The IT Age has resulted in a multitude of job opportunities within the IT and IT services industry. The worldwide need for IT specialists is significant, leading companies to not only invest in salaries but also in additional training for their employed IT professionals.
The global challenge for organizations is to find, attract, select, hire, and retain IT professionals.
When an IT professional leaves, organizations may experience adverse effects due to the increase in individuals engaged in managing or trading IT or IT services (Pare and Tremblay 2000; Ermel and Bohl 1997; Morello 1998; Guptill et al. 1999).
The organization is experiencing a decline in the process of caring, thinking, and acquiring proficient skills (Dore 2004). Since the late 1996, the turnover rate for IT professionals has increased from 15% to 20% annually, and only 8 out of 10 IT positions are fill...
ed with qualified candidates (McNee et al).
Concerns about job-hopping among IT professionals have been present since 1998, particularly for directors and HR experts (Pare and Tremblay, 2000). The turnover rate is estimated to be at least 20% (Alexander, 1999; Kosseff, 1999), with IT professionals frequently switching jobs when they are dissatisfied with their current employer (Hacker, 2003). It is believed that replacing IT professionals costs between 1.5% and 2% (Hacker, 2003).
According to Kosseff (1999), employees who depart their companies receive a payment equal to 5 times their annual salary. Moreover, Kochanski and Ledford (2001) claim that the expense of losing a skilled IT professional is estimated to be 3 to 6 times greater than losing a manager. This research highlights the significance of IT professionals.
According to Hacker (2003), IT professionals tend to change jobs quickly when
they are unhappy with their current employment. However, traditional theories on voluntary turnover cannot explain the high turnover rates in the IT industry, as IT professionals often remain dissatisfied with their jobs despite receiving high salaries. Additionally, their creativity and expertise are not highly valued by their peers, supervisors, and companies in general (Fisher, 2000; Rouse, 2001).
Additionally, another reason why IT professionals may leave their current job more quickly when they are unsatisfied is that much of their work in the IT field is project-oriented. The loyalty of a skilled employee may be more towards the specific project rather than the employer itself (Hacker).
According to a study conducted in 2003 (p. 15), high turnover within the IT profession creates significant pressure for both IT executives and HR directors. This poses a threat not only to the organization's IT department, but also to the entire business.
According to Pare and Tremblay (2000), the IT industry's high turnover rate is a danger to the growth, competitive position, and strength of the global economy. In 2004, Dr. Timothy Lee Dore conducted research on software developers to investigate the relationship between job characteristics, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. It is believed that comprehending turnover intention in software developers and IT professionals as a whole relies on two crucial factors: job characteristics and job satisfaction.
The purpose of this survey is to examine how direction affects the retention of IT professionals, specifically focusing on job characteristics and job satisfaction and their influence on turnover and retention.
Study Scope and Limitations
This study will analyze the effect of job characteristics and job satisfaction on the turnover rate of IT professionals. While it aims to replicate
some of Dore's findings, it will not solely focus on software developers but also include a broader range of IT professionals, as they make up only a small portion of the total population in this industry.
Specifically, the research survey will focus on the turnover purpose of IT professionals in___________. In analyzing the relationships between occupation features, occupation satisfaction, and turnover purpose, this survey is limited to the use of the following theoretical models and theories to support its conclusions:
- For the discussion on occupation features, the research survey will make use of the Job Characteristics Model developed by JR Hackman and GR Oldham (1975/1980) and the analysis on Model Employers by Minda Zetlin (2001).
- For the discussion on occupation satisfaction, as well as motivation, the paper will use the Motivator-Hygiene Theory by F. Herzberg (1968/2003) and the Interactive Model by T. M. Amabile (1997).
- For the discussion on turnover.
The survey will employ the Voluntary Turnover Model by R. M. Steers and R. T. Mowday (1987) and the Rational Turnover Model by P.
D. Rouse (2001) presents the Instinctual or "Unfolding" Model of Turnover proposed by T. W. Lee.
R. Mitchell, L. Wise, and S.
Fireman (1996) and the Conceptual Model for Investigating Turnover in IT, developed by J. B. Thatcher L. P.
Stepna and R. J. Boyle (2002-03) will be further discussed in detail later in this chapter, as well as in Chapter 2 on Review of Related Literature.
Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature
This chapter will analyze the various literature related to this research paper. It will discuss
the works of other analysts and researchers on theories/models that will be used to support this study.
The text below provides an overview of both relevant literature on IT professionals' turnover purposes as well as the use of motivation theories, culture, and leadership in influencing employee decisions to leave their jobs. The chapter also introduces a specific model used in the current survey. Additionally, the chapter will define the terms used throughout the discussion of related literature.
Relationships between Job Characteristics, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention
In 2004, Timothy Lee Dore submitted a thesis titled "The Relationships Between Job Characteristics, Job Satisfaction. and Turnover Intention Among Software Developers."
According to Dore, there is a lack of understanding regarding the factors that contribute to the intention of software developers to leave their jobs. Dore conducted a study aiming to gain a better understanding of the connections between job characteristics, job satisfaction, and turnover intention among software developers. The study involved 326 online surveys with questions pertaining to job features.
Occupational satisfaction, turnover purpose, and demographic information are all important factors that can influence turnover rates. According to the findings of Dore's survey, various factors, particularly job features that can be affected by management, have a significant impact on individuals' reasons for leaving a job.
Preparation, liberty, feedback, figure of developers, undertaking significance, and skill assortment are all important aspects highlighted in the text (Dore 2004).
Dore conducted a survey to examine the variables that contribute to different dimensions of job satisfaction and how these dimensions in turn impact turnover intention. In his research, Dore utilized two research questions, 16 hypotheses,
and employed indirect outcome tests.
The purpose of the study was to determine if certain job characteristics could be connected to the intention to leave through the occupation satisfaction scales that were given. The results of the survey showed that out of the ten significant indirect effects, all of them were related to only three of the seven occupation satisfaction scales: internal work motivation, overall job satisfaction, and satisfaction with salary.
The main indirect consequence, according to Dore, was the impact of liberty on turnover intention through overall job satisfaction: a higher level of autonomy resulted in a lower level of turnover intention due to an increase in general job satisfaction. The second largest indirect consequence was the effect of organisational training on turnover intention through overall job satisfaction: organisational training reduced turnover intention by increasing general job satisfaction.
According to Dore's findings, the top three indirect effects were related to certain job characteristics (
), as well as the number of developers, on turnover intentions through overall job satisfaction (Dore, 2004, p. 130).
Measuring Turnover Intentions Among IT Professionals
Researchers Guy Pare and Michel Tremblay conducted a study on the turnover intentions of IT professionals, including software developers. Their research differed from Dore's survey.
"The Measurement and Antecedents of Turnover Intentions among IT Professionals" (2000), submitted to Cirano research centre, aimed to present and validate a comprehensive theoretical framework for turnover intentions specific to the unique characteristics of the IT profession (Pare and Tremblay, 2000, p.).
3). The authors of the study discovered various HR patterns that
are likely to contribute to the retention of IT employees. These patterns include emphasizing citizenship behaviors and two distinct types of organizational commitment as key factors in reducing turnover. The research involved sending questionnaires to 394 members of the Canadian Information Processing Society in Quebec. The study aimed to answer four research questions:
- What are the essential HR patterns needed to create an effective plan for retaining IT professionals?
- How do compensation and negotiation conditions impact the turnover intentions of IT personnel?
- What effect do employee demographic characteristics have on the turnover intentions of IT personnel?
- Do organizational commitment and citizenship behaviors mediate the effects of HR patterns, compensation and negotiation conditions, and demographic characteristics on the turnover intentions of IT personnel? (Pare and Tremblay, 2000, p.4)
Pare and Tremblay suggest that IT employees who are highly committed to their organization are less likely to leave compared to those who are less committed. They identify three distinct dimensions of organizational commitment: affective.
Continuation and normative committedness (Meyer and Allen 1997).
- refers to an employee's personal attachment and dedication to the organization. This leads to a strong belief in accepting the organization's goals and values. "Employees with strong affectional committedness continue employment with the organization because they
to do so" (Pare and Tremblay, 2000, p. 5).
- is a tendency to engage in consistent lines of activity based on the individual's recognition of the "costs" associated with ending the activity. "Employees
whose primary link to the organization is based on continuance committedness remain because they
to do so." (Pare and Tremblay).
2000. p. 5 )
– Employees exhibit behaviors because they believe it is the right and moral thing to do. Employees with a high degree of normative committedness feel that they
to stay with the organization. (Pare and Tremblay, 2000, p. 5)
According to Pare and Tremblay (2000, p. 5), their research shows that affectional committedness and continuation committedness have a negative relationship with turnover purposes.
Additionally, in addition to these two different types of commitment affecting turnover intention, their studies also highlight the factor referred to as Organizational Citizenship Behavior, or OCB. OCB is seen as a fundamental element in organizational effectiveness.
According to Pare and Tremblay (2000, p. 6, citing Organ 1990), OCB refers to an employee's willingness to go beyond their assigned duties and travel. Pare and Tremblay's research findings support this definition.
The more citizenship behavior an IT employee exhibits, the more likely they are to stay with their company. Additionally, the IT professional's emotional attachment or fondness for their organization also decreases turnover intention.
Job Characteristics Model
The Job Characteristics Model, developed by Hackman and Oldham, is a framework that predicts the degree of job enrichment based on certain aspects of jobs. This model takes into account employees' individual traits and the expected results they will attain. It consists of five core job characteristics that are relevant to all
occupations, such as skill variety.
Undertaking individuality, undertaking significance, and liberty and feedback are important aspects of a job.
- Skill assortment refers to the variety of skills required for the job (Hackman and Oldham 1980; Pilon 1998).
- Undertaking individuality is the completeness of the tasks involved in the job (Hackman and Oldham 1980; Pilon 1998).
- Undertaking significance is the importance of the job to the population it serves (Mohamed 2004).
- Autonomy is the level of responsibility, decision-making, and independence given to employees (Mohamed 2004).
- Finally, feedback is how much information about employees' performance is provided by the job itself (Huber 2000).
These features - skill assortment, undertaking individuality, undertaking significance,
Liberty and feedback are merged into a unified predictive index called the Motivating Potential Score (Hackman and Oldham 1980).
Job Characteristics Model
Start: A. H. Mohamed (2004) The five essential job characteristics mentioned in the previous paragraph continuously interact with individual differences, leading to three important psychological states that employees experience. These states include: 1) when the job is structured by skill variety.
Undertaking individuality and significance can help employees find meaning in their work. Additionally, undertaking liberty leads to a sense of responsibility for the outcomes of their work. Lastly, feedback is the third and final element.
According to Douthit (2000) and Huber (2000), cognition of the consequences of their work leads employees towards three critical psychological provinces. These provinces result in high internal work motive, high growth satisfaction, high general satisfaction, high work effectiveness, and a low rate
of absenteeism (Mohamed 2004; Donovan and Radosevich 1998).
These employee occupational features result in affectional and personal outcomes. They are defined as follows:
High internal work motive – this is the degree to which an employee is willing to work and perceive the organizational goals as part of their own objectives (Mohamed 2004).
High growth satisfaction – this is the employee's achievement in overcoming challenges, succeeding, and growing (Steers and Black 1994).
High general satisfaction – this is the feeling derived from overall satisfaction with the work itself. This type of satisfaction can be seen through reduced rates of absenteeism among employees (Steers and Black 1994; Omachonu et Al 1999).
High work effectiveness – this refers to both the quality and quantity aspects of work performance (Hackman and Oldham 1980).
Low rate of absenteeism.
The Job Characteristics Model also includes three properties that serve as moderators: knowledge and skills.
The satisfaction and growth needs of employees in their occupation are important factors in determining the Motivating Potential Score. This score, as identified by Hackman and Oldham (1980), indicates how positively an employee will respond to their occupation and its outcomes. The employee's educational qualifications play a role in their cognition and achievements, which in turn shape their perceptions towards their work outcomes (Sabiston and Laschinger, 1995).
On the other hand, an employee's perception of their current job satisfaction is influenced by various factors such as salary, supervision, and co-workers.
Job satisfaction, job security, and occupation
autonomy all have an impact on an employee's outcomes (Mohamed 2004). Additionally, an employee's growth-need strength, or their desire for opportunities in their job for independence, learning, and personal achievement, also affects their level of internal motivation at work (Mohamed 2004).
An example of a survey that effectively utilized Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristics Model is the one conducted by A. H. Mohamed (2004) titled "Using the job characteristics model to compare patient care assignment methods of nurses" for the Faculty of Nursing at the University of Alexandria in Egypt. The survey population consisted of nurses working at the Alexandria Main University Hospital.
Mohamed utilized a Job Diagnostic Survey, originally created by Hackman and Oldham, to assess how nurses perceive the components of the Job Characteristics Model in relation to their performance when utilizing the case and functional methods of patient care assignment (Mohamed 2004). Mohamed's study concludes that intensive care unit nurses have varying expectations depending on their nursing classification, skills, and the inherent challenges they face in their work (Mohamed 2004).
Generally speaking, studies like Mohamed's show that an employee's personal and emotional outcomes are influenced by their job characteristics.
However, management also has a significant impact on the retention and turnover of IT professionals, as they have many options to choose from.
Employers always strive to attract the top Information Technology professionals by becoming "model employers". In her 2001 Computer World article titled "Model employers", Minda Zetlin discusses the strategies employed by certain companies to become "model employers".
Computer World has summarized its annual list of the 100 Best Places to Work in IT, highlighting that these employers not only provide competitive compensation, but also offer opportunities
for career growth, investment in training, and a diverse work environment.
According to Zetlin (2001), a key factor in the success of the best IT employers is their emphasis on work flexibility and providing a comfortable and enjoyable work environment for their employees. Zetlin outlines three common themes behind their success:
IT is crucial for the success of these employers.
Excellence in the field of Information Technology is a major priority for many companies, not just those that specialize in IT or IT services. Companies like Avon, for example, which is ranked 4th on Computer World's list of the top 100 employers, are known to have a strong focus on building relationships.
Despite the fact that it relies heavily on technology to process its complex supply chain and treat over 60 million usage orders annually, the company is primarily a transactional business.
IT is one of the top priorities for the organization (Zetlin 2001).
From the day they start, management actively engages in employees' careers.
This involves implementing a development program as soon as employees join the company. Employees have regular meetings with their managers for a formal review to assess their development plan and its progress. Orientation programs at the beginning of employment are also included in this strategy.
Aside from orientation, Harley-Davidson, Inc. (also known as No.
11) In addition, the company conducts an annual self-assessment for employees based on the competences set for their roles. The employees' supervisors also undergo the same assessment (Zetlin, 2001). This focus
on individual career development encourages employees to feel that management actively participates in aligning their objectives with personal goals. Model employers also offer ongoing support for their employees' careers throughout their tenure. State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Co. utilizes knowledge mentoring programs and career mentoring programs for this purpose.
Ranked No. 13, State Farm's mentoring program allows employees to learn skills and career guidance from experienced colleagues, while helping management identify potential leaders for short and long-term positions (Zetlin 2001). The program is so successful that it has even been expanded to include assigning mentors to college students who plan to join State Farm after graduation.
There is a seamless integration between concern and IT without any walls.
Unlike other organizations, theoretical account employers ensure that IT professionals and business colleagues collaborate closely, with no division or competition. IT professionals have a better understanding that their work directly contributes to the success of the business.
This comprehension brings about job contentment for IT professionals as they are aware of their vital role in contributing to the success of their organization. One benefit of this close relationship between IT and business is the ability for individuals to transition between the two fields (Zetlin 2001). Furthermore, implementing strategies such as cross-functional work teams provides career growth opportunities not just for IT professionals, but also for business individuals within the organization. There is always a range of diverse career paths to choose from.
An IT professional has the option to advance by taking on leadership roles within engineering or they may switch to management positions
in businesses (Zetlin 2001).
Voluntary Intention Model
R. M. Steers and R.
In a study conducted by T. Mowday in 1981 titled "Employee turnover and post-decision adjustment processes", turnover was examined as a result of voluntary intentions. According to the research by Tips and Mowday, the decision to leave a job and the availability of alternative job opportunities were identified as direct factors contributing to turnover (Steers and Mowday, 1981; Rouse, 2001).
In Chapter 1 of this survey, we previously discussed the procedure in Steers' and Mowday's Voluntary Intention Model. It begins with Job Expectations, followed by Affectional Responses, and ultimately leads to Turnover Intention.
Eventually, the actual turnover can be seen in Section 220.127.116.11 of this paper. However.
These four elements were categorized by Tips and Mowday into three steps. Figure 3 illustrates that each step in the figure consists of two concepts. The second concept (Job Attitudes) in Step 1 becomes the first concept in Step 2. Similarly, the second concept (Intent To Leave) in Step 2 becomes the first concept in Step 3.
Measure 1 of the Voluntary Intention Model examines how occupation outlooks affect employee attitudes towards their job. These attitudes include occupation satisfaction, organisational commitment, and occupation engagement. Job outlooks, in turn, are influenced by three factors. The first factor looks at individual attributes, such as the type of job.
Age, term of office, household concerns, and personality signifier are factors that are considered in the recruitment process and at various assessment points throughout an employee's career (Steers and Mowday 1981; Rouse 2001). This includes information collected during the recruitment process and assessments conducted over time (Steers and Mowday 1981; Rouse 2001).
Several studies have demonstrated that job outlook levels are typically high when an employee initially starts a new job (Porter and Steers, 1973). During these specific periods, expectations are formed by both the employee and employer. In essence, a type of verbal social contract is believed to be agreed upon by both parties (Prouse, 2001).
The third factor impacting occupation outlooks is alternative job opportunities. Studies have indicated that when employees are faced with more options, they tend to have more negative attitudes towards their current job (Pfeffer and Lawler 1979).
According to the Voluntary Intention Model, Measure 2 examines the Affectional Responses that are evoked from Step 1. These responses, including occupation satisfaction, influence an employee's willingness to continue working for the organization. Determinants of this willingness can include non-work factors like family, hobbies, religion, and political influences (Cohen 1995).
Tips and Mowday also recognized that employees have the ability to modify their current job in terms of salary, working hours, and environment.
According to Prouse (2001), occupation characteristics and occupations satisfaction can influence the attitudes of IT professionals towards their occupations.
Chapter 3 Methodology
The aim of this research is to analyze the relationships between occupation characteristics, occupation satisfaction, and turnover purpose among IT professionals in [insert location]. The proposition being made is that occupation satisfaction and occupation features have an indirect impact on the levels of turnover purpose among IT professionals.
The literature review shows that various factors influence the turnover intention of IT professionals. This study aims to examine the turnover intention of IT professionals in a specific location.
The study will address the following two research questions:
- What job characteristic variable(s) contribute to job satisfaction among
IT professionals in the specified location?
To answer these primary questions, the thesis will utilize the following framework:
- Research Question 1
The first research question, "What job characteristic variable(s) contribute to job satisfaction among IT professionals in the specified location?", will analyze the standardized effect of job features on job satisfaction. The following null hypotheses were tested:
Job Features a Job Satisfactions
- H1: The level of IT training does not affect the various measures of job satisfaction.
- H2: The level of user contact does not affect the various measures of job satisfaction.
- H3: The job-required skills do not affect the various measures of job satisfaction.
Research Question 2
"What variables of job satisfaction cause turnover purpose among IT professionals in ________________?" The first research question will analyze the standardized effect of job satisfaction scales on turnover purpose. The null hypotheses tested were: Job Satisfactions a Employee turnover Purpose
- H7: Turnover purpose is not affected by the level of internal work motivation.
- H8: Turnover purpose is not affected by the level of job security satisfaction.
- H9: Turnover purpose is not affected by the level of social job satisfaction.
- H10: Turnover purpose is not affected by the level of job growth satisfaction.
- H11: Turnover purpose is not affected by the level of satisfaction with salary.
Research is a process of examining and analyzing situational factors of a specific problem or issue in order to find solutions (Cavana).
According to Cavana, Delahaye and Sekaran (2001), there are three research paradigms: rationalist, interpretivist, and critical research.
The survey will utilize the rationalist approach to examine the relationships between occupation characteristics, occupation satisfaction, and turnover intentions among IT professionals in _______. The rationalist approach will provide the framework for the methodology used in this survey.
The research job requires primary information to focus on the 12 hypotheses. To gather the most effective and appropriate information, an Internet questionnaire will be utilized. The term "questionnaire" is defined as a pre-designed set of written questions where respondents provide their answers within specified options (Cavana, Delahaye, and Sekaran, 2001).
A well-crafted questionnaire provides precise and practical information for analysis in order to make a decision on whether to accept or reject a research hypothesis. The questionnaire used in this survey can be found in Appendix A. Once the data from the questionnaires has been collected, it will be analyzed using various quantitative information analysis techniques such as frequency distribution, correlation analysis, and regression analysis. This analysis will be conducted using SPSS, a statistical package specifically designed for social sciences. SPSS has made significant advancements in its predictive analytics capabilities and data accessibility.
Relevant and reliable decisions will be extracted from the collected quantitative information (SPSS. Inc. 2002). A thorough analysis of the data will be conducted.
Frequency Distribution, Correlation Analysis, and Regression Analysis will be utilized for analyzing the gathered data. The individuals belonging to the _________ professionals
in the state make up the population of this research.
The survey is anticipated to have a 10% response rate, meaning it will receive a certain number of completed questionnaires. In order to ensure reaching the desired response rate, a reminder email will be sent to the students. By enrolling only the necessary number of participants, their convenience and safety are prioritized. It is worth mentioning that the research conducted by Dore in 2004, which this paper aims to compare with, obtained less than 0.
1% of the population will receive an email invitation. The email invitation will be sent to the disposal directors of the participating establishments. These directors will then forward the email invitation to all qualified IT professionals and request that they complete the anonymous online questionnaire within 10 business days.
A reminder email will be sent by the director on the 6th concern twenty-four hours. The invitation email only contains a consent form and a URL to the Internet anon. questionnaire. Engagement is completely voluntary. The participant can withdraw at any time and there will be no disadvantage if they do so.
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