Pharmacology Test 1: Broward College Nursing

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Blood Vessels Receptor(s)
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Alpha1 Beta2 constriction/dilation
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Cardiac Muscle Receptor(s)
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Beta1 Increased contractility
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Atrioventricular Node Receptor(s)
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Beta1 Increased heart rate
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Sinoatrial Node Receptor(s)
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Beta 1 Increased Heart Rate
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Pancreas Receptor(s)
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Beat1 decreased insulin release
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Liver Receptor(s)
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Beta2 Glycogenolysis
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Kidney Receptor(s)
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Beta2 Increased Renin Secretion
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Gastrointestinal Muscle Receptor(s)
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Beta2 Decreased Motility
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Gastrointestinal Sphincters Receptor(s)
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Alpha1 Constriction
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Genitourinary Bladder Sphincter Receptor(s)
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Alpha1 Constriction
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Penis Receptor(s)
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Alpha1 Ejaculation
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Uterus Receptor(s)
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Alpha1/Beta2 Contraction & Relaxation
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Bronchial Muscles Receptor(s)
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Beta2 Dilation
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What are the 5 Rights?
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Right dose, right drug, right time, right route, right patient
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What breaks down Epinepherine & Norepinepherine?
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MAO & COMT
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What is the typical dose of an albuterol inhaler
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Inhale 1 -2 puffs po q 4-6 h
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What receptors does Epinepherine Stimulate?
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Alpha1, Beta1, & Beta2
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What receptors does Dobutamine stimulate?
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Beta1 and 2
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What receptors do Phenylepherine stimulate?
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Alpha1
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What receptors does Isoproterenol stimulate
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Beta1 & Beta 2
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Dose for Epinepherine?
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0.02mcg/kg/min
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Dose for Norepinepherine?
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0.02-0.5mcg/kg/min
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Dose for Phenylepherine
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0.25/kg/min
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What drug(s) can be used for both High BP and Benign Prostate Hypoplasia (BPH)
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Cardura 1-16mg d/ Hytrin/Terazosin 1-20mg per day
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Alpha1 Adrenergic Receptors
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located on the postsynaptic effector cells
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Alpha2 Adrenergic Receptors
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Located on the postsynaptic nerve terminals and also control the release of neurotransmitters
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Catecholamines
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substances that can produce a sympathetic response. Found naturally in the body Adrenaline. Synthetically: Epinepherine, Norepinepherine, Dopamine.
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Positive Inotropic Effect
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Increase force of Contraction
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Positive Chronotropic Effect
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Increase Heart Rate
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Positive Dromotropic effect
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Increased Conduction through the AV node
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Vasoactive Sympathomimetics (Pressors & Inotropes)
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Used to support the heart during cardiac failure or shock. Various Alpha & Beta receptors affected. INTENSE monitoring, weight based calculations MUST BE DILUTED.
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Epinepherine
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MAO stimulates alpha1 and beta1 & @ receptors Anaphylaxis 0.3mg, IM, SQ Q 2 min. Cardiac arrest = 1mg IV q 3-5 min until return to spontaneous circulation. Hypotension/ Shock = 0.02mcg/kg/ min
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Dobutamine
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MAO stimulates Beta 1 adrenergic. Increase contractility & H.R. with little effect on Beta2. Indicated for short term cardiac decompensation.
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Phenylepherine
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Alpa2 only. MOA direct alpha 1 stimulator (weak beta effects) Treatment of hypotension vascular failure in shock, vasoconstrictor in analgesia, & decongestant.
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Norepinepherine
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Heart rate & vasoconstriction. MAO stimulates Beta1 & Alpha 1. Treatment for shock. Potent vasoconstrictor, can evascerate skin.
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Adrenergic Blocking Agents
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Bind to adrenergic receptors, but inhibit or block stimulation of the SNS. Lyse Epinepherine & NE. Named by which Alpha1 &2, or Beta1 & 2 causing vasodilation reducing peripheral vascular resistance.
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What is the antidote for extravasation of vaospressors?
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Phentolamine Dose: infiltrate area with small amount of solution diluting 5-10mg of 0.9% (do not exceed 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg
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2 important Beta Blockers (Hint: all end in olol)
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Carvedilol (3.125 -50mg) & Labetalol (Trandate) 100-400 mg BID
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Two Types of Cholinergic Agent Receptors
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Muscarinic & Nicotinic
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Cholinergic Agents mimic the affects of ?
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Acetylcholine
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Where are Muscarinic receptors located? Are they considered good or bad? At what dose?
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Located postsynaptically on smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands of the parasympathetic fibers. Good at low doses bc it slows down activity of smooth muscles.
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Where are Nicotinic Receptors located. What dose are they good or bad?
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Located on the ganglia of both the PSNS and SNS. Bad & undesirable effects when stimulated.
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Bethanechol
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Used after bladder sugery. Increases tone, motility and bladder and GI tract. Relaxes sphincter on in bladder & GI tract.
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Name a Cholinergic Indirect-Acting Agent
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Aricept or Donepezil used to treat mild Alzheimer’s. Helps to increase memory
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Name 2 Naturally Cholinergic Blocking Agents
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Atropine & Belladonna
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Name 3 Synthetic/ Semisynthetic Cholinergic Blocking Agents
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Benzotropine, Ipratropium, & Tolterodine
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Cholinergic Drug Effects (Hint Sludged)
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Salivation, Lacrimation, Urinary Incontinence, Diarrhea, Gastroinestinal Cramps, Emesis, Decreased H.R.
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Cholinergic MAO
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Inhibits the enzyme cholinesterase which breaks down ACH. PSNS is at rest in the digestive system.
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What is the antidote for Atropine?
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Physostigmine

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