Migration And Street Children In Bangladesh
Abstraction: Childs are the assets of a province. Unfortunately in many developing states kids involved in assorted economic activities due to overall for mere endurance. The nature and extent of kid labour differ from part to part ; depending on the socioeconomic status of a peculiar society in which the kids live. The figure of street kids has been lifting twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours in the capital of Bangladesh. Therefore, the phenomenon of street kids developed a penchant for development workers and policy shapers in the most of developing states. Many surveies showed that 1000s of street kids all over in Bangladesh, chiefly in the urban countries, work and unrecorded in the streets. These street kids non merely deprived of the most basic rights that citizens are guaranteed by the state but besides have stopped anticipating it. However, in recent old ages, in malice of the turning societal jobs in these communities and although some advancement were made, there is still a deficiency of equal information on the extent of the job, and cognition of its root causes.
In this paper, I will seek to research the procedures of street migration with the interaction of both ‘push ‘ and ‘pull ‘ factors non merely based on their economic necessities but besides their support schemes in street life. This paper will besides turn to that high population denseness, hapless quality of instruction, the conflicting relationships of the household such as polygamy and remarriage, patriarchate ( male-headed family ) , natural catastrophes, deficiency of economic chances and misdemeanor of kid rights are the deciding forces that ‘pushing ‘ kids to transport on street life from their rural topographic point to street life in Bangladesh. Most of the kids of developing states have deprived of their basic demands. Their deteriorating socioeconomic fortunes being push and pull in the nature of plants that are really unsafe for their physical and rational development. Subsequently, it besides examines the difference between the push and pull factors of migration that impinge new challenges for street kids.
Background: Street kids are tragically found in about every state in the universe. Amongst the universe ‘s one billion kids enduring from want of basic demands ( Gordon, Nandy et al. , 2003 ) , these kids are extremely likely to see ‘absolute poorness ‘ ( Bartlett, Hart et al. , 1999 ) . Therefore, child labour is sing major societal jobs for developing states throughout the worldwide. Although this job is besides found in developed universe but the nature of kid labour is different in developing states from that of developed states. Apart from that, this job has become really acute in many developing states like Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, kid labour job has been increasing at an dismaying rate. The Technical Committee on National Child Labor Survey, 2002-2003, in Bangladesh, ranked the undermentioned five signifiers of child labour as street kids, kid workers in battery re-charging, car sector, conveyance sector, and welding sector. In 2002/03, the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics ( BBS ) conducted the 2nd National Child Labor Survey ( NCLS )[ 1 ]by the Government of Bangladesh following the confirmation of the International Labor Organization ( ILO ) Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention ( No. 182 ) in the context of the committednesss made by 1999. Harmonizing to the study, there are 4.9 million working kids[ 2 ]– 14.2 per cent of the entire 35.06 million kids in the age group of 5-14 old ages.
Harmonizing to Government/UNDP ( 2001 ) in Bangladesh the estimated figure of street kids is 445,226 ( of which 75 % are in Dhaka metropolis ) ; 53 % male childs, 47 % misss ( Sept 2001 study ) . Street kids have called as ‘Tokai ‘ ( rag choosers ) by the populace. Average day-to-day income of street kids is approx. USD $ 0.55[ 3 ]. But the recent functionary survey by Appropriate Resources for Bettering Street Children Environment ( Arise, 2002 ) some 500,000 kids are populating on the streets in the state ‘s chief metropoliss in Bangladesh and they has warned that the figure of street kids in the state is set to lift as the urban population grows by 9 % a twelvemonth. However, harmonizing to the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies ( BIDS ) study in December 2004 a entire figure of street kids in Bangladesh is 6, 74,178.
Many street kids are orphans, or abandoned, or come from urgently hapless households. They are portion of a huge population of kids worldwide who live in low poorness and are peculiarly vulnerable to mistreat. In Bangladesh, as in many developing states, there is a widespread belief amongst the populace, policymakers and societal workers that kids ‘abandon ‘ their households and migrate to the street because of economic poorness. However, some research worker argued that economic necessity is non merely the cause of move to kids in street. Aptekar ( 1988 ) found that kids in street state of affairss were emotionally integral in their rational operation, and achieved high degrees of self-management. It has argued that the procedure of street migration involves the interaction of both ‘push ‘ and ‘pull ‘ factors. This is because the emotional bond between kids and parents or defenders and other family members can merely be broken if the adult-child relation prostrations ( Veale, 1992 ) . The push factor involves a force that acts to drive people off from a topographic point and encourages a individual to go forth his or her current abode or intrinsic desires of the single travellers such as the desire for flight, remainder and relaxation, wellness and fittingness, escapade, prestigiousness, and societal interaction. A pull factor is a characteristic or event that attracts a individual to travel to another country. In other words, kids tend to keep and protect the ‘natural ‘ position of being under the supervising of grownups ( normally parents ) unless push factors weaken or damage the relationship ( Masud Ali, Mustaque Ali et al. , 1997 ) , taking to the breakage of family ties. In this point of position, Conticini and Hulme ( 2006 ) explained that the parallel feeling of authorization and freedom experienced when running off makes street life attractive. Issues such as the societal bonding that kids see on the street, the formation of urban sub-cultures, and the development of their self-perception are of significance in understanding the fond regard that kids develop to the street and the troubles they face in reintegrating into their former families. These complex interactions of push and pull factors can maintain or even entrap kids on the street.
There has been an dismaying rise in the figure of street kids in the major metropoliss of Bangladesh. The addition has linked to recent figures released by the authorities, which show that the urban population of Bangladesh continues to turn, by around nine per centum a twelvemonth ( ARISE: 2001 ) . Therefore, the phenomenon of street kids has been a major concern for most countries of Dhaka metropolis.
Methodology: This research was an exploratory in nature, based on primary and secondary informations. The survey involved both street male childs and girls respondents of different age groups. Sing the nature and type of my research job, a flexible methodological analysis with uniting several research techniques such as semi-structured interview agenda and field observation method have used to carry on this survey. The street kids have selected purposively but utilizing typical instance purposive trying method from different countries of capital metropolis of Dhaka in Bangladesh.
Findingss and analysis: The analysis of the chief findings stairss attempts to take out some of the procedures involved plunging oneself and in reflecting on the information. Therefore, this attack is consistent with the qualitative paradigm by thematic analysis. Thematic analysis involves the placing some major issues such as household background of the street kids, their procedures of migration, their get bying scheme on street life.
The absolute and comparative size of the population of kids in Bangladesh is rather large as a portion of the national population. The estimated entire population in Bangladesh is 130 million ( 2001 ) . Among them about 42 million ( 32.2 % of entire population ) are 5-17 old ages old. Harmonizing to the labour force study conducted by BBS, 5.8 million kids aged 10-14 old ages were working in Bangladesh in 1990 -91 and this constituted 11.3 per centum of the labour force. All the surveies conducted so far show that working kids live in terrible poorness and the figure shows an increasing tendency. Surveillance information gathered by UNICEF in 1995 show that one million labours are employed in garments industries of whom about 90 per centum were female and 1 per centum was kids below age 14 old ages.
It was identified by the research participants that due to economic adversity street kids can non afford a good adjustment. Therefore most of respondents lived with their household in slum country of Dhaka metropolis or workplaces. All the respondents who said that they were populating in slum they mentioned that their household should necessitate to pay their monthly rent which was in between 400 BD TK to 1000 BD TK ( 5.97US $ to 14.92US $ per month ) . One of the miss respondents explained that “ In showery ground we ca n’t kip at dark because our floor is ever dived into H2O ” . It shows that the family conditions of the street were suffering. The houses, that is, suites are excessively little and congested. Most of the families have no separate kitchen, gallery or pace. Cooking agreements are largely located outside of the suites where they used shared kitchen. Some of the floors of the suites are pukka ( made by brick and cement ) and rest kutcha ( made by clay ) . Some parts of walls are of bricks, other parts of bamboo fencings. The ceilings of the tin-roofs are covered with bamboo-sheets to protect from the heat of the Sun and cold in winter. They shared their lavatory with other slum people. But when they were in street they normally used the corner of route and sometimes they used besides public lavatory. As is ensuing their life status on such a slum environment was unhealthy and healthful conditions were really hapless and unhygienic.
Harmonizing to a recent functionary study some 500,000 kids are populating on the streets in the state ‘s chief metropoliss ( ARISE, 2001 ) . It frames this analysis within broader discourses refering the nature of poorness. In peculiar, it distinguishes between economic ( income/consumption ) and other dimensions of poorness and uses both nonsubjective and subjective appraisals of poorness. The major aim of this survey was to look into the mundane life experiences of the street kids ( male childs and misss ) in Bangladesh which was related to their migration procedure or causes of migration on street life. In this survey the findings appeared that street kids were being pushed and pulled by assorted factors such as family poorness, household struggle, demands of the metropolis life and misdemeanor of kid rights etc.
Household poorness is considered one of the major grounds for traveling in street life. In this state of affairs one of the respondents said that “ My male parent had a bosom attacked two old ages ago. So he can non work now. Doctor said he needs an operation for his intervention. After that I and my senior sister started to work and so my female parent besides joined in a local household as a amah retainer. Now, our income is the lone beginning of our household subsistence ” . The above statement clearly showed that the function family poorness was one of the major factors that kids pushed on street life overpowering bulk of the kids mentioned poorness. Furthermore, hapless households put force per unit area on their kids to work. If kids contribute to the household subsistence, the economic well being of the household might be improved.
There was another determination that revealed of misdemeanor of the misss kid rights that was highlighted through the research. In this perspective one of the street misss mentioned that “ my parents and all of my brothers worked and earned sufficient money for survive our life and I think we do n’t necessitate my income for lasting our life. However when I asked any inquiry to my female parent sing this issue, she replied that we need to salvage our money for my matrimony as a security intent ” ( 6 old ages girl ) . The above statements showed that deficiency of consciousness of kid rights parents violated to their kids ignorantly.
As a research worker I found that some of the households send their misss kids on street non because of their subsistence demands but because they want to better their comparative good being of the household. This inclination shows the deficiency of consciousness of kid rights[ 4 ].
In this state of affairs one of the street male child described that “ My male parent left my female parent and married twice. Then my female parent married another adult male in our small town. My stepfather and his household did non accept me and ever crush me for nil. Now I realized that may be they considered me as an abandoned kid from my male parent ” ( 10 years/ male child ) . It was besides revealed from the above statements that sometimes kids pushed to go forth their place because of conflicting household relationship and take the street life. Under such fortunes kids loose their individuality as kids and make up one’s mind to turn as earner. In support of the above statement kids mentioned negative intervention of either of the step-parents, separation between parents, losingss of parents etc. as grounds for their work.
To depict the above state of affairs a street male child cited that “ I lost my male parent when I was 7 old ages old. My female parent did n’t mange our nutrient because we had n’t any economic and household support after the decease of my male parent. My male parent ‘s household ever tortured and rebuked my female parent and besides blamed her for the decease of my male parent. Then one dark my female parent escaped from my male parent ‘s house with me and came here. Then foremost we started imploring and after one twelvemonth we saved some money and since so I am peddling coffin nail ” . From the above statements it was clearly reflects that household break-up and struggles influenced child psychological science to go forth their household and house. In add-on it is besides a procedure of mistreating kid rights because every legal defender is responsible for their kid protection and attention[ 5 ].
It was besides supported from the old survey where the research worker mentioned that the procedure of street migration involves the interaction of both ‘push ‘ and ‘pull ‘ factors, but the a ‘push ‘ factors was associated with the emotional bond between kids and parents or defenders and other family members can merely be broken if the adult-child relation prostrations ( Veale, 1992 ) . They are kids who come from households where they feel emotionally, physically or sexually vulnerable and frequently stop up populating in streets ; by and large referred to as street kids ( Zakaria, 2004 ) . In many households, one of the parents died and the rupture in the household construction places the kids in great hazard. Children ‘s narratives in fact, frequently study of tenseness and troubles with step-parents as being the chief cause of their going from place ( Pelto, 1997 )
High unemployment job in rural countries pushed their household to migrate on metropolis life. Dhaka, the capital metropolis of Bangladesh is expected to go the 6th largest mega-city of the universe by 2010, with a present population of already 12.3 million ( UNCHS, 2001 ) . City life is besides an of import factor that influenced kids to the street life nevertheless this migration were initiated by their household. The findings appeared that some kids have relations such as uncle, aunt, grand-father etc, neighbours and friends who helped them in the procedure of migration and colony in this capital metropolis. It was besides supported from one of the old survey where the writer mentioned that the rapid addition in the figure of landless households in rural countries together with other economic and societal alterations, have converged to force destitute households to urban countries to seek new ways of support ( Pelto, 1997 ) .
In this survey I found that rural-urban migration was one of the of import grounds for kids to travel on the street life. Some respondents said that they were migrated because they were affected by inundation and other natural catastrophe. Rural-urban migration of grownups every bit good as kids has been the major cause of this fast growing ( Deshingkar and Grimm, 2005 ; Afsar, 2000 ; Begum, 1999 ; Ahmed and Jasimuddin, 1996 ) . It was besides found from old survey where the research worker mentioned that a dramatic characteristic of the Bangladeshi work force is that it includes 6.3 million kids under the age of 14 ( Narayan et al. , 2002 ) , most of whom have been migrating from rural small towns to the capital metropolis, either to get away from a violent and oppressive state of affairs at place or to happen employment chances more available in the metropolis.
Migration is hence viewed from a structural position as a merchandise of income derived functions and perceived gaining chances between urban and rural countries ( Lee, 1966 ; Lewis, 1982 ) . Harmonizing to one of the few specific surveies bing on migration of kids to Dhaka metropolis ( Ahmed and Jasimuddin, 1996 ) , the migration of kids to the capital is explained as the consequence of urban pull factors and rural push factors. This ‘push-pull ‘ theory, in our specific context, assumes that certain factors such as greater occupation chances, land handiness and societal and cultural freedom in the country of finish operate as factors ‘pulling ‘ single and kids to urban countries. On the other manus, high population denseness, hapless quality of instruction, the rupture of household relationships, natural catastrophes, deficiency of economic chances and hence poorness, operate as determiner forces ‘pushing ‘ kid migrators out of their rural original countries. This attack implies that single rational histrions decide to migrate because a cost-benefit computation leads them to anticipate a positive net return ( Massey et al. , 1993 ) .
A common scheme for hapless households in rural countries for illustration, is to take kids out of school during periods of economic strain and direct them to the metropolis to work as retainers or learners ( Deshingkar and Grimm, 2005 ) . Sometimes, they besides “ experience proud of the money and they earn which gives them importance in the household ” ( Blanchet, 1996: 85 ) . So we can state that the procedure of street migration involves the interaction of both ‘push ‘ and ‘pull ‘ factors from the society.
However there were different findings explained different grounds for traveling kids to street life such as- Aptekar ( 1988 ) found that kids in street state of affairss were emotionally integral in their rational operation, and achieved high degrees of self-management. Felsman ( 1989 ) found that 97 per cent of his sample of Colombian kids in street state of affairss had actively abandoned their families due to a non-conducive household environment. Further, street life helped in the development of kids ‘s resiliency and street life kids had better mental wellness than their opposite numbers in households.
Veale ( 1992 ) compared kids in street state of affairss in Sudan and Ireland, sing their different backgrounds, societal demographic features and the procedures of their street life engagement. In both instances, she found that street life was a rational pick when sing alternate options and hazards.
Lugalla and Mbwambo ( 1999 ) found that Tanzanian street life kids are extremely organized in groups of equals who portion resources, schemes, assets and attention. Harmonizing to Baker ( 2000 ) , the street web of friendly relationships can cut down the existent and perceived feeling of exposure and societal exclusion, and raise the wellbeing of kids in street state of affairss. Chawla ( 2002 ) studies that the interaction of kids in street state of affairss, within vicinities and street communities, is the anchor for understanding the growing of impressive ethical behaviours and that street life fosters the development of ‘cultural profusion ‘ .
These empirical surveies revealed that the importance of non-economic factors in kids ‘s determinations to migrate and remain on the streets and indicate that street life non merely involves exposure procedures but besides processes of authorization through which kids exercise their personal bureau and develop advanced header behaviours. They were presented as ‘robbed by humanity ‘ ( Tierney 1997 ) , and their lives were thought to be characterized by a ‘plundered childhood ‘ ( Siddiqui 1990 ) and a ‘lost artlessness ‘ ( Blanchet 1996 ) .
Harmonizing to Giani ( 2006 ) kids in Bangladesh have ever received light attending in the migration procedure and this is likely due to the same grounds that kept adult females largely unseeable for a long clip when covering with migration forms. In Bangladesh, where a patriarchal, patrilineal and patrilocal societal system prevails, female migrators in fact, have frequently been considered as ‘passive movers ‘ migrating in response to marriage or following the male caput of the family ( Kabeer, 2000 ; Afsar, 2003a ) . Similarly, kids have non been considered as an independent constituency who bit by bit develop a sense of bureau and liberty, since parents and defenders are invested with extended power and authorization over their kids ( Blanchet, 1996 ) . The bulk of the literature on kid labor and child migration portrays kids as holding small or no bureau ( cited in King, 2002 ) , therefore presuming they ever migrate with parents or when they migrate entirely, parents are the 1s who decide whether to direct their kids to urban countries to work or non.
In that respects Conticini and Hulme ( 2006 ) described that the parallel feeling of authorization and freedom experienced when running off makes street life attractive. Issues such as the societal bonding that kids see on the street, the formation of urban sub-cultures, and the development of their self-perception are of significance in understanding the fond regard that kids develop to the street and the troubles they face in reintegrating into their former families. These complex interactions of push and pull factors can maintain or even entrap kids on the street. But to a big extent they are low-level to the initial dislocation of family ties which, makes these ‘pull ‘ factors of premier importance in understanding why migration occurs. Overall, the emphasis of economic poorness serves as a push factor, doing migration more likely in Bangladesh, but they argued that it plays a secondary function in comparing to the function that societal relationships play in the household and on the street.
The construct of child labour is associated with gross misdemeanor of kids rights, nevertheless, contemplating histories of kids on employment, battles, salary and other benefits it is easy to reason that kids are ever faced a barbarous rhythm of development. It starts instantly after being employed on street and go on every bit long as they are involved.
Barbarous rhythm of development as an impact of the street life
Involve in illegal activities
Excessive work burden
Low / No
Credence of Exploitation as a header scheme
The above barbarous rhythm represent that when kids accept the exportation it becomes connected their day-to-day life experiences. The street kids faced different types of force regardless of their age, income, gender and work topographic point. Humiliation and maltreatment are mundane experiences of street kids. In this survey all the respondent reported that they are capable to humiliation, maltreatment and violent behaviour everyday.
The street kids mentioned that they normally faced multiple types of force that includes menace, bullying, being blamed, thrown something, pushed, grabbed, slapped, kicked, hit with object, choked, pulled hair. All the respondents who have been exploited of such inhuman treatment experienced multiple and perennial episode of force. As a research worker I found that most common and frequent from of maltreatment was naming bad words, neglect and drive away etc. Naming bad words were really common. These words are so contemptuous and degrading for every human being. Harmonizing to street kids “ development, force is nil for our life fundamentally it is a normal portion of our life ” .
It was revealed that street kids were exasperated by local people and they normally humiliated on baseless alibis. In that regard one of street male child cited that “ many people abused us. I did n’t understand why? I think populating on the street is our lone offense ” . That means development is a common happening for every street kids but the nature is vary from street male childs to street misss nevertheless the extent and reaction was same.
It is rather frequently found that street kids were tempted to affect in arduous work in return of money. At the terminal of the twenty-four hours, they were refused to be paid off, threatened by their sellers. Then they were bound to settle down with a lower pay than promised earlier of the twenty-four hours. Sellers and service suppliers often exploited to the street kids verbally and physically. Sometimes they were slapped, grabbed or drive away crushing. Not merely kids were exploited by their employers, they were besides by other people such as service-seekers, constabularies, security guards, clients, fellow worker, aliens and besides household members. Gross saless helpers were ever under force per unit area non to do any error. Hotel and restaurant workers ever have to on their toes to absolutely function their client. However doing errors in any occupation invite two types of penalty one initiated by the service searchers and the other by the employers. One of the respondents who worked as assistant in a local nutrient store he explained that “ sometimes clients ( particularly local political leaders ) slapped me because I am non able to function their order on clip ” . Another street male child ( 11 old ages ) said that “ some clients complained that my tea is tasteless and do alibis non to pay. If I argue with them, they normally tortured me. In add-on that mundane I need to pay 50 Tk. ( 0.75 US $ ) as a payoff otherwise they can non allow me sale by tea on the route ” .
In this survey I found that the most atrocious thing was kids were exploited often without any evident ground. However, all street kids mentioned that the extent of force was rather frequently. But the nature of street miss ‘s development was non similar to the street male childs. The findings revealed that the street misss were victims of perennial effort for sexual molestation by security guards and local people. Street misss were normally exploited verbally like naming bad names ( utilizing local slang ) . Therefore, when a kid enters on the street foremost, he or she involved with beggary and after that they saved some money and get down their work on street. In many fortunes, kids are adept at analysing their state of affairs and doing determinations for their ain benefit. These include day-to-day determinations on header or endurance techniques, every bit good as general appraisals of their ain best involvements. Children may be populating in opprobrious or otherwise unsuitable residential homes/shelters but find some facets good and on that footing may take non to travel onto, or back to, the street. Some kids prefer their independency, including the freedom to do their ain determinations and have control over their lives. Others may take to get away state of affairss of household poorness when they can acquire more nutrient on the street, or more freedom to play games, or freedom to travel to the film and picture parlours when they have earned or begged adequate money
Decision: All over the universe, kids frequently turn to the streets in an effort to decide jobs that arise from the societal constructions and state of affairss in which they find themselves. The function played by force within the family and the strength of the societal bonds built by kids on the street are excessively frequently ignored by observers on this ‘problem ‘ in Bangladesh. This analysis indicates that policies and actions to cut down street migration by kids in the state will necessitate to drop the premise that stuff poorness is the chief cause and undertake the more combative issues of emotional, physical and sexual force.
The perceptual experience of street kids held by the general public, policy shapers and many societal scientists in Bangladesh is filtered through, and conditioned by, a ‘dominant narration ‘ ( Roe, 1999 ) which posits that kids are on the street because their parents or defenders can non run into the family ‘s basic stuff demands. These street kids non merely have been deprived of the most basic of rights that citizens are guaranteed but besides have stopped anticipating it, at the bosom of the province, the capital. And their Numberss are turning every twenty-four hours. The figure of kids on Dhaka ‘s streets who do n’t hold adequate money to afford a good repast stood at no less than 200,000 in 2005 and is turning, harmonizing to a study conducted by Plan Bangladesh, an international non-governmental organisation.
From the above empirical treatment of the life experiences of street kids in Dhaka, the capital metropolis of Bangladesh, it can be argued that, the chief ground for traveling on street life is poverty which was influenced by both push and pull factors. The push and pull factors for traveling on street mentioned from the respondents which was loosely identified to the poorness of Bangladesh. It was besides found that high population denseness, hapless quality of instruction, the conflicting relationships of household like polygamy and remarriage, patriarchate ( male-headed family ) natural catastrophes, deficiency of economic chances, misdemeanor of kid rights and hence poorness, operate as determiner forces ‘pushing ‘ kids to travel on street life from their rural original countries in Bangladesh. This attack implies that single rational histrions decide to migrate because a cost-benefit computation leads them to anticipate a positive net return ( Massey et al. , 1993 ) .
On the other manus it was besides described by Cain ( 1977 ) that in Bangladesh kids clearly has an economic value to their households since they contribute well to household public assistance from a really early age which was pulled kids to street life besides. In this survey it was found that greater occupation chances, demands of the metropolis life operate as factors ‘pulling ‘ single and kids to urban countries hopes for better life. The findings besides revealed that most of the kids particularly street misss dependent on their parents on the procedure of traveling on street life and hence they were affecting with street based plants in Dhaka metropolis of Bangladesh.
In that context, Conticini and Hulme ( 2006 ) mentioned that kids move out of families to populate on the street in Bangladesh non chiefly because of economic poorness ( a deficiency of entree to nutrient, income and basic demands ) but because of domestic force and the dislocation of trust in the grownup members of their family ( and community ) . The policy deductions of this determination are profound. Rather than seeking to assist kids off the street, and presuming that economic growing and decreased income poorness will stem the flow of new kids to the street, it suggests that policies to cut down street migration should concentrate on cut downing the maltreatment of, and force against kids. Social policy, instead than economic policy, must take the lead. For Bangladesh society, this is an wholly less comfy apprehension of why kids move to the street, and what needs to be done, than that provided by the dominant narrative.