Police surveillance Essay Example
Police surveillance Essay Example

Police surveillance Essay Example

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  • Pages: 12 (3197 words)
  • Published: August 13, 2017
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Police surveillance raises concerns about morals and ethics.

This literature review will thoroughly analyze police surveillance. The level of police surveillance and information gathering that exists continues to be discussed by scholars. Various perspectives exist when discussing police surveillance in different states, each focusing on a specific aspect of surveillance and its importance. In Frank Webster’s book "Theories of the Information Society," he discusses the growth of police surveillance and organization in contemporary times.

Webster refers to Anthony Giddens' plants in his treatment, specifically utilizing Giddens' account of the state province as a starting point for discussing surveillance.

The author argues that, right from its inception as a defined territory governed by a political authority, information holds great importance within a state province. According to him, state provinces can be perceived as "information societies" due to their fundamental depe


ndence on information. He furthermore maintains that the requirement for individuals within a state province is to be knowledgeable and informed.

The text states that it is necessary for a state province to have knowledge about both 'allocative resources' and 'authoritative resources' in order to achieve them.

According to Giddens, effective surveillance is necessary as the state province relies on information gathering and storage. The collection and storage of information form a "contract between the state province and its members," which encompasses citizenship rights and responsibilities. Safeguarding the nation's borders is the primary duty of any government, which fuels an insatiable appetite for information. This appetite is further intensified by potential threats to a nation's boundary.

Whether real or perceived, the increasing need for information has led to the development of a widespread "system of interconnected technologies that regularly and continuously monitor an

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assess events and activities - both military and civilian - across the globe." This interaction between nation-state and citizen enables each individual to possess various rights and responsibilities, such as the right to education and the right to vote.

Having a passport is important, as it allows for minimal income and access to wellness interventions. Additionally, citizens have certain responsibilities.

Payment of taxes is required, and in some cases individuals even fight and die for their country. The state provides rights and benefits, such as welfare benefits and services, as part of the system of mass surveillance. This is where categorization processes take place.

Giddens suggests that the growth in information is connected to police surveillance in modern nation states. He believes that instead of being called an "information society," a modern nation state should be labeled as a "surveillance society." Giddens' perspective provides a holistic view of state development.

In his discussion on the function of surveillance in a ‘surveillance society,' Giddens also explores the process of information collection and its impact on daily life. Additionally, Gidden's examination of the concept of a ‘social contract' is not groundbreaking.

The text addresses the significance of comprehending the rationale behind the present utilization of police surveillance. It proposes that as surveillance grows and evolves, it has the potential to result in a totalitarian regime. Although this concept stimulates thinking, it lacks a definitive conclusion.

Instead of the current opportunity, Kevin Robins and Frank Webster discuss in Times of the Technoculture: From the Information Society to the Virtual Life the concept of 'the Republic of Technology'. They describe a society that is obsessed with progress, growth, and development without limits.

The author

references Cornelius Castoriadis, who suggests that society desires an illusion of control. This illusion involves wanting to have total control over our desires and wanting to resolve all objects and circumstances. It is posited that the advancement of police surveillance is partly due to the civilization of engineering. Christopher Lasch supports this viewpoint.

"The belief that we can control and dominate the world is the essence of modern technology," assert Robins and Webster. They contend that the police exemplify an intense longing for control and power, playing a pivotal role in driving surveillance advancements and heightened information requirements. Sharing Anthony Giddens' viewpoint, Robins and Webster emphasize that comprehending large-scale societal changes necessitates recognizing the influence of the police. The authors underline the significance of police progressions.

Robins and Webster argue that the police have a significant role in both maintaining current surveillance and in expanding it in the future. They believe that the police are essential in diverting necessary funds away from citizens and in exerting a dominant influence on research and development, which could be better allocated to other endeavors.

According to Robins and Webster, they contend that the anterooms have a significant level of influence which distorts and deviates economic and societal priorities through procedures that are largely concealed from public scrutiny. The role of the police and the implementation of surveillance can be viewed as a means of social control.

The implementation of surveillance and control schemes is achieved by modeling them after the constabulary paradigm. They believe that even patrolling is shifting towards a more military approach.

According to Robins and Webster, constabulary jussive moods have had a significant role in the development of the state

and surveillance systems. They concur with Anthony Giddens' argument that surveillance, as the mobilization of administrative power through information storage and control, is the main mechanism for concentrating vital resources. In simpler terms, the implementation of police surveillance and the gathering of information are essential for maintaining control and order.

The writers stress the importance of the constabulary within the state in gathering information on potential enemies and its own citizens. Additionally, police technologies receive significant funding and continue to be utilized in achieving the goal of complete control.

They claim that this dream has always been present in the advancement of technologies and that in the future, striving for this dream will lead to a system that purposely eradicates the entire human identity, disregards the historical process, and overly emphasizes the role of abstract intelligence.

Controlling physical nature and ultimately controlling adult males is the ultimate goal of being. Robin and Webster present an alternative perspective on the origins of police surveillance and gathering information.

The text discusses the idea of having complete control and how it has contributed to the rapid development of law enforcement technologies. These technologies are often used on a nation's own citizens. The increasing use of surveillance and police technology raises concerns that humans will lose control over themselves as technology advances. This statement is alarming, but it is justified considering the progress of technology.

Vincent Mosco, in his work "The Pay-Per Society: Computers and Communication in the Information Age: Essays in Critical Theory and Public Policy," explores the role of the constabulary in the advancement of computing machines and communication systems. According to Mosco, this role is deemed imperative due to the continuous

monitoring and regulation undertaken by the police throughout history.

Mosco argues that the police has had a significant impact on the advancement of technology in the United States, particularly in communication and information technology. Like Robins and Webster, Mosco emphasizes the strong influence of law enforcement on the development of computing machines and communications. Furthermore, Mosco investigates the interconnectedness among the police, U.S. government, and industry.

The author talks about the important role of the constabulary in advancing technology, which is made possible by funding from the US government and partnerships with leading technology companies. Mosco emphasizes that the relationship between the Pentagon and the American computer industry has always been strong.

Computer research during the 1940s and 1950s received significant support from US authorities, led by the Pentagon. Moreover,

Despite the passage of time, the relationship remains strong as shown by the ongoing agreement. This agreement grants the National Security Agency a planetary computer/communications orbiter system with the responsibility of regularly monitoring international teletypewriter, telegraph, telephone, wireless, and other transmissions.

The United States is engaged in surveillance activities within its own borders, as well as in foreign countries and space. Fijnaut (1995) investigates the growth of police technologies and surveillance into outer space.

The author provides an explanation that constabulary computers are incorporated into Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence systems. Additionally, the author highlights that the scope of constabulary computers has been broadened.

Communication technologies have enhanced the speed and accuracy of arms systems, intelligence gathering, surveillance, and reconnaissance. The police aim to maintain maximum control and protection from disturbances.

According to Fijnaut (1995), the limits of police technologies have not been reached yet and will continue to expand. This expansion of

information gathering and surveillance is partially aimed at protecting the nation.

Authorities prioritize the need to protect their citizens and their rights, which has led to the development of new technologies in order to combat disorderly behavior. In his book, "Surveillance Society: Monitoring Everyday Life," David Lyon explores the importance of collecting information and implementing surveillance measures in contemporary nation states.

According to the author, modern authority heavily relies on the collection and storage of personal data. In maintaining power, information and knowledge are considered crucial in contemporary society. Due to the personal nature of much of this information, the author contends that this heightened focus on individuals' data leads to surveillance. Furthermore, the author argues that the rise in surveillance capabilities is a defining characteristic of the modern era.

According to the author, this specific portion of the universe has been designed to transmit societal, economic, and political agreements into coherent systems of government and control. The author contends that concentrated surveillance on individuals is a feature of modern society and grants them certain advantages in terms of citizenship benefits.

The text discusses the different rights and benefits that individuals may possess, such as voting rights and access to public assistance. It also emphasizes the significance of fair payment for employees, along with acknowledgment and retirement perks. The author acknowledges Lyon's comprehensive exploration of both advantageous and disadvantageous aspects of police surveillance, while noting the need to address remaining concerns despite evolving surveillance methodologies.

Despite the potential for negative use, it remains undeniable that police surveillance is an integral aspect of contemporary society. Lyon illustrates this through instances of police surveillance and data gathering within social contexts,

such as the implementation of a fully automated toll road in Toronto.

Highway 407 offers an alternative route through Canada's busiest corridor, and tolls are collected using transponders in vehicles or video cameras scanning enrollment home bases. The engineering behind this system was adapted from technology used for smart bombers during the 1991 Gulf War. It identifies vehicles eligible for tolls based on distance driven and the time of day. This is significant to many people.

Having toll booths is seen as a luxury, but the convenience of automatic charge is undeniable. However, what drivers may not realize is that this technology enables the development of real-time simulations of road traffic movement in cities.

This information is extremely important for creators, especially in densely populated urban areas. The example presented here demonstrates how military technologies are utilized in the public sector. Additionally, Lyon addresses the inescapable nature of surveillance in our society, stating that it is impossible for anyone to avoid it if they so desire.

We cannot escape from being constantly immersed in media. From our interactions with society to our economic transactions, everything is linked to electronic recording, checking, and monitoring.

Lyon further asserts that no single entity is accountable for the focused scrutiny in our everyday lives. He offers insight from both proponents and opponents of the current level of surveillance. He commences by stating that opponents view such surveillance negatively due to a perception that significant government and corporate entities exploit and manipulate information.

According to Lyon, constant surveillance by law enforcement allows for the unrestricted sharing and trading of individuals' personal information. This surveillance is specifically aimed at collecting and manipulating private details in order to

exert control or influence over those being monitored. Lyon sees this as a means of exercising power through categorization and social stratification.

The author Lyon presents a critique of patrol surveillance and information gathering in his book.

The text examines the implementation of police surveillance and information gathering technologies in everyday life. It also addresses concerns raised by individuals who are apprehensive about the focus placed on their lives. In his article "What’s New About the 'New Surveillance'? Classifying for Change and Continuity," Gary T. Marx discusses the extent to which surveillance is applied to both individuals and locations.

The text discusses the infinites, webs, and classes of individuals, highlighting the blurred distinction between ego and other forms of surveillance. The author aims to emphasize the disparities between modern and traditional surveillance methods and provide a way to gather information that is applicable to contemporary social, ethical, and policy concerns. This publication offers valuable insights on the subject.

Marx aims to determine whether the safeguarding of personal information is declining or improving in contemporary times. He asserts that in the latter half of the 20th century, there has been a substantial rise in the utilization of technology for accessing personal data. Illustrative examples include video and audio surveillance.

Biometric entry devices, drug testing, deoxyribonucleic acid analysis, computer monitoring (including email and web usage), and the utilization of computer techniques such as expert systems.

Fiting and profiling, information excavation, function, web analysis, and simulation are all areas of expertise. The writer believes that control engineerings have transformed from being mere figments of imagination in science fiction to becoming a reality. Marx insists on the need for a fresh interpretation of

surveillance to fully comprehend its consequences.

He rejects the old definitions and offers his own definition. He proposes that a more accurate definition of new surveillance is "the utilization of technological methods to extract or generate personal data, which can be acquired from individuals or environments."

The definition used here implies using "technical means" to extract and retrieve information that goes beyond what our senses or voluntary reporting can offer. This definition is believed to be more appropriate for new surveillance technologies. Marx argues that these technologies can bring many positive aspects to society, particularly through providing high-quality documentary evidence and audit trails.

The new surveillance has the potential to enhance due process, fairness, and legitimacy. It can promote the political diversity that is essential to democracy by making surveillance tools widely accessible for citizens and competing groups to utilize against each other, including the government.

According to the author, there are ample surveillance technologies accessible to the public in the United States, unlike in many other societies, in order to increase accountability.

Surveillance is no longer seen as a one-way mirror but rather as a window, according to the article "Privacy is Not the Antidote to Surveillance."

In his discussion, Felix Stalder examines the existence of police surveillance and data collection in democracies. He argues that in democratic societies, there are comprehensive systems in place to establish and uphold accountability. Additionally, there are mechanisms to punish individuals who misuse their authority.

Stalder suggests that the handling of personal information should have comparable mechanisms in place. He argues that the current state of surveillance has caused unease among the population, particularly in the United States. Before the events of September 11th,

2001, surveys indicated that the majority of respondents were highly concerned about the misuse of personal data.

According to Webster, Robins, Lyon, and others, access to large data-sets containing personal information is necessary for societal control, and those who possess this information possess a powerful tool.

Not only commercially, but also importantly by governments, who collect information about their citizens in order to increase the accuracy of their planning and combat fraud and tax evasion.

The usual response to emerging concerns is the demand for increased privacy protection. Although calling for more protection may seem like the obvious answer, actually implementing it is not as simple as it seems. Defining what privacy entails presents a challenge.

Privacy varies throughout the universe, with Europeans developing one of the most rigorous approaches. They understand privacy as 'informational self-determinism,' which means that individuals should have the ability to determine the extent to which their information is being collected in any given context. In this context, privacy is considered personal.

Each individual will have their own subjective interpretation of privacy. Information that one person may consider acceptable to be collected might be deeply personal for another individual. The likelihood of reaching a universally agreed-upon definition is low. Stalder suggests his own solution to this increasing challenge. Each article offers insights into various aspects of data collection and police surveillance.

It is possible to comprehend the development of surveillance technologies and their ongoing funding by government agencies. The impact of this extensive support on local economies necessitates further investigation.

At the heart of this dilemma is the question of how to improve the protection of civilians from the collection and dissemination of gathered information. Civilians feel powerless

in safeguarding their privacy from being violated. Additionally,

These articles outline the methods by which civil, political, economic, and human rights are safeguarded through systematic surveillance and data-collection. Without this, the protection of said rights would be compromised.

Authorities would be incapable of such a task, and these rights would definitely be violated. People face an increasing police presence in their everyday lives, with some unaware of its existence. They use their credit cards without realizing that every purchase is monitored.

Information is recorded and entered into a database, allowing companies to utilize the received data for profitable improvements.

They are unaware that their data is bought and sold, traded on the open market, along with all other commodities. The government needs to collect data in order to provide services to the public.

The usage of this information is focused on legitimate purposes like revenue enhancements and societal security. However, concerns arise regarding the additional uses of this information and the individuals who have access to it. Although there has been an increase in accountability by authorities in this country, worries persist.

The situation is different when it comes to information collected by commercial entities, especially in Canada and the United States. The increase in data collection and police surveillance can be attributed to several reasons, including the need for a nation to safeguard itself against invasion and prioritize the protection of its borders and citizens. With that being said, these factors play a crucial role.

Authorities strive for total control over their territory, necessitating the use of police surveillance both within and outside their borders. Additionally, it is crucial to acknowledge the significant relationship between governments and their

police forces, as this connection often leads to the funding and development of new technologies.

The development of police technologies has led to the expansion of societal services and depletion of national revenues, even though civilian-based initiatives could be prioritized. This is due to the accumulation of information.

civilians are no longer able to obtain their own information. Their information is transferred from corporation to corporation, with no sense of security available to them. This lack of accountability is evident.

When dealing with corporations and the acquisition and storage of personal information, it is essential to have precise definitions instead of relying on vague terms for new solutions to occur.

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