Marketing Research

Marketing Research
the planning, collevtion, and analysis of data relevant to marketing decision making and the communication of the results of this analysis to management

Evaluates the effectiveness of the 4Ps

Marketing Mix
the unique blend of marketing elements designed to meet the needs of the company’s target market
4 Ps
Place (Distribution)
Facts that exist
Ex. What are the historic sales trend of the Diet Coke
Find Explanation
Ex. What was the impact on sales of coke when pepsi introduced pepsi one
Ex. Who will buy Diet Coke Plus
Difference between marketing problem and marketing research
Problem: general and broad in scope, like a decrease in sales
Research: specific data oriented
Problem/Opportunity ID
requires a precise definition of the issue facing the firm in order to guide the research process
Exploratory Research
term used to refer to PRELIMINARY, often small-scale research used to clarify the exact natur of the problem to be solved(fast and cheap)
-tends to be flexible
Types of Exploratory research
Interviews with experts
Analysis of secondary data
Pilot study
Focus group interviews
Objectives of exploratory research
obtain information quickly and cheaply
maximize information from a very limited expenditure of time and money
guide future research
Research Design should include
Problem statement and results of exploratory research
Research objectives
Chosen method of research
Selected sampling procedure
3 types of research methods
includes all people of interest
is a subset from the population
Probability Sample
each element has a known, nonzero chance of being selected
Non probability Sample
there is no probablility associated with being selected
Examines a single variable
examines the relationship between teo variables
examines the realtionship between more than two variables
Scenarios where you shouldn’t collect research
Lack of resources
Results won’t be useful
Decision has already been made
Managers can’t agree on what’s needed
information already exists
costs greater than benefits
moral principles or values generally governing the conduct of an individual or group
Conventional Morality
morality based on the expectations of socety
Unethical practices include:
Lowball pricing
lack of objectivity
Abuse of respndents
selling unnecessary research
violating client confientiality
use of professional respondents
Respondents rights
right to:
Be informed
1st step Marketing Research Process
Identification of the problem and statement of the research objectives
2nd step Marketing Research Process
Creation of the research Design
3rd step Marketing Research Process
Choice of method of research
4th step Marketing Research Process
Selection of the sampling procedure
5th step Marketing Research Process
Collection of the data
6th step Marketing Research Process
Analysis of the data
7th step Marketing Research Process
Writing and presentation of the report
8th step Marketing Research Process
Research Design
plan for addressing the research objectives or hypotheses
Qualitative Research
research findings are NOT subject to quantification or quantitative analysis
Quantitative Research
research findings ARE subject to quantification or quantitative analysis
triangulate Research
We move from qualitative to quantitative techniques and back again
Define problem- qual
Define and test hypothesis-quan
Explore results in depth-qual
Types of Qualitative research
Focus groups
depth interviews
Protective techniques
Uses of qualitative research
Explore motivations and attitudes in more depth
Clarify research question
Encourage new ideas
Determine focus of subsequent quantitative research
Limitations of Qualitative Research
Lack of generalizability
-sample sizes are very small
-lack of representatives
What constitutes a focus group
8-12 participants
moderator led
group dynamics
Who uses focus groups
Consumer goods firms
advertising agencies
marketing research firms
Types of focus groups
Exploratory focus group
-problem/opportunity development
Clinical focus groups
-subconscious motivation
Experiencing focus group
-focus on the use of the product
First step in focus group
Prepare for the group
select facility and recruit the participants
Second step in focus group
Select a good moderator
Create a discussion
Third step in focus group
Conduct the group
Fourth step in focus group
Prepare the focus group report
Advantages of focus group
-Interaction can stimulate new ideas
-Opportunity to observe consumers
-Quick to administer
-Findings easy to understand
Disadvantages of Focus Groups
-Ease of understanding may make it too compelling
-Participants recruited may not be typical
-Setting may make participants uncomfortable
-Moderator bias
-Some participants may dominate the conversation
Trends of focus groups
Continued growth, plush settings, videoconferencing
Online focus groups
Characteristics of Depth Interviews
One on One
Requires a skilled interviewer
Unstructured interview
Probes for deep meanings
Advantages of depth interviews
Produces honest information
New thoughts explored easily
Sensitive and complex topics can be addressed
Disadvantages of Depth Interviews
Very small sample
Interviewer bias
Clients less involved
Doesn’t have group interaction to build ideas
Projective Techniques
Ways of tapping respondents deepest feelings by having them ‘project those feelings onto an unstructured situation
Word Association Tests
Interviewer reads word to respondent, who mentions the first thing that comes to mind
Conclusions are drawn about product image and characteristics
Sentence and story completion tests
Interviewer reads a partial sentence or part of a story to the respondent, who completes the sentence or story
Third person techniques
interviewer asks respondent questions about someone else a “third party,” projects own feelings onto this third person
Picture-based Techniques
Cartoon Tests
-Respondents fill in the bubble
Photo Sorts
-Respondent sorts through photos to find images
Consumer Drawings
-Respondents draw their own pictures of how they feel
Goal of Picture based techniques
Understand consumer feelings, opinions, and beliefs
Future of Qualitative Research
Most consumption situations have an emotional and subconscious content
Observation Research
the systematic process of recording the behavioral patterns of people, objects, and occurrences without questioning or communicating with them
When should Observation research be used?
behavior of interest my be frequent, repetitive, or predictable, must be of relative short nature
Natural Observation
in completely natural circumstances, has no idea of even being observed
Contrived Observation
know they are being watched but are asked to behave naturally, you get control over the environment
Structured observation
observer fills out a questionaire on each obeserved person or counts the number of times an activity occurs-
EX. Snack at bar, how many times someone orders drinks
Unstructured observation
observer makes notes on the behavior being observed, record everything they do, see big picture
Human Vs Machine
some situations machine many do the job less expensively and less obtrusively
Direct Vs Indirect
Indirect observation can be achieved by checking to see how much of a product has been used or somehow checking on past behavior
Validity -advantages of observation
measuring what we set out to measure
If behavior or events are clearly defined then we have valid observation
Reliability -advantages of observation
Consistency in measurement
means consistent not always correct(not valid)
Going to coffee shop not loyal but consistent
Disadvantages of Observations
Can only observe physical actions physical characteristics
CANNOT observe attitudes, motivations, draw any conclusions
Mystery shoppers
Pose as customers
check out the competition
Assess quality of own stores
One way mirror observations
Allows researcher to observe clients at they use or react to product
Shopper patterns
Drawings that record the footsteps of a shopper throught a store
helps plan store layout
Ethnographic Research
Anthropological method, qualitative, immerse yoursself in situation
Traffic Counters
machines used to measure vehicular flow over a particular stretch of roadway
Physiological measurement
Skin response, voice pitch analysis, Facial Action coding service
Scanner based research
laser scanners read UPC codes on produces and produce instantaneous information on sales, provide accurate objective picture of the casual relationship between marketing mix variables and sales
The single source model
People shop with ID cards, have purchased scanned and the analyzed

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