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Mental, Emotional, and Stress Related

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mental health
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An individual’s psychological well-being; how an individual copes with the demands of life.
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mental disorder
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An illness that defines a person’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.
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anxiety disorder
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A condition in which real or imagined fears are difficult to control.
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mood disorder
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A condition in which a person has inappropriate or disproportionate mood changes that interfere with everyday life.
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conduct disorder
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A pattern of behavior in which the rights of others or basic social rules are violated; specific to children and teens.
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schizophrenia
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A condition in which a person loses touch with reality; most serious of all mental illnesses; caused by genetic, environmental, and biochemical factors.
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personality disorder
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A condition in which a person has difficulty dealing with people and establishing meaningful relationships; difficulty adapting to change; deeply ingrained inflexibility, which can cause stress or impair everyday functioning.
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clinical psychologist
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A trained specialist in psychology who usually has a doctoral degree; treats a variety of issues; cannot prescribe medicine.
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psychotherapy
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A form of counseling that involves an ongoing dialogue between a patient and a mental health professional.
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psychiatrist
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Medical Doctor (M.D.) or doctor of osteopathy (D.O.) who specializes in the treatment and prevention of mental disorders with medications.
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Explain the three major causes that contribute to mental health disorders.
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Responses will vary. A sample response follows: The exact causes of mental disorders are not fully understood, but the main causes are physical, psychological, and environmental factors. Physical factors are abnormalities in the body that occur due to physical damage. Brain damage, exposure to toxins, prenatal damage, poor nutrition, and genetic factors are just some of the examples of physical damage that can cause mental illness. Psychological issues are feelings or emotional stressors in life such as feelings of anxiety or loneliness. Environmental conditions that influence mental illness are unmanageable changes such as death or divorce, social and cultural expectations, and substance abuse.
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According to the lecture, all of the following are examples of environmental factors that influence mental health disorders EXCEPT:
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brain damage
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Compare and contrast the roles of a psychologist with a psychiatrist.
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Psychiatrists obtain a medical degree and are able to prescribe medications to clients, while psychologists are not. Both a psychologist and a psychiatrist treat clients with mental illnesses. They often work together when treating a patient and focus on providing strategies to make the client’s life more manageable.
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Give an example of how a clinical psychologist might treat someone diagnosed with a mood disorder.
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A clinical psychologist may suggest that someone with a mood disorder set up an appointment with a psychiatrist to get medication to stabilize or assist with mood swings. The psychologist might also teach the client different strategies for handling stressful situations and/or techniques to stabilize mood issues.
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Major contributing causes of mental health disorders are environmental conditions and situations.
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True
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The most common type of mental disorder is mood disorder.
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True
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Compare and contrast conduct disorders with personality disorders.
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Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Conduct disorders are most often specific to kids and teens. This type of disorder leads to aggressive, violent, and destructive behaviors. Those diagnosed with a conduct disorder often have low self-esteem and little guilt or remorse for their behavior. On the other hand, personality disorders can occur in all ages. People with this disorder chronically have a difficult time in their relationships, are usually inflexible, and have difficulty adapting to change.
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Which of the following statements BEST describes paranoid schizophrenia?
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includes having illusions and hallucinations
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Describe how moving to a new location and beginning a new job may be difficult for someone diagnosed with a personality disorder.
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Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Someone diagnosed with a personality disorder has difficulty coping with or adapting to situations involving change. They also have difficulty establishing relationships with others. Therefore, someone with a personality disorder would have trouble moving to a new location and beginning a new job because both of these involve dealing with people and changing current circumstances.
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The causes of mental disorders include __________ factors.
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Biological, environmental, physical
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Physical factors influencing mental health disorders include all of the following EXCEPT:
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cultural expectations
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Medications are often the complete solution for curing those with a mental health disorder.
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False
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Anxiety disorders are __________.
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characterized by abnormal fear of everyday situations
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Mental health disorders are usually due to a single cause.
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False
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If you or someone you know may have a mental disorder, it’s important to discuss this concern with a trusted adult.
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True
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Which of these statements BEST summarizes the cause of mental health disorders?
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Mental health disorders occur because of a variety of factors.
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Which of the following is NOT a mental health professional?
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radiologist
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Mental health disorders disrupt everyday activities.
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True
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All of the following are treatments for mental health disorders EXCEPT:
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chemotherapy
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Anxiety
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Feeling that often causes a sense of nervousness or a need to escape a situation.
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Phobia
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A strong, excessive fear of an object or a situation.
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Depression
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A prolonged feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, and sadness that prevents a person from carrying out everyday activities.
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Suicide
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The act of intentionally taking one’s own life.
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Which of the following is NOT an anxiety disorder?
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partial suppression disorder
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Compare and contrast major depression with dysthymia depression.
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Responses will vary. A sample response follows: The symptoms for these two types of depression are similar, but the dysthymia symptoms are less severe. In addition, major depression lasts for an indefinite period of time, while dysthymia depression only reoccurs for periods of a few days or weeks before fading away again.
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In general, anxiety disorders __________.
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have symptoms that can be treated with therapy and medication
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What is the most important step you can take if someone you know may be thinking about suicide?
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Responses will vary. A sample response follows: If someone you know is considering suicide, talk with them about your observations and demonstrate your support for them. It may be important to tell others about the problem if they refuse to get help.
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Which of the following is most likely to create depression?
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traumatic life experiences
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Explain why anxiety can sometimes be a necessary and healthy feeling.
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Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Anxiety is a biological response to stress. Normal levels of anxiety can temporarily help stimulate your mind and body to help you perform in difficult situations or to escape danger. It is only when the anxiety is sustained over longer periods of time that negative consequences occur.
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Which of the following is NOT an anxiety disorder?
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bulimia
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Describe the treatment options for someone with an anxiety disorder.
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Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Therapy can be used to talk through thoughts and provide cognitive behavior treatment. Medications can help to regulate anxiety through chemical controls. Under the influence of hypnosis, the causes of anxiety can sometimes be alleviated. Finally, support groups can offer comfort and help in a nonjudgemental manner from others in similar situations.
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What lifestyle choices can help reduce the risk of suicide?
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Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Maintaining a healthy support group of friends and family, avoiding drugs and alcohol, and seeking treatment for depression can reduce one’s risk of suicide.
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Explain when you should seek treatment for depression.
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Responses will vary. A sample response follows: When depression begins to affect your work and daily life, you should seek professional treatment.
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Warning signs of suicide include all of the following EXCEPT:
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feelings of euphoria
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How does therapy help in the treatment of depression?
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changes negative thinking patterns
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Which of these statements describes experiences or feelings related to anxiety?
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excessive fear of objects or situations fear of embarrassment constant worry
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If you suspect someone you know may attempt suicide, you should __________.
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help them talk through their issues
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There are no risks when taking medication to treat anxiety.
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False
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Feelings of sadness __________.
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are one of the major symptoms of depression
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Medications taken for the treatment of depression __________.
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must be monitored closely for the proper dosage
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Hypnosis is sometimes used to treat anxiety disorders.
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True
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Periods of depression that do called adjustment disorders.
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False
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Which of the following is NOT true?
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Suicide only has consequences for the person who attempts suicide.
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Stress
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The body’s automatic physical response to outside forces.
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Distress
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A negative stress that can make a person sick or can keep a person from reaching a goal.
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eustress
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A positive stress that energizes a person and helps a person reach a goal.
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stressor
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The situations or pressures that cause stress.
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stress response
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The body’s initial reaction to stress.
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General Adaption Syndrome
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Describes the bodies short-term and long-term reactions to stress in three specific stages.
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Stress can affect the circulatory system by causing headaches, heart attacks, strokes, and diabetes.
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True
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Stress is the body’s automatic physical reaction to real or imagined forces.
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True
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What are the key signs of stress affecting mental health?
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If one has a constant state of alertness and anxiety, then they may have stress that is affecting their mental health. In many cases, due to the prolonged exposure to stress, the fight-or-flight response has been on for too long, leading to exhaustion due to increased levels of hormones, which may lead to depression.
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What are some of the physical signs of stress?
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The signs of stress include headache, dry mouth, heartburn, constipation, depression, and insomnia.
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What are the features of general adaptation syndrome?
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The three steps in the general adaptation syndrome are alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. Alarm is the fight-or-flight response. Your hormones surge, breathing becomes rapid and shallow, glucose is released, your heart rate increases, and your pupils dilate. The second part is resistance, which includes either fighting, where a stressor is taken head on, or flight, where a stressor is avoided. It includes how your body uses stored energy, hormones, minerals, and glucose to react. The final stage is exhaustion, also known as burn out. After prolonged stress, exhaustion kicks in and the ability to manage stress becomes low. At this point, the system of the body can become compromised due to prolonged exposure to the hormones involved with stress.
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Positive, short-term, motivating, and inspiring stress is called __________.
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Eustress
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Change in diet, sleep patterns, and routine are all __________ signs of stress.
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behavioral
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How can stress actually be a good thing?
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Responses will vary. A sample response follows: The body’s initial reaction to stress keeps you alert, gives you a burst of energy, and allows you to face the challenge. It can protect you from harm and motivate you during the incident. It can also sharpen your concentration.
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Stress has an effect on every system of the body.
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True
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Compare and contrast eustress with distress.
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distress is great sorrow, pain, or trouble Eustress is good stress
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Behavior
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the way someone acts
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cope
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to deal with difficulties or responsibilities in a successful manner.
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Describe the importance of getting enough sleep.
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Getting 8 to 9 hours of sleep a night improves concentration and allows for clearer thoughts. Sleep can also improve individual mood and attitude. It also improves physical health and chances of success.
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Briefly describe some examples of negative ways to cope with stress.
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Some negative coping strategies include smoking, drinking alcohol, or using drugs. It might also include over- and undereating as a way to manage stress. Lashing out at others is another negative way stress shows. Finally, many choose to avoid the problem altogether by sleeping too much, watching TV or playing on the computer hour after hour, and withdrawing from family and friends.
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When considering the claim that eating well helps to reduce stress, what advice might your give a friend who appears to be stressed about an upcoming exam but chooses to have chips and soda for lunch every day?
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Responses will vary. A sample response follows: I may tell my friend that a poor diet can lead to fatique and the inability to concentrate on or prepare effectively for her exam. Rather than drinking soda, I would recommend that my friend drink more water and limit comfort foods. I also may remind my friend that eating a balanced diet helps to decrease any school- or work-related stress.
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Explain how relaxing and/or laughing helps to reduce stress.
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Responses will vary. A sample response follows: By adopting a “relax and laugh” coping strategy, it will make me choose to spend time with people that make me laugh. It might also help me participate in activities that are enjoyable and elicit laughter. It might also improve my immune system because laughter and relaxation boost an immune system. Relaxation also helps recharge your batteries.
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Which of the following is a benefit to getting an adequate amount of sleep?
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better concentration improved physical health improved chances of success
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Positive coping skills include all of the following EXCEPT:
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drinking excessive alcohol
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List and briefly describe some examples of positive ways to cope with stress.
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Responses will vary. A sample response follows: Positive coping skills include redirecting energy, which includes trying something new like a creative project or working out; relaxing and laughing, which help recharge your energy; maintaining a positive attitude, which includes being confident and embracing positive values; seeking support from trusted persons; and expressing oneself, which is important because it allows you to express your thoughts and desires.
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When practicing refusal skills, it is beneficial to participate in a potentially stressful or threatening situation.
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False
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Which of the following is NOT a healthy way to express yourself?
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fighting to release energy
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Once the cause of stress has been identified, there are no behaviors that can lessen the effect of or eliminate the stress.
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False
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Keeping a journal is not an effective way of keeping stress under control.
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False
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Marriage and graduation can be stressful life events.
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True
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Lashing out at others is a healthy way of coping with stress.
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False
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For most people, getting 8 to 9 hours of sleep increases concentration, improves physical health, and improves one’s mood.
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True
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Getting physical exercise is a healthy way to combat stress.
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True
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Healthy behaviors include all of the following EXCEPT:
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agreeing with everything and everyone
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Participating in physical activity can help to reduce stress in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
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it causes fatigue and exhaustion
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Which of the following is NOT an important component of planning ahead?
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constructing an inflexible plan
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Talking with a trusted person about what stresses you is an example of what type of coping strategy?
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expressing oneself and seeking support
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Smoking, drinking, or using drugs are all considered to be negative ways of coping with stress.
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True
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A common strategy for coping with anxiety, depression, or thoughts of suicide is finding support from people around you.
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True
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Healthy ways of coping with stress include developing refusal skills, getting sleep, and planning ahead.
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True
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Mental health disorders are not really diseases.
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False
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Being able to perform well in a high pressure situation is a natural stress response that releases extra hormones.
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True
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Type A personalities are less prone to stress than most people.
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False
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According to the lecture, all of the following are examples of environmental factors that influence mental health disorders EXCEPT:
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Brain Damage