marketing research

What is the basic purpose of marketing research?
To provide information that will help managers make better decisions

Which of the following would not be characteristic of basic research?
determining the most attractive price for a new product

Most marketing research studies which aim to assist a company with its marketing function are categorized as ___________ research.
applied

Greenfield Online manages a database of consumers who have agreed to fill out online surveys periodically. This data base of consumers is an example of a _________.
research panel

A study which uses data that has already been collected for some other purpose is using
secondary data

What type of scale is the following?
Indicate your overall opinion about Dell computers by circling one of the following categories:
Very Bad Bad Good Very Good
1 2 3 4
itemized rating scale

Marketing managers generally focus their efforts on the elements of the marketing mix. What is NOT part of the marketing mix?
packaging

When research is commissioned for public relations purposes or to prove a position, this is referred to as a(n) _________ study.
advocacy

In survey research, it is especially important to protect respondents’_______.
anonymity

The first step in the problem-definition process is:
recognizing that there is a problem or opportunity.

__________ is preliminary research conducted to increase the understanding of a concept, to clarify the exact nature of the problem to be solved, or to identify important variables to be studied.
exploratory research

In a famous case in the 1980’s, Coca-Cola introduced New Coke after much marketing research. The failure of New Coke was largely due to ________.
poor problem definition

Suppose a sales manager makes the statement, “The problem with this company is declining sales.” Why is such a statement shortsighted?
The sales manager has identified only a symptom of a deeper problem.

“We believe that raising the price of membership of our country club will make it more desirable, and will increase our membership base” is an example of a(n) _______.
hypothesis

When the list of all individuals who took the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) during the past year is used for selecting a simple random sample of students who took the GMAT, it is known as the:
sampling frame

The most important step in the research process is
formulating the problem

An attitude is a ______
Hypothetical construct

Hershey Corporation is thinking of adding five more kisses to its bag of popular candy while keeping the price the same. Hershey wants to test if increasing the amount of candy will cause sales to increase enough to offset the higher costs. What type of primary data research should the company use to answer this question?
Use causal research

A hypothesis:
Is a statement about the relationship between two variables that are measurable or potentially measurable

In a causal study of the effect of shelf placement on sales of a brand of cereal, which is the dependent variable?
where the cereal was placed on the shelf

Which of the following is a problem associated with laboratory experiments?
The participants may act differently in a real-world setting.

To test the effectiveness of changes in an advertising campaign, a marketing research firm decides to implement certain changes in Atlanta, other changes in Dallas, and no change to the ad campaign in Denver. With regard to the products in question, the purchasing propensities in the three cities are equal. What type of research design is the marketing research firm invoking?
observational study design

When retailers monitor consumer shopping behavior by using scanner technology, this is an example of _______.
observation research

SPSS would most likely be used for what?
analyzing data

A _____________ sample is characterized by every element in the population having a nonzero chance of being selected.
probability

When comparing the collection of secondary data with primary data, secondary data relative to primary data:
a. takes less time to collect.
b. costs less to collect.
c. is more convenient.

Which of the following is not an advantage of qualitative research over quantitative research?
results are generalizable to the population under study

The most common type of qualitative marketing research is _______.
focus groups

Which of the following is the primary reason or underlying rationale for conducting focus groups?
interaction among group members

The major tradition in ethics or ethical reasoning that focuses on the individual and emphasizes individual respect and dignity is _______.
Deontology/ Rights

If a researcher wants to make a multi-million dollar decision as to whether to launch a new product s/he would be well advised to use:
a combination of qualitative and quantitative research.

Focus groups are often followed up with ___________.
quantitative research

A descriptive study ________
Is concerned with the determination of a cause and effect relationship

A small group of people brought together to discuss a topic of interest to researchers is known as a(n)
focus group

A Mexican Restaurant owner often visits competitor’s restaurants in order to gather visual information and insights about menu selections, prices, ambiance, and service quality to benchmark against. What type of research is the owner performing?
basic

A literature search most closely resembles which type of research?
exploratory

The appropriate research to determine if there is a correlation between the level of interest in buying a boat and age would be
causal research

Burger King recently experienced a decline in burger sales after E-coli bacteria were discovered in one of their restaurants. The marketing managers reviewed information about a similar situation that had occurred at a Taco Bell restaurant a few years ago. Which of the following type of exploratory research is this?
case analysis

You would like to determine the demographic characteristics of owners of recreational vehicles. The appropriate research strategy would be
Descriptive research

When using a nominal scale, what is the most appropriate measure of average?
Mode

“I think the Nike ads that say ‘just do it’ are _____.” This is an example of a technique where the subjects are directed to complete with the first words that come to mind.
sentence completion

Typically, __________ experiments have greater internal validity, and _________ experiments have greater external validity.
Lab ; Field

A manufacturer of desserts tested a new five-minute dessert on working females. Results from a survey measuring consumer response to the dessert were terrible. The manufacturer was sure the new quickie dessert would be appealing to working females. A follow-up focus group revealed that working females without children were not interested in the new idea, but working females with children were. What kind of error was evident in the initial survey?
population specification error

The fact that not every household has a published phone number can cause which type of error in telephone surveys?
sample frame error

20 interviewers were hired to conduct door-to-door interviews in a particular city. In the process of verifying the responses for one of the interviewers, it was discovered that the interviewer surveyed consecutive houses in a particular subdivision, instead of selecting every third house. What kind of error has occurred here?
selection error

When pre-testing your questionnaire, you find that respondents perceive several of the questions as leading, and others as difficult to understand. If you do not make the necessary changes to the questionnaire, there will probably be a large amount of which of the following?
measurement instrument bias

If you have a very low response rate for your survey, you should be concerned with ______________.
nonresponse bias

The New York Mets want to find out more about their fans and decide to collect information about their demographics. Which of the following primary data collection techniques would they most likely use to conduct the study?
sample survey

To determine how the same group of respondents feels at different points of time, the researcher must use what kind of study?
longitudinal

Cross-classification seeks to
b. Establish categories such that classification in one category implies classification in one or more other categories enabling easier interpretation of results

Dell Corporation sent five different versions of an email to their customers to determine which message was most effective at getting customers to make online purchases. While online sales rose by nearly 20%, two of the versions demonstrated higher-than-normal click-through rates. Such experimentation done in a realistic environment would be called a______?
Field experiment

What type of scale is the following?
Please indicate your income:
Under $50,000 Between $50,000 and $100,000 Over $100,000
nominal scale

The owner of Patty’s Pizza Parlor wants to measure consumer awareness of the restaurant and uses the local telephone directory to draw a sample from which to survey the townspeople. However, some people do not have a telephone. This represents what type of problem?
Sampling error

Counting how many people use the drive-in window at a bank during certain hours is a good example of what type of observational research?
natural

The customer service department of a large department store recently received a complaint about a store associate. The store associate’s manager has been unable to detect any problems with the associate’s performance. Then the service department received another complaint concerning the same associate. Which of the following would be the best approach to investigate the situation?
mystery shoppers

In causal research, the “treatment” is also referred to as which of the following?
independent variable

Which of the following is not a precondition for causation?
the effect variable

Test markets are which of the following type of experiment?
controlled experiment

What is NOT an example of primary data for the GIANTS football team?
Data about New York from the census bureau

The distinguishing feature of nonprobability sampling plans is that
They are not as representative of the population as probability samples.

The main disadvantage of secondary data you can purchase from marketing research firms like Neilson over user collected primary data is
Standardized data may not always fit the specific needs of the user

Low response rates may indicate
a.Lack of interest among respondents.
b.Failure to gain the intended respondents’ attention.
c.Poor questionnaire design.

Which of the following are examples of secondary data (not primary data)?
Housing data (tenure, race of occupants, year built, etc.) as reported in the Journal of Marketing and later used by a researcher working on a project for a construction company.

If a restaurant’s questionnaire about customer satisfaction did not have a question about the quality of the food being served, we’d say the questionnaire lacked______ validity.
content

Before a measurement scale can be shown to be valid, it must be _______.
reliable

When a researcher describes how a construct will be measured, this is referred to as what type of definition?
theoretical

____________ reveals the lack of or low correlation among constructs that are supposed to be different.
convergent validity

General Mills uses the marketing research services of Neilson:
a.To collect sales and market share data
b.To better understand what is happening with their competitors
c.Because even though the fees are astronomical, it is still more cost effective than trying collecting the data themselves
d.Because anyone can buy it

Which of the following types of primary data can be measured by observation?
Gender and current behavior

Researchers found that by offering a “neutral” response on a scale, respondents who don’t know anything about the question will answer the neutral response along with the respondents who really are neutral. To resolve this issue, researchers:
offer a “don’t know” response

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of open-ended questions?
ease of coding and tabulation of results

When a questionnaire asks the respondent to skip question 4 if they answered “no” to question 3, this is an example of _______.
branching

When a question has only two possible choices, it is referred to as a _____________question.
dichotomous

What can be used to measure knowledge of an advertisement?
a. Unaided recall
b. Aided recall
c. Recognition

Which of the following is a life style characteristic?
Interests

Exploratory research begins with
Vague topics of interest

With unstructured undisguised questionnaires:
The purpose of the study is clear and the responses to the questions are open ended

In general, which of the following methods of data collection is the most costly?
Personal interviewing

The decision to use observation methods of descriptive data collection requires that the researcher specify
Who is to be observed

McDonald’s uses the length of the grass in the front yard of homes as a way to estimate the socioeconomic characteristics of prospective sites. This is an example of:
Direct observation

Which of the following statements about nominal scales is true?
The numbers identify the objects

Which of the following are disadvantages of observation in a contrived setting?
External validity is threatened

If you wanted to use the highest level of measurement possible to measure respondent age, you would most likely use __________ and a _________ scale.
An open-ended item; ratio

Due to a misunderstanding of his instructions, a research assistant consistently entered the upper value of an attitude scale as a “6” instead of a “7” when keypunching data for his boss. This is an example of
Systematic error

A technique in which some of the items in a semantic differential scale are written so that the most positive responses are at the opposite end of the scale from where they would normally appear is
Reverse scaling

A fixed alternative question with three possible responses is
A multichotomous question

The question in a restaurant survey, “What is your evaluation of the speed and courtesy of your waitperson?” is an example of
A double barreled question

A statistic _________
Is a characteristic or measure of a sample

If you enter a shopping mall and notice a researcher handing out surveys to everyone asking their opinion about a possible increase in the state sales tax, what type of sampling procedure is being used?
Convenience sample

_____________ is the total group of people from whom information is obtained.
Sample of interest

What do convenience, judgment, quota, and snowball samples have in common?
They are nonprobability samples.

The type of error which results from the fact that samples are not perfectly representative of the populations from which they are drawn is known as _______.
sampling error

All other things equal, larger samples will have less ___________ than smaller samples.
sampling error

Sample size depends upon
a. How precise you want to be
b. Level of confidence
c. The homogeneity of the population

The use of a “snake diagram” is associated with
Semantic differential scales.

Which of the following is a probability sample?
Simple random

Sampling errors can be decreased by ______
Increasing the sample size

The best way to reduce nonsampling errors is to
Improve data collection techniques

Any measurement scale that accurately assesses what it is intended to assess is said to have:
Validity

Using different ads in different geographic areas and investigating which ad generated the highest sales is an example of ________ research design.
Causal

Having the employee watch the salad bar usage is actually a(n) _______ research design.
Observation

Which of the following is (are) permissible measure(s) of central tendency with ordinal scales?
Median and mode

When designing questionnaires, hypotheses can be used
a. As a guide to determine what information will be sought.
b. To determine the type of question.
c. To determine the form of response.

One method of handling potentially embarrassing questions uses
The randomized response model

_________ scales possess an absolute zero.
raito

A problem with nonprobability samples is
One cannot assess the amount of sampling error likely to occur

The notion that equal differences among scores represent equal differences in the amount of the attribute possessed by the object applies to scales.
Interval and ratio

What three factors are needed to calculate sample size?
Precision, confidence, and population size

Failure to include some units, or entire sections, of the defined survey population in the actual operational sampling frame represents
Noncoverage error

During a recent telephone survey, the data collection effort produced the following results:
Completed interviews=800, Refusals=400, Not-at-home=800
What is the response rate in this particular situation?
40%

If a researcher offers beer drinkers an extra incentive to recruit their friends who also drink beer to participate in the study, they are using a(n) ________sample.
snowball

In a ________, data are obtained from or about every member of the population of interest, while in a __________, information is obtained from or about a part of the population and used to make estimates about various characteristics of the total population.
Census, sample

Which of the following statements about sample size is false?
all of the above statements are false

The process of grouping and assigning numeric codes to the different responses to a question is known as _______.
coding

This analytical procedure looks at the responses to one question relative to the responses of another question.
cross tabulation

When do you say the difference between two numbers is statistically significant?
if the difference is large enough to be unlikely to have occurred because of chance or sampling error

What is the purpose of hypothesis testing?
b. to determine whether there is support to draw conclusions about some characteristics of the population given the evidence provided by the sample results

The hypothesis of the status quo (no difference, no effect) is typically referred to as the _______ hypothesis.
null

What is the typical (rule of thumb) alpha level used in hypothesis testing?
.05

The exact probability of getting a computed test statistic that was largely due to chance is referred to as the______________.
p-value

What is the meaning of testing a hypothesis at an alpha level of 0.05?
c. There is a 95% chance that the observed result from the sample analysis will also occur in the population.

What type of data would be necessary to test for differences in means?
continuous

What is multivariate analysis?
a group of statistical procedures used to analyze multiple measurements simultaneously.

In hypothesis testing, type I error
a.Occurs when a true null hypothesis is rejected.
b.Is usually referred to as significance level.
c.Is symbolized by alpha (α).

Which types of measurement are used to group respondents or objects into groups or categories and are thus referred to as categorical measures?
nominal and ordinal

Which of the following is NOT an example of univariate analysis?
A car dealership is particularly interested in whether or not people who own vans are more or less likely to finance auto purchases compared with people who don’t own vans.

The process of editing involves
inspecting and correcting each questionnaire or observation form.

The BEST way to handle missing items when analyzing the data is to
substitute values for the missing item

Which of the following questions would be the easiest to code?
Have you ever used product X? _ Yes _ No

The most difficult questions to code are
open ended questions

Data analysis hinges on which of the following considerations about the variable(s) to be analyzed?
a. Will the variable be analyzed in isolation or in relationship to one or more other variables?
b. What type of analysis is required by the project sponsor?
c. What level of measurement was used to measure the variable(s)?

Which of the following is TRUE about hypothesis testing?
The null hypothesis is assumed to be false for the purpose of the test

A popular approach to measuring the strength of the relationship between two categorical variables is
cross tabulation.

A gas station wants to compare a group of consumers’ overall perceptions of service with overall perceptions of service for a nearby competitor. This situation calls for the use of
paired sample t-test for means.

Let’s assume there are business, engineering management, and engineering students in your marketing research class. If you want to know if their average GPAs differ what is the proper statistical test to use?
ANOVA

Multiple regression analysis is useful when there are __________ independent variable(s) and __________ dependent variable(s).
more than one, one

What type of scale is the following?
American cars are of:
Poor Quality ________High Quality
Graphic-rating scale

If a questionnaire says:
“Universities that offer small classes are better places to learn effectively:” (choose one)
1 Strongly agree 2 disagree
3 neither agree or disagree 4 agree 5 strongly agree
The researcher would be using which of the following scales.
Itemized rating scale

This scale is an example of what type of scale?
Interval scale

When using this type of scale, what is the most appropriate measure of average?
Mean