( 1987 ) and Martens and Gill ( 1976 ). In bend this has enabled athletics psychologists to derive a deeper apprehension into what causes competitory anxiousness and the manner in which athletes header with it ( Jarvis, 2006 ).

The ability to get by with anxiousness in all athleticss is indispensable as it could do the difference between winning and losing a competition.

Identifying the Problem

There is a deficiency of research into the effects of anxiousness on featuring public presentation, particularly in male rugger. In squad athleticss it is peculiarly of import to breakdown all facets of the public presentation. The cardinal issues researched in this paper are bodily and cognitive anxious


ness. From research it is clear that the failure to command these countries leads to unsuccessful squads ( Yerkes & A ; Dodson, 1968 ; Feltz, 1988 ; Martenset Al., 1990 ; Cox, 1998 ; Weinberg & A ; Gould, 2007 ) .

Research Aims and Questions

The chief purpose of the research is to analyze the form of pre-match competitory anxiousness in elect male rugger brotherhood participants.

With the usage of the CSAI-2 and interviews, the effects that anxiousness has on featuring public presentation will be investigated.

There are three inquiries to be answered in this research piece:

  1. How does cognitive state-anxiety affect featuring public presentation?
  2. What affects does bodily state-anxiety has on featuring public presentation?
  3. How can self-confidence impact the degree of featuring public presentation?

Harmonizing to LeUnes ( 1996 ) , developments in the literature

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written around anxiousness have focused on the multidimensional nature of the phenomenon. Therefore, all consequences will be analysed and compare with the anticipations proposed by the Multidimensional Anxiety Theory by Martenset Al.( 1990 ) which is explained in the Methodology subdivision.

Importance of Research

The findings from this research will be good to managers as they will supply a better apprehension of how anxiousness degrees affect public presentation. The research will besides be of import to jocks, in this instance rugby brotherhood participants, as they will derive a deeper apprehension into the grounds behind their feelings of anxiousness and assurance.

By deriving a farther apprehension in this country, public presentation degrees can be increased with the assistance of appropriate readying during preparation and before lucifers. Coping schemes could besides be introduced to the participants to enable them to command their degrees of anxiousness prior to lucifers.


The research for this research undertaking will take topographic point at a local amateur rugger nine. The nine was set up in July 1898 and merely before the Second World War the land was purchased and the pitches were laid. By 1975 the nine had a to the full erected nine house with squash tribunals.

The nine consists of 6 senior squads ; Colts, Ladies, Vikings, Rhinos ( Veterans ) , Wanderers and 1st Fifteen. There are besides squads for young person male childs from U7 through to U17, and U15 and U18 squads for misss. The selected squad for research is the first XV work forces 's squad.

Although the research is being carried out in this local rugger nine, the consequences and findings can be applied to any other athleticss nine across the

state. The degree and gender of the nine or squad will nevertheless do a difference to how the participants react to certain state of affairss.

Outline of the Study

This research will be split farther into five farther chapters:

  • Chapter Two: Literature reappraisal in which I will be developing an overview of the field.
  • Chapter Three: Methodology will explicate how I set out to look into my research and why I chose the methods used.
  • Chapter Four: Consequences will show the findings of the research piece in chart signifier.
  • Chapter Five: Discussion & A ; Analysis explains what I found out during the research undertaking. It will associate them back to my literature reappraisal and compare them to the Multidimensional Anxiety Theory.
  • Chapter Six: Decision will explicate my findings and shut up the research undertaking.

Literature Reappraisal

This literature reappraisal will be written in four subdivisions. Each one will be looking into the effects of anxiousness on public presentation in athletics.

Section one will look at the definitions of trait and province anxiousness and ego assurance. Section two will be looking into the research around anxiousness and its effects on public presentation, both positive and negative. The 3rd subdivision will be look intoing the causes of anxiousness ; fright of failure, parental, equals and managers ' influences, societal build anxiousness, and location. The concluding subdivision will be researching the features of anxiousness during public presentation in athletics.

Objective and Data Beginnings

This research undertaking provides an penetration into the affects of anxiousness on the public presentation of a selected rugger squad. Database hunts were done utilizing SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO and EBSCOhost in order to happen important literature. The cardinal wordsrugger, anxiousness, public presentation,

managers, location, parents,andsquadwere entered into the databases to convey up relevant articles. Merely appropriate, equal reviewed informations was extracted for this reappraisal.

Trait and State Anxiety, and Self-Confidence

Anxiety can be defined as, `` A province in which the person experiences feelings of edginess ( apprehensiveness ) and activation of the autonomic nervous system in response to a vague nonspecific menace. '' ( Barry, 2002: p230 ; Carpenito-Moyet, 2006: p11 ) . `` Anxiety is viewed as an digesting personality factor or trait referred to as A-trait '' ( Davies, 1989: p70 ) .

Trait Anxiety

Trait anxiousness "is portion of the personality, an acquired behavioral inclination or temperament that influences behavior '' ( Weinberg & A ; Gould, 2007: p79 ) .

Persons with a high degree of trait anxiousness have a inclination to see certain state of affairss as threatening, and respond to these with an increased degree of province anxiousness ( Spielberger, 1971 ) . For illustration, two hockey end keepers are of the same criterion yet one has a higher degree of trait anxiousness and finds force per unit area of salvaging the ends excessively much. This leads to him exposing higher degrees of province anxiousness. "Anxiety is besides viewed as a impermanent province, A-state which is evoked by peculiar state of affairss '' (Davies, 1989: p70).

State Anxiety

State anxiousness can be defined as an emotional province "characterized by subjective, consciously sensed feelings of apprehensiveness and tenseness, accompanied by or associated with activation or rousing of the autonomic nervous system '' ( Spielberger, 1966: p17 ) . For illustration, the degree of an jock 's province anxiousness will alter during a rugby lucifer. Before the game the

participant may hold a high degree of province anxiousness, during the game it may take down as they settle into the game, and eventually during the last few proceedingss of a tight game it may lift once more.

State anxiousness can be split farther into cognitive province anxiousness, and bodily province anxiousness ( LeUnes & A ; Nation, 1996 ) . In support of this proposal that the two facets of province anxiousness can be dealt with as independent concepts, both Burton ( 1988 ) and Gouldet Al.( 1987 ) have proven through research that featuring public presentation is affected by the type of anxiousness being measured.

Cognitive anxiousness can be defined as the "... mental constituent of province anxiousness caused by such things as fright of negative societal rating, fright of failure, and loss of self-esteem '' ( Cox, 1998: p98 ) .

"Bodily anxiousness refers to the physiological and affectional elements of the anxiousness experience that develop straight from autonomic rousing '' ( Martenset Al., 1990: p6 ) . Bodily anxiousness is shown in responses such as addition in bosom rate, shortness of breath, sweaty thenars, and muscular tenseness ( Martenset Al., 1990 ; MorrisetAl, 1981 ; Cox, 1998 ) .

Research by Hantonet Al., ( 2000 ) examined the cognitive and bodily anxiousness degrees in 50 rugger participants and 50 mark rifle taws. Hantonet Al.( 2000 ) concluded that rugger participants were more likely to describe that bodily anxiousness had a positive impact on their clean public presentation. However, the mark rifle taws reported that it had a negative impact on their public presentation.

Bodily and cognitive anxiousness can be tested utilizing the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2

( CSAI-2 ) developed by Martenset Al.and foremost presented in 1982.


Vealey ( 1986 ) defined athleticss assurance as the sum of assurance jocks possess about their ability to be successful in athletics. Vealey ( 2001 ) suggested that assurance can be more traitlike or statelike depending on the clip that it is measured. In kernel, assurance might be something that an single feels on a peculiar twenty-four hours ( province assurance ) , or it might be portion of their personality ( trait assurance ) . Research carried out by Hallet Al.( 1998 ) , suggests that assurance is closely related to perceived ability and is depressed with the oncoming of competition due to the addition in anxiousness.

As explained in literature by Horn ( 2008: p66 ) , assurance is `` ... rooted in beliefs and outlooks. '' If overall assurance is low and the participant ( s ) expect something to travel incorrect, they are making a self-fulfilling prognostication ( Weinberg & A ; Gould, 2007 ) . This means that anticipating something to go on really helps it to go on. For illustration, if a squad thinks that they will lose the approaching lucifer because they lost last clip they stand a greater opportunity of losing than winning. `` The outlook of failure leads to existent failure, which lowers self-image and increases outlooks for future failure '' ( Weinberg & A ; Gould, 2007: p323 ) .

Anxiety and Performance

As a consequence of the development of the CSAI-2, the Multidimensional Theory of Anxiety has been recognised in the field of athletics psychological science ( McNally, 2002 ) . The Multidimensional Theory of Anxiety is

based on the thought that anxiousness is comprised of two distinguishable parts ; cognitive and bodily ( as defined in subdivision 2.1 ) . Both of these constituents have different effects on public presentation and can be manipulated individually in any juncture ( Burton, 1998 ; Cox, 1998 ; McNally, 2002 ) .

The Multidimensional Anxiety Theory predicts that cognitive province anxiousness is negatively related to public presentation. However, the theory predicts that the bodily province anxiousness is related to public presentation in an upside-down U form which can be seen in

Appendix 1

Certain degrees of anxiousness can be advantageous for the performing artists, but merely but to a certain degree. Beyond this degree the anxiousness causes public presentation to worsen ( Martens. Certain degrees of anxiousness can be advantageous for the performing artists, but merely but to a certain degree. Beyond this degree the anxiousness causes public presentation to worsen ( Martensetal. , 1990 ; Hanin, 2000 ;Weinberg & A ; Gould, 2007 ) .A al. , 1990 ; Hanin, 2000 ; Weinberg & A ; Gould, 2007 ) .A

Harmonizing to Endler ( 1978 ) , there are five factors that can be responsible for an addition in province anxiousness in an jock ; menace to an person 's self-importance, menace of personal injury, ambiguity, break of modus operandi, and menace of a negative societal rating. A high degree of anxiousness is ``  disadvantageous for optimal public presentation in competitory athletics '' ( Davies, 1989: p71 ) . This is demonstrated by the fact that more dying persons by and large do worse in of import events compared to less of import events and practise Sessionss.

This is supported by research carried out by MartensetAl. ( 1990 ) , Martin & A ; Gill ( 1991 ) , and Eyset Al.( 2003 ) .

Martenset Al.( 1990 ) suggests that bodily anxiousness has an Inverted-U shaped relationship with public presentation, whereas cognitive anxiousness has a negative additive relationship with public presentation as shown in.

Appendix 2

Similar consequences had been found by Parfitt and Hardy ( 1991 ) . They found that there were both positive and negative effects for bodily anxiousness during public presentation related activities merely before an of import event or lucifer during the clip that cognitive anxiousness was at a high degree ( McNally, 2002 ) . . Similar consequences had been found by Parfitt and Hardy ( 1991 ) . They found that there were both positive and negative effects for bodily anxiousness during public presentation related activities merely before an of import event or lucifer during the clip that cognitive anxiousness was at a high degree ( McNally, 2002 ) .

Anxiety can be a immense reverse for many jocks, particularly those who take portion in single athleticss, such as tennis singles, and for those who play in 'exposed ' places, such as goalies in hockey ( Davies, 1989 ) . Research has proven that there is an optimal degree of anxiousness for maximal public presentation. It was besides proven that both high and low degrees of anxiousness are related to hapless degrees of public presentation ( Yerkes & A ; Dodson, 1968 ; Feltz, 1988 ; Martenset Al., 1990 ; Cox, 1998 ) .

Harmonizing to research carried out by Martin and Gill ( 1991 ) , a participant

's degree of anxiousness varies depending on how of import or disputing the lucifer or competition is. More able participants will therefore non be so adversely affected by high degrees of anxiousness, where as less able participants will be as they see the lucifer as challenging and good consequences will look unrealistic. Sigmund Freud ( 1962 ) did a batch of research into anxiousness. In 1962 he focused on the prevenient nature of anxiousness. From this research he concluded that some persons expect to win or neglect, and hence go more or less dying harmonizing to their outlooks.

An of import piece of research into province anxiousness among successful and unsuccessful rivals who differ in competitory trait anxiousness was carried out by Martens and Gill ( 1976 ) . From the research they concluded that the persons who maintained low degrees of A-state throughout the competition were extremely successful. This supports the research carried out by Martens ( 1990 ) and Parfitt and Hardy ( 1991 ) with the Inverted-U shaped relationship between anxiousness and public presentation.

"Anxiety, therefore is a cardinal factor in public presentation in competitory athletics '' ( Davies, 1989: p72 ) . It is exacerbating and put offing for a gifted and committed sportswoman when their public presentation crumbles during competition due to over-anxiety. This is evitable if the person is appropriately prepared emotionally and accent is on the acquisition and enjoyment of the game. However, this could be hard to implement with a professional sportswoman who may potentially hold external wagess sabotaging intrinsic motive ( Weinburg and Gould, 2007 ) .

Causes of Anxiety

This subdivision will be looking into the issues environing the

causes of anxiousness in athleticss performing artists. These will include fright of failure, parental, equals and managers influences, and event importance. Relevant literature has been reviewed and presented in the subdivision below.

Fear of Failure

For many people, athletics is an of import sphere in which 1 's ability, motive, and personality are scrutinized and evaluated by other people '' ( Leary & A ; Kowalski, 1995: p122 ) . Whenever persons step onto the athleticss field they are at hazard of demoing themselves in an uncomplimentary position. They may worry about exposing marks of being out of form, unskilled, unqualified and unable to manage force per unit area to their fans, teammates, managers and household ( Passer, 1983 ; Davies, 1989 ; Leary & A ; Kowalski, 1995 ; Jarvis, 2006 ) . Research by Pierce ( 1980 ) concluded that young person athletics participants worried more about doing errors and underachieving than acquiring injury and what others thought of them.

"One of the most powerful causes of anxiousness is the fright of failure... '' ( Davies, 1989: p73 ) . This fright of failure would besides be connected with the loss of prestigiousness and humiliation. Research by Passer ( 1983 ) supports this theory as he found that fright of failure is a major cause of menace in competitive-trait-anxious kids.

This fright of failure can be apparent in superior performing artists as there is an increased force per unit area to execute good when playing a less able opposition. Losing to a lower graded squad or participant could be mortifying and consequence in a loss of prestigiousness and repute ( Davies, 1989 ; Leary & A ;

Kowalski, 1995 ) . The participant may hold the ability and accomplishments to win the lucifer, but due to their changeless concern of how they are traveling to execute they end up underperforming ( Passer, 1983 ) . However, for professional jocks this inauspicious affect of anxiousness on public presentation will be less as they have learnt to get by with such state of affairss and are able to cover with them consequently.

An illustration of a extremely skilled participant is Roger Federer ( aged 27 ) . Federer met the immature Spaniard, Rafael Nadal ( aged 22 ) in the Wimbledon finals in 2008. Federer was the current Wimbledon title-holder and had held the rubric for 5 back-to-back old ages ; this would hold been his 6th World Championship rubric. Federer 's licking could hold been due to the inordinate sum of media coverage before the lucifer adding to the force per unit area of him winning yet another rubric against a younger rival. At the same clip, the force per unit area would hold every bit been placed on Nadal to strike hard Federer off the top topographic point. Federer commented after the game `` It 's non a whole batch of merriment, but that 's the manner it is. I can merely compliment Rafa for a great attempt '' ( BBC Sport, 2008 ) .The game was improbably near ; 6-4, 6-4, 6-7 ( 5 ) , 6-7 ( 8 ) , 9-7 ( BBC Sport, 2008 ) , and has gone down in history as the longest of all time Wimbledon concluding.

Parental, Peers and Coaches Influences

Parents and managers can sometimes be far

excessively pushful and ambitious and in bend addition the emphasis and anxiousness degrees within the jock. Harmonizing to Jarvis ( 1990 ) , it is evident that both high and low outlooks of public presentation can be linked to degrees of anxiousness. The over-concern and high degrees of anxiousness shown by anyone near to the jock is likely to rise their anxiousness besides, and in bend could damage the opportunities of success. "Excessively much force per unit area from instructors, managers and household can add enormously to competitory anxiousness '' ( Jarvis, 1990: p118 ) .

Passer ( 1983 ) concluded from his research that extremely dying persons are really disquieted about executing severely as this will convey about unfavorable judgment and disapproval from their equals, parents and managers. However, Smithet Al.( 1979 ) developed a coach-training plan designed to assist managers make an environment for the jocks to experience comfy and less dying in.

The Coach Effectiveness Training gives the managers the accomplishments and ability to make a... '' socially supportive environment through frequent usage of positive support, encouragement, and proficient direction, while detering the usage of punitory behaviors '' ( Smithet Al., 2006: p492 ) . Smithet Al.( 1995 ) discovered through research that there were important decreases in performance-anxiety among kids who played for a manager that had experienced the Coach Effectiveness Training. The kids who were exposed to trained managers showed a lessening in degrees of anxiousness over the season, whereas the other group who were exposed to untrained managers showed an addition on the Sports Anxiety Scale-2 ( SAS ) ( Smithet Al., 2006 ) .

A frequent beginning of anxiousness is the

presence of witnesss ; these can be friends, household, managers or even complete aliens. `` Sometimes public presentation is enhanced, sometimes it deteriorates and sometimes there is small discernable difference '' ( Davies, 1989: p83 ) . Harmonizing to literature the public presentation of stable and confident participants normally improves when an audience is present, whereas that of dying participants tends to diminish ( Weinberg & A ; Gould, 2007 ; Jarvis, 2006 ; Martenset Al., 1990 ) .

Research besides shows that the consequence of an audience on superior participants is positive, and for the less able participant the audience presents them with an addition in anxiousness and emphasis which in bend causes them to underachieve. Harmonizing to work carried out by Haas and Roberts ( 1975 ) , Martens and Landers ( 1972 ) and Green ( 1983 ) the sensed function of the perceiver is an of import factor for the jock or performing artist. It has been suggested that if the perceiver occupies an of import, judgmental function so this generates feelings of anxiousness. The research workers found that on the other manus, if the witnesss are seen as being positive and supportive, for illustration a manager, they will be by and large welcomed by the performing artist.

Event Importance

"The more of import a clean event is, the more nerve-racking we are likely to happen it '' ( Jarvis, 1990: p118 ) . However, it is of import to retrieve that it is the importance of the event to the person that is counts, non the position of the competition. An event may look undistinguished to most people but may be of import

to an person ( Weinberg & A ; Gould, 2007 ) . An illustration of this could be that an person is viing against their old nine squad ; there would be an increased desire to execute good and potentially crush them. Research carried out by Sanderson in 1977 on 64 of the best badminton participants in England aged between 18 and 21 ; found that the sensed importance of the competition was a important factor taking to A-State reactions ( Sanderson, 1981 ) .

Marchantet Al.( 1998 ) conducted an experiment with braces of golf players. The golf players were either viing for three new golf balls, or a brace of new golfing places. Obviously, the golf places made the competition into a high importance one, and hence the participants experienced more anxiousness than those viing for the golf balls.

An illustration of a participant who was able to get by with the addition in anxiousness is Jonny Wilkinson who took a bead end to win England the 2003 Rugby World Cup in the concluding drama of the game. If Wilkinson had been affected by the anxiousness and force per unit area of the degree of competition, he may hold missed the end.

Anxiety: Performance Features

In featuring competitory state of affairss, the dying performing artist tends to go over-aroused, tense, and far excessively disquieted to execute to the best of their ability. The addition in musculus tenseness can interfere with coordination doing the public presentation degrees to diminish ( Burton, 1988 ; Smithetal. , 2006 ; Weinberg & A ; Gould, 2007 ) . The feeling on insufficiency and deficiency of assurance hinders the featuring public presentation

( Davies, 1989 ) . For illustration in a competitory rugger lucifer a participant who suffers a high degree of anxiousness may miss assurance when traveling in for a tackle. This could ensue in the participant go throughing him and hiting a attempt, but most likely ensuing in hurt as they are non to the full committed to the tackle.

`` The extremely dying individual is slower to respond in the nerve-racking competitory state of affairs than he is in the comparatively relaxed conditions of pattern '' ( Davies, 1989: p75 ) . During tense, important parts of the lucifer the over-anxious participant may demo uncoerced mistakes ; for illustration in rugger they may lose a punishment boot and in tennis a double-fault may be played. Uncoerced mistakes may happen during the lucifer ; this can include forward base on ballss, a knock-on, or a late tackle.


In order to accomplish the aims of this research undertaking, a assortment of appropriate research methods have been chosen, utilizing both primary and secondary informations. Before research was collected it was of import to set up a research procedure which acted as a model throughout the research undertaking. During this chapter the strengths and failings of the possible research method is discussed and merely the suited and most relevant have been selected for this survey.

Paradigm Rationale

There are two wide research traditions ; qualitative which replies inquiries such as 'why ' and 'how ' , and quantitative which replies inquiries such as 'what ' and 'when ' ( There are two wide research traditions ; qualitative which replies inquiries such as 'why ' and 'how ' , and quantitative which replies

inquiries such as 'what ' and 'when ' (

It was decided to blend quantitative informations with qualitative informations to do the research more believable and valid. Many research workers such as Nau ( 1995 ) and Jayaratne ( 1993 ) have suggested that intermixing qualitative and quantitative methods of research can bring forth a consequence foregrounding important findings from each. Hendersonet Al.( 1999 ) suggests that utilizing anecdotes and narrations to back up quantitative informations can supply lucidity to the findings. Associating the two types of informations can give a bigger image of the issues around the topic. During this research undertaking, quantitative information was collected to supply numerical informations from a big sample, whereas the qualitative informations collected provides rich informations from a smaller sample ( Gratton & A ; Jones,2004 ) .

Research Approach

The research inquiry "Pattern of pre-match competitory anxiousness in elect mate ruggers brotherhood participants '' includes elements taken from both an inductive and deductive attack to research. When researching around the topic of how anxiety affects public presentation, a deductive attack appears to be more appropriate to the research undertaking as it was unneeded for the research worker to come up with a new theory. A big sum of research has already been carried out into the affects of anxiousness on featuring public presentation, evident in the literature reappraisal.

For this piece of research the Multidimensional Anxiety Theory proposed by Martensetal. , ( 1990 ) was used. The theory is based on the thought that anxiousness is comprised of two distinguishable parts ; cognitive and bodily. The Multidimensional Anxiety Theory predicts that cognitive province anxiousness is negatively related to public presentation, and

that the bodily province anxiousness is related to public presentation in an upside-down U proposing that there is an optimal degree of anxiousness ( Weinberg & A ; Gould, 2007 ; Burton, 1998 ; Cox, 1998 ; McNally, 2002 ) .


For this research into the effects of anxiousness on public presentation, the work forces 's 1st squad of the recreational Reading Rugby Football Club was chosen. They were chosen as there is the chance to run into with the meet every hebdomad. For this research into the effects of anxiousness on public presentation, the work forces 's 1st squad of the recreational Reading Rugby Football Club was chosen. They were chosen as there is the chance to run into with the meet every hebdomad.

From speaking to the participants it is evident that the nine has a mixture of professions ; pupils, ground forces forces, mechanics, and concern work forces. However, they all have one passion, and that is rugby. The ages of the participants range from 18 to 38 old ages. There is a assortment of experiences within the squad ; some participants are in their first season of National 3 degree rugger, whereas a figure are in their 4th of 5th season at this degree.

Training takes topographic point on a Tuesday and Thursday from 7:30pm until 9:30pm. During this clip the participants train, have physiotherapy ( if it is needed ) , and they besides have a repast together before traveling place. The sum of clip that the squad spends together off the pitch is critical for the development of squad coherence.

Data Collection

During this research undertaking, information was collected utilizing both questionnaires and interviews.

This subdivision will look at questionnaires and interviews individually explicating the different types of inquiry, and the advantages and disadvantages of both. During this research undertaking, information was collected utilizing both questionnaires and interviews. This subdivision will look at questionnaires and interviews individually explicating the different types of inquiry, and the advantages and disadvantages of both.

The Questionnaire Survey

Following the research in Chapter 2, the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 has been chosen for this research. The stock list is a sport-specific, self-report that has been proven to be a dependable and valid step in competitory state of affairss of cognitive and bodily province anxiousness and assurance. The CSAI-2 consists of a three 9-item subscales that step cognitive anxiousness, bodily anxiousness, and assurance ( Burton, 1988 ) . Each of the 27 inquiries are rated on a 4-point Likert graduated table from `` non at all '' to `` really much so '' . The questionnaire was administered during the concluding hr before competition over a period of 14 hebdomads. The tonss collected on each of the three graduated tables provided a mention point from which to analyze the rugger participant 's forms of multidimensional anxiousness.

Types of Questionnaires

Harmonizing to Gratton and Jones ( 2004 ) questionnaires are perchance the most common method for roll uping informations in sports-related research. A questionnaire is merely `` ... a standardized set of inquiries to derive information from a topic '' ( Gratton& A ; Jones2004: 115 ) . Questionnaires are associated with quantitative research where information is required from a big sample group. In this instance the questionnaires measure the anxiousness degrees of the 1st XV squad before lucifers.

There are

three types of questionnaire ; postal, telephone and face to face questionnaires. Postal questionnaires are given or posted to the participants who so finish them in their ain clip ; they are so posted back to the research worker. Telephone questionnaires are completed by the research worker while speaking to the participant over the telephone. Face to face questionnaires are completed with both the participant and research worker in the same location.

For this research the most appropriate manner to roll up informations was to manus out self-completion questionnaires that were carried out face to face. Passing out the questionnaires saves postal and telephone costs, and besides clip. This was the best manner for the research worker to roll up the informations that was needed before summarizing it utilizing tabular arraies and graphs ( Gratton & A ; Jones, 2004 ) .

Advantages and Disadvantages of Questionnaires


A well designed questionnaire provides small chance for the debut of prejudice into the consequences. However, a severely designed questionnaire can sometimes take to bias informations, and hence utilizing questionnaires does non automatically intend that there is a decrease in prejudice ( ThomasetAl, 2005 ; Gratton & A ; Jones, 2010 ) .

The usage of a questionnaire enables the participant to stay anon. . This is advantageous when researching sensitive issues such as force, drugs and, in this instance the personal issue of anxiousness. Enabling the participants to stay anon. may increase the cogency of the research worker 's consequences.

As the CSAI-2 is being used the research has been provided with a well-structured agencies of roll uping quantitative informations. This information can be compared between the same groups over a long

period of clip. The findings can be easy transferred into tabular arraies and charts and analysed statistically ( Gratton & A ; Jones, 2010 ) .

The concluding advantage of utilizing questionnaires is that they allow the research worker to roll up a big sum of informations from a big sample group. The usage of questionnaires makes the procedure less clip devouring as the research worker does non needfully necessitate to be present to carry on them.


"The inquiries have to be clear plenty for all participants to understand '' ( Gratton & A ; Jones, 2010: 129 ) . This is of import as the research worker may non ever be present to clear up and explicate complex inquiries. If there is the demand for complex inquiries so the research worker would hold to be present, get the better ofing the object of clip salvaging postal or on-line questionnaires.

Another disadvantage of questionnaires is that the research worker can non command who completes them unless specified beforehand. In the instance of this research undertaking, it was specified that the 1st XV work forces 's squad from Reading Rugby Football Club were to finish the CSAI-2 questionnaires each hebdomad. This provided consistence with the consequences as the same group of people filled them in each hebdomad, therefore increasing the cogency of the undertaking.

Although the questionnaire is answered on a graduated table and will be analysed from hebdomad to hebdomad comparing the consequences of experient and inexperient participants, "... there is no chance to acquire him or her to spread out upon or explicate any of the points that may hold been made '' ( Gratton & A ;

Jones, 2010: 129 ) . This is where the research worker made the determination of including qualitative research to increase the cogency of the undertaking and endorse up the information gained from the quantitative research.

When trusting on questionnaires for quantitative informations, there is ever the hazard of a hapless response rate. However, for the research for this undertaking the CSAI-2 questionnaires were handed out and collected from the participants before they went out for the warm up. This increases the response rate as the whole squad kindly took 10 proceedingss to make full them in, and the research worker was besides present to implement the completion of the CSAI-2.

Developing and Flying the Questionnaires

For this research undertaking, the CSAI-2 questionnaire was used which was developed from the CSAI questionnaire and foremost presented in 1982, as explained in the literature reappraisal of this piece of research. As the CSAI-2 was designed to mensurate degree of multidimensional facets of anxiousness prior to competition, the determination was made to travel in front and utilize it for my ain research into how anxiety affects the public presentation of elect male rugger participants.

Due to the time-scale that I am working to, it would non hold been clip efficient to develop a new ain questionnaire to the same complexness as the CSAI-2 which was developed over many old ages. `` Valid and dependable graduated tables are hard and clip devouring to develop '' ( Gratton & A ; Jones, 2010: 137 ) .

Even though the CSAI-2 has been tried and tested over the old ages by experient research workers, a pilot survey was conducted. A pilot survey is a small-scale disposal of

the questionnaire prior to the chief disposal. The pilot survey is utile for a figure of maps, including:

  • To look into that the diction of the questionnaire is clear and apprehensible for the participants
  • To look into that the sequence of the questionnaire is clear and simple
  • To look into the disposal of the questionnaire from start to complete is efficient and runs swimmingly
  • To acquire an thought of how long the disposal clip of the questionnaire is
  • To let a test tally of analyzing the information

The pilot survey was carried out in conditions that were close to those of the existent survey. If there were alterations needed so these would hold been made and so the questionnaire would hold been re-piloted and analysed once more ( Bryman 2008 ; Gratton & A ; Jones, 2010 ) .

Covering Letter

When I handed out the questionnaires I besides handed out a covering missive. This introduced me as the research worker and the administration to which I am affiliated. The missive besides introduced the research programme and explained why the research was being carried out. An of import component of the missive is to emphasize the importance of namelessness of the respondents. If the research worker had been directing out postal or on-line questionnaires, a covering missive would surely hold been one method of increasing the response rate. As face-to-face questionnaires were carried out, the covering missive is done as a affair of niceness. A

Types of Interview

Gratton and Jones( 2004 ) , province that the best manner to happen out information is to merely inquire them. Interviewing is associated with the aggregation of qualitative informations ; they tend

to seek the replies of 'why ' and 'how ' things occur. There are four different types of interview ; structured, semi-structured, unstructured and the focal point groups. A semi-structured interview technique was used. The cardinal subjects to be researched were already clear from the literature reappraisal. However, the inquiries were easy adoptable and expandible in response to the interviewees. The sequence of inquiries can be altered and the inquiries are designed to be `` ... sufficiently unfastened '' ( Wengraf, 2001: 5 ) . This enables the research worker to spread out on the interviewees responses. Sometimes the research worker may hold to improvize 50 to 80 per centum of the inquiries as the interviewee 's responses can non ever be predicted ( Thomaset Al,2005 ; Gratton & A ; Jones, 2010 ) . Please see


for an illustration of the interview inquiries. ) for an illustration of the interview inquiries. )

The location of the interview is really of import ; it needs to take topographic point where the interviewee is comfy replying inquiries ( Grattonet Al2004 ) . The interviews carried out for this research piece took topographic point at the rugger nine in a quiet country of the nine house ; the location was free from background noise as I was entering the interview.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Interviews


One advantage of utilizing an interview is that it enables the participant to speak about their experience in their ain words, and spread out on past experiences that they feel are relevant to the survey. This will be of import to the research as the interviews are being used to endorse up the information gathered from

the CSAI-2 questionnaires.

Leting the interviewees to reply in their ain words allows unexpected informations to emerge. The semi-structured interviews that were used allowed for subjects of importance to emerge and be explored. This so enabled the topics to lucubrate on their attitudes and behaviors that may non hold been picked up by the research worker ( Gratton & A ; Jones, 2010 ) .

A face-to-face interview allows the research worker to pick up on organic structure linguistic communication and facial looks when the interviewee answers the inquiries. it can be advantageous in some state of affairss to see the first reaction to a peculiar state of affairs.


Interviewing participants does hold a figure of failings, one being that interviews require more resources than questionnaires ( Bryman 2008, Gratton & A ; Jones, 2010 ) . In some instances interviews may be expensive in footings of clip and going. As a consequence of this disbursal, the sample may be little and unrepresentative of the population ; in this instance of male rugger participants and the consequence that anxiousness has upon their clean public presentation.
It may besides be possible to add prejudices through verbal and non-verbal reactions. An illustration of this may be that the interviewer nods in response to a certain reply so the interviewee continues down that way. This could take to the 'right ' replies being given, instead than what the interviewee truly believes or feels ( Thomaset Al,2005 ) .

Analysis Procedures

The information that was collected will non supply an reply to the research inquiry itself. The information demands to be organised and analysed so that it is meaningful to the research undertaking ( Gratton

& A ; Jones, 2010 ) . The CSAI-2 questionnaires were labelled 'experienced participant ' or 'non-experienced participant ' by the participants. During this research piece the definition of experience is taken from the Cambridge Dictionary ( 2008 ) . It states that experience is `` the procedure of acquiring cognition or accomplishment from making, seeing or feeling things. '' For this peculiar research piece, being portion of the 1st squad for 4 old ages or more put the participants in the class as an 'experienced participant ' .

The CSAI-2 is scored by ciphering a separate sum for each of the three sub-scales ; no entire mark is worked out. `` The higher the mark, the greater the cognitive or bodily A-state or the greater the province assurance '' ( Martenset Al., 1990: p176 ) . The cognitive A-state subscale is worked out by adding the tonss for the undermentioned 9 points: 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, and 25. The bodily A-state subscale is scored by adding the tonss for the undermentioned 9 points: 2, 5, 8, 11, 14R, 17, 20, 23, and 26. The marking for 14 must be reversed as indicated: 1 = 4, 2 = 3, 3 = 2, and 4 = 1. The province assurance subscale is calculated utilizing the undermentioned points: 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, and 27.

Harmonizing to Martenset Al( 1990 ) any stock lists that are losing no more than one response per subscale can still be included in the research undertaking. However, if they are losing more than two per subscale they have to be discarded.

Normative information for elect male jocks is

provided by Martenset Al.( 1990 ) which can be seen in.

Quality Standards

"Dependability is the extent to which a trial or process produces similar consequences under changeless conditions on all occasions '' ( Bell 2005 ) . Harmonizing to Gratton and Jones ( 2010 ) , there are a figure of signifiers of dependability when transporting out research:

  • Inter-observer dependability -This is concerned with how two different perceivers would mensurate the same phenomenon as people do see and respond to events otherwise.
  • Test-retest dependability - This is the extent to which the research would supply the same measurings if repeated on a different juncture.
  • Internal consistence dependability - This refers to the extent to which each inquiry in the step is really mensurating the same phenomenon.

All of these signifiers were controlled in this research piece as there was no existent observation of the phenomenon. All of the consequences were written down by the participants and were non influenced by anyone else. The test-retest signifier of dependability does non use for this work as what is being measured changed from hebdomad to hebdomad depending on the resistance, location and single. There is internal consistence with the CSAI-2 as all of the inquiries have been made to mensurate assurance, and bodily and cognitive A-state anxiousness.

Steinmetz ( 1991 ) , states that a trustworthy survey is one that is carried out reasonably and ethically and whose findings represent every bit closely as possible the experiences of the respondents. Within this research, all of the interviews and questionnaires took topographic point in locations where the interviewees felt comfy. This prevented any of them experiencing like they could non to the

full open up to the research worker and hence withhold any information that may be of import.

Ethical motives

During the different phases of the research undertaking, a figure of ethical issues were considered. Harmonizing to SaundersetAl ( 2007 ) , moralss refers to the suitableness of one 's behavior in relation to the rights of those who become the topic of one 's work, or are affected by it.

When transporting out primary informations aggregation, questionnaires and interviews have to potential to be intrusive to a respondent and it is ethical to have consent beforehand. When utilizing a questionnaire, consent can normally be granted by the participant returning the completed signifier. However, if an interview is traveling to be carried out, consent should be given by a elaborate written understanding ( Veal, 2006 ) . In the instance of this survey, both questionnaires and interviews were carried out ; hence a consent signifier had to be filled in before the interviews went in front.


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