Management Influences on Turnover Intention of Software Developers Essay Example
Management Influences on Turnover Intention of Software Developers Essay Example

Management Influences on Turnover Intention of Software Developers Essay Example

Available Only on StudyHippo
  • Pages: 11 (5516 words)
  • Published: July 24, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
Text preview


The Information Technology ( IT ) Age has created many chances for employment in the IT and IT services industry. IT professionals are in demand all over the universe. Organizations worldwide invest money that go non merely into wages but for farther preparation of IT professionals they hire.

However. around the universe. the demand. supply. choice. enlisting and peculiarly keeping of IT professionals has threatened organisations that usage. manage or trade in IT or IT services for the past few old ages ( Pare and Tremblay 2000 ; Ermel and Bohl 1997 ; Morello 1998 ; Guptill et al. 1999 ) . This is why the going of an IT professional from a company normally comes with black effects to the organisation. When an IT professional resigns. the organisation suffers loss of concern procedure cognition and acquired proficient accomplishments ( Dore 2004 ) .

Since tardily 1996. the turnover for IT professionals has jumped from 15 % to 20 % yearly. with merely 8 of 10 IT places being filled with qualified campaigners ( McNee et al. 1998 ) . With the one-year turnover rate estimated at 20 % or more ( Alexander 1999 ; Kosseff 1999 ) . job-hopping of IT professionals has been one of the biggest jobs among directors and human resources ( HR ) experts ( Pare and Tremblay 2000 ) .

IT professionals seem to hold a inclination to alter their occupations faster than other employees when they feel dissatisfied with their current employer ( Hacker 2003 ) . The estimated cost of replacing IT professionals range from 1. 5 to 2. 5


times of their one-year wages for the companies they resigned from ( Kosseff 1999 ) . On the other manus. the cost of losing a qualified IT professional is really 3 to 6 times more expensive than the cost of losing a director ( Kochanski and Ledford 2001 ) .

IT professionals. as besides mentioned antecedently in this survey. besides tend to alter occupations more rapidly than other employees when they feel disgruntled with in their current employment ( Hacker 2003 ) . However. rational theoretical accounts of voluntary turnover can non be used to explicate the high turnover rates for IT professionals ( Rouse 2001 ) since many IT professionals remain disgruntled with their occupations even though they enjoy high fiscal wagess yet their creativeness and expertness do non have high regard from their equals. supervisors and companies as a whole ( Fisher 2000 ) .

Furthermore. another account why IT professionals may vacate more rapidly when dissatisfied with their current employment is that “much of IT work is project oriented. the proficient employee’s trueness may be more to the undertaking. and non needfully to the employer” ( Hacker. 2003. p. 15 ) . These tendencies place intense force per unit area on both IT executives and HR directors. High IT professional turnover translates to a menace non merely to an organization’s IT section but to the concern as a whole.

Most significantly. high IT turnover poses a menace to the growing. competitory placement and strength of the planetary economic system ( Pare and Tremblay 2000

View entire sample
Join StudyHippo to see entire essay

. A thesis by Dr. Timothy Lee Dore ( 2004 ) studied the relationships between occupation features. occupation satisfaction and turnover purpose among package developers. These two factors – occupation features and occupation satisfaction – are deemed to play important functions in understanding turnover purpose non merely among package developers but IT professionals as a whole.

The current survey purposes to look into the direction influences on employee keeping of IT professionals. concentrating on occupation features and occupation satisfaction. and their impact on turnover and keeping.

Scope and Restrictions of the Study

This research will analyze the impact of occupation features and occupation satisfaction on the turnover purpose of IT professionals. Although this paper intends to retroflex some of Dore’s findings. the survey will non be limited to package developers merely as this sector merely constitutes a little sample of IT professionals as a whole.

Specifically. the research survey will concentrate on the turnover purpose of IT professionals in___________ . In analyzing the relationships between occupation features. occupation satisfaction and turnover purpose. this survey is limited to the usage of the undermentioned theoretical theoretical accounts and theories to back up its decisions:

  • For the treatment on occupation features. the research survey will do usage of the Job Characteristics Model developed by JR Hackman and GR Oldham ( 1975/1980 ) and the analysis on Model Employers by Minda Zetlin ( 2001 ) .
  • For the treatment on occupation satisfaction. every bit good as motive. the paper will utilize the Motivator-Hygiene Theory by F. Herzberg ( 1968/2003 ) and the Synergistic Model by T. M. Amabile ( 1997 ) .
  • For the treatment on turnover. the survey will utilize the Voluntary Turnover Model by R. M. Steers and R. T. Mowday ( 1987 ) ; the Rational Turnover Model by P. D. Rouse ( 2001 ) ; the Instinctual or “Unfolding” Model of Turnover by T. W. Lee. T. R. Mitchell. L. Wise and S. Fireman ( 1996 ) ; and the Conceptual Model for Investigating Turnover in IT. developed by J. B. Thatcher. L. P. Stepna and R. J. Boyle ( 2002-03 )

These theoretical accounts will be discussed in item subsequently in this chapter. every bit good as in Chapter 2 on Review of Related Literature.

Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature

This chapter will analyse the assorted literature which are related to this research paper. It will discourse the plants of other analysts and research workers on theories/models that will be used to back up this survey. every bit good as pertinent literature on IT professionals’ turnover purposes. The chapter begins with a general treatment on motivational theories. cutlure. and leading which are all critical factors that affect an employee’s purpose to go forth. The treatment them dovetails into a more specific presentation of the model used in the current survey. This chapter will besides include a definition of footings incorporated into the treatment of related literature.

Relationships between Job Characteristics. Job Satisfaction. and Turnover Intention

In 2004. Timothy Lee Dore submitted a thesis titled “The Relationships Between Job Characteristics. Job Satisfaction. and Turnover Intention Among Software Developers” . Harmonizing to Dore . the factors taking to the

turnover purpose of package developers have been ill understood. His survey was designed to further understand the relationships between occupation features. occupation satisfaction. and turnover purpose among package developers. His survey involved the usage of 326 web studies that contained inquiries associating to occupation features. occupation satisfaction. turnover purpose and demographic information.

The consequences of Dore’s survey showed that several factors can act upon turnover purpose. most significantly. occupation features that may be influenced by direction. such as preparation. liberty. feedback. figure of developers. undertaking significance. and skill assortment ( Dore 2004 ) . In his survey. Dore made usage of two research inquiries and 16 hypotheses to understand the occupation features variables which contribute to the assorted dimensions of occupation satisfaction. and which of these occupation satisfaction dimensions. in bend. contribute to turnover purpose.

Dore made usage of indirect consequence trials. to find if certain occupation features could be linked to turnover purpose through the occupation satisfaction scales he provided. The consequences of his survey indicated that 10 of the indirect effects were statistically important. All 10 of the statistically important indirect effects were associated with merely three of the seven occupation satisfaction graduated tables: internal work motive. general occupation satisfaction. and satisfaction with wage.

The largest indirect consequence. harmonizing to Dore . was the consequence oflibertyon turnover purpose through general occupation satisfaction: higher degrees of autonomy lead to lower degrees of turnover purpose by increasing general occupation satisfaction. The following largest indirect consequence was the consequence oforganisational preparationon turnover purpose through general occupation satisfaction: organisational preparation decreased turnover purpose through an addition in general occupation satisfaction. The following three highest indirect effects in Dore’s findings were besides between a occupation characteristic (feedback.accomplishment.assortment. andfigure of developers) and turnover purpose through general occupation satisfaction ( Dore . 2004. p. 130 ) .

Measuring Turnover Intentions Among IT Professionals

Guy Pare and Michel Tremblay. in contrast to Dore’s survey. completed a research covering the turnover purpose of non merely package developers but IT professionals as a whole. Their survey. “The Measurement and Antecedents of Turnover Intentions among IT Professionals” ( 2000 ) . submitted to Cirano research centre. aimed to show and prove an incorporate theoretical account of turnover purposes that address the alone nature of the IT profession ( Pare and Tremblay. 2000. p. 3 ) . The writers identified a multidimensional set of HR patterns that will most likely addition keeping among IT employees. They emphasized citizenship behaviours every bit good as two distinguishable types of organisational committedness as cardinal ancestors of turnover purposes.

The survey involved the sending of questionnaires to 394 Quebec members of the Canadian Information Processing Society. The survey addressed four research inquiries:

  1. What are the indispensable HR patterns necessary to make an effectual program for retaining IT professionals?
  2. What is the impact of compensation and dialogue conditions on the turnover purposes of IT forces?
  3. What is the consequence of employee demographic features on the turnover purposes of IT forces?
  4. Do organisational committedness and citizenship behaviours mediate the effects of HR patterns. compensation and dialogue conditions every bit good as demographic features on the turnover purposes of IT forces? ( Pare

and Tremblay. 2000. p. 4 )

Pare and Tremblay provide that IT employees who are extremely committed to their organisation are less likely to go forth than those who are comparatively uncommitted. They attach three distinguishable dimensions to organisational committedness: affective. continuation and normative committedness ( Meyer and Allen 1997 ) .

  1. Affectional committedness– means an employee’s personal fond regard and designation to the organisation. This consequences in a strong belief in an credence of the organization’s ends and values. “Employees with a strong affectional committedness continue employment with the organisation because theyprivationto make so” ( Pare and Tremblay. 2000. p. 5 )
  2. Continuance committedness– is a inclination to prosecute in consistent lines of activity based on the individual’s acknowledgment of the “costs” associated with stoping the activity. “Employees whose primary nexus to the organisation is based on continuation committedness remain because theydemandto make so. ” ( Pare and Tremblay. 2000. p. 5 )
  3. Normative committedness– provides that employees exhibit behaviours entirely because they believe it is the right and moral thing to make. “Employees with a high degree of normative committedness feel that theyoughtto stay with the organisation. ” ( Pare and Tremblay. 2000. p. 5 )

In their findings. Pare and Tremblay provide that affectional committedness and continuation committedness are negatively related to turnover purposes ( Pare and Tremblay. 2000. p. 6 ) . In add-on to these two distinct types of committedness impacting turnover purpose. their surveies besides points to the factor they call Organizational Citizenship Behavior or OCB.

OCB is considered as a cardinal component in organisational effectivity. OCB is defined as “an employee’s willingness to travel above and beyond the prescribed functions which they have been assigned” ( Pare and Tremblay. 2000. p. 6. citing from Organ 1990 ) . Based on Pare and Tremblay’s findings. the stronger the citizenship behaviour of an IT employee. the more likely they are to remain in their company. The IT professional’s affectional committedness. or fond regard to his or her organisation. besides decreases turnover purpose.

Job Characteristics Model

Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model. as before introduced in Chapter 1 of this research survey. predicts what aspects of occupations reflect the degree of occupation enrichment for employees. and how these relate to employees’ single differences and to the work outcomes required. The theoretical account includes five nucleus occupation features that can be applied to any occupation: skill assortment. undertaking individuality. undertaking significance. undertaking liberty and feedback.

  • Skill assortmentis defined as “the figure of different accomplishments required in the job” ( Hackman and Oldham 1980 ; Pilon 1998 ) .
  • Undertaking individualitymeans “the completeness of the undertakings done in the job” ( Hackman and Oldham 1980 ; Pilon 1998 ) .
  • Undertaking significanceon the other manus is defined as “the importance of the occupation to the served population. ” ( Mohamed 2004 ) .
  • Autonomymeans “the perpendicular enlargement of duty. the sum of decision-making and independency allowed for employees. ” ( Mohamed 2004 ) .
  • And in conclusion.feedbackmeans “the extent that the occupation itself provides information about employees’ performance” ( Huber 2000 ) .

These features – skill assortment. undertaking individuality. undertaking significance. liberty. and

feedback – are combined into a individual predictive index which is called the Motivating Potential Score ( Hackman and Oldham 1980 ) .

Figure 1.

Job Characteristics Model

Beginning: A. H. Mohamed ( 2004 )

The five nucleus occupation features enumerated in the old paragraph are in uninterrupted interaction with single differences that evoke three critical psychological provinces in an employee. These three provinces are: 1 ) when the occupation is structured by skill assortment. undertaking individuality and undertaking significance this could take employees to see meaningfulness in their work. 2 ) The 2nd province. undertaking liberty. which leads to feelings of duty for the results of work. 3 ) The 3rd and last province is feedback. which leads employees towards cognition of the consequences of their work ( Douthit 2000 ; Huber 2000 ) .

These three critical psychological provinces lead to a set of affectional and personal results: high internal work motive. high growing satisfaction. high general satisfaction. high work effectivity. and low rate of absenteeism ( Mohamed 2004 ; Donovan and Radosevich 1998 ) .

These affectional and personal results are the consequences of en employee’s occupation features. They are defined as follows:

  • High internal work motive – this is the grade to which an employee is willing to work and to see the organisational aims as portion of his or her ain ends ( Mohamed 2004 ) .
  • High growing satisfaction – this is the accomplishment of the employee in get the better ofing challenges. wining and turning ( Steers and Black 1994 )
  • High general satisfaction – this the feeling derived from the overall satisfaction with the work itself. “This type of satisfaction is reflected chiefly in reduced rates of absenteeism among employees” ( Steers and Black 1994 ; Omachonu et Al 1999 ) .
  • High work effectiveness – this refers to both the quality and measure facets of work public presentation ( Hackman and Oldham 1980 ) .
  • Low rate of absenteeism.

The Job Characteristics Model. besides includes three properties that are identified as Moderators: cognition and accomplishments. context occupation satisfaction. and employee growth-need strength. These properties indicate which employee will react positively to the Motivating Potential Score of their occupation and its results ( Hackman and Oldham 1980 ) .

An employee’s cognition and accomplishments are dependent on their educational makings which in bend will reflect their perceptual experiences toward their work outcomes ( Sabiston and Laschinger 1995 ) . On the other manus. an employee’s perceptual experience of his or her context occupation satisfaction involves factors like wage. supervising. co-workers. and occupation security. All these affect the employee’s outcomes every bit good ( Mohamed 2004 ) . Last. growth-need strength is the grade in which an employee seeks chances in his or her occupation for autonomy. acquisition and personal achievement. These elements in bend affect the employee’s degree of work internal motive ( Mohamed 2004 ) .

An illustration of a survey which made effectual usage of Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model is the 1 conducted by A. H. Mohamed ( 2004 ) called “Using the occupation features theoretical account to compare patient attention assignment methods of nurses” for the

Faculty of Nursing. University of Alexandria in Egypt. The population used were the nurses in the Alexandria Main University Hospital. Mohamed made usage of a Job Diagnostic Survey ( besides developed by Hackman and Oldham ) to find nurses’ perceptual experiences towards the constituents of the Job Characteristics Model in relation to their public presentation in using the instance and functional methods of patient attention assignment ( Mohamed 2004 ) .

In his survey. Mohamed concludes that the occupations of intensive attention unit nurses result in different outlooks based besides on the different classs of nurses. based on accomplishments and challenges inherent in the work they perform ( Mohamed 2004 ) .

By and large talking therefore. surveies like Mohamed shows that an employee’s personal and affectional results are a consequence of the employee’s occupation features.

Model Employers

However. direction besides plays a important function in the keeping and conversely turnover of IT professionals. Since IT professionals still bask a broad choice of employers to take from. employers invariably compete to pull the best Information technology professionals by going “model employers” . In her 2001 article for Computer World. called “Model employers” . Minda Zetlin outlines the schemes that make certain companies “model employers” .

By roll uping its eight one-year list of 100 Best Topographic points to Work in IT. Computer World approximately sums up the theoretical account employers as offering non merely top compensation. but besides “opportunities for calling growing. investing in preparation. diverseness in the work topographic point. work flexibleness. and. ideally. a comfy and fun topographic point to pass their daylight hours” ( Zetlin 2001 ) . Zetlin in her article lineations three common subjects behind the success of these theoretical account IT employers:

  • IT is cardinal to the best employers’ success

Harmonizing to Zetlin. excellence in IT is a top corporate scheme. Prioritizing IT should non be limited to companies that purely provide IT or IT services. Companies such as Avon. for case. which ranks 4Thursdayin Computer World’s list of 100 best employers. may be perceived to run on a relationship-based environment. Yet to treat its more than 60 million usage orders every twelvemonth. the company relies to a great extent on IT to treat its complex supply concatenation. The fact that is it is really a very transactional concern. dependant on engineering. makes IT one of its precedences ( Zetlin 2001 ) .

  • Management takes an active involvement in employers’ callings from the twenty-four hours they arrive

This includes holding development program for employees every bit shortly as they join the organisation. Employees meet with their directors on a periodic footing for a formal reappraisal to measure their development program and to measure its advancement. Orientation plans at the start of the employment are besides portion of this scheme. Apart from orientation. Harley-Davidson. Inc. ( ranked as No. 11 ) besides provides for a annual self-assessment for its employees against the constituted competences for their occupations. with their supervisors making the same ( Zetlin 2001 ) . Such focal point on calling development per employee makes the employee experience that direction takes an active involvement in alining its aims with the

employee’s personal ends.

Model employers besides provide for uninterrupted involvement on their employees’ callings throughout their employment with the company. Knowledge mentoring plans and career mentoring plans. used by the State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Co. ( ranked No. 13 ) . for case. let employees to larn more accomplishments and calling counsel from their more experience co-workers. and assist direction to place employees to make full leaderships places in the short and long term ( Zetlin 2001 ) . State Farm’s mentoring plan is in fact so successful that it has extended the plan to employees who haven’t even arrived yet – such as delegating wise mans to college pupils who plan to fall in State Farm after they graduate.

  • There are no walls between concern and IT

Unlike other organisations. theoretical account employers guarantee that IT people and concern people work side by side. There is no division or competition. IT professionals are given a better apprehension that what they do helps the concern win. This understanding leads to career satisfaction for IT professionals. Technology people know precisely how they contribute to the grosss of their concern and how of import they are in the concern program. One advantage here is that a close relationship between IT and concern allows people to exchange between the two Fieldss ( Zetlin 2001 ) . Another schemes such as cross-functional work squads gives calling development non merely to IT professionals but to concern people in the organisation every bit good. There are continuously different calling paths available. An IT professional may choose to progress by taking on direction functions within engineering. or they may switch to concern direction places ( Zetlin 2001 ) .

Voluntary Intention Model

R. M. Steers and R. T. Mowday. in their survey “Employee turnover and post-decision adjustment processes” ( 1981 ) analyzed turnover as rooted in voluntary purpose. Tips and Mowday viewed the interaction of purpose to go forth. and alternate occupation chances ( easiness of motion ) as direct ancestors to turnover ( Steers and Mowday 1981 ; Rouse 2001 ) .

As earlier discussed in Chapter 1 of this survey. the way of the procedure in Steers’ and Mowday’s Voluntary Intention Model starts with Job Expectations. so Affectional Responses. so Turnover Intention. so eventually. Actual Turnover ( see Section 1. 2. 1. 1 of this paper ) . However. these four elements were really grouped together by Tips and Mowday under three stairss. As can be seen in the Figure 3:

Each measure in Figure 3 contains two concepts. The 2nd concept ( Job Attitudes ) of Step 1 becomes the first concept of Step 2. The 2nd concept ( Intent To Leave ) of Step 2 becomes the first concept of Step 3.

Measure 1 of the Voluntary Intention Model involves the mode in which occupation outlooks influence an employee’s attitudes sing his or her occupation. Attitudes are composed of occupation satisfaction. organisational committedness. and occupation engagement. Job outlooks in bend are influenced by three stimulations.

The first stimulation focuses on single features such as business. age. term of office. household concerns. and personality signifier ( Steers and Mowday 1981 ;

Rouse 2001 ) .

The 2nd stimuli involves information obtained during the enlisting procedure and at assorted appraisals points throughout the employee’s calling ( Steers and Mowday 1981 ; Rouse 2001 ) .

For case. surveies have shown that occupation outlook degrees are frequently high when the employee foremost accepts a new occupation ( Porter and Steers 1973 ) . At these peculiar periods. outlooks are developed from both the employee and employer’s terminals.

In other words. a kind of unwritten societal contract is deemed to be adopted by the two parties ( Prouse 2001 ) . Last. the 3rd stimulations impacting occupation outlooks are alternate occupation chances. Surveies have shown that the more options there are facing an employee. so the more negative the employee’s attitudes becomes refering his or her current occupation ( Pfeffer and Lawler 1979 ) .

Measure 2 in the Voluntary Intention Model involves the Affectional Responses that are elicited from Step 1. These responses include the concept of occupation satisfaction. and how those responses influence the employee’s desire to go forth the organisation. Factors that affect the employee’s determination to go forth include non-work factors such as household. avocations. faith and political influences ( Cohen 1995 ) .

Tips and Mowday besides identified the potency of employees to change their existent occupation. in footings of wage. working hours. environment. etc. . and therefore alter their attitudes sing their occupations ( Prouse 2001 ) .

Chapter 3 Methodology

The purpose of the research is to analyze the relationships between occupation characteristic. occupation satisfaction and turnover purpose among IT professionals in ______________ . The proposition is that occupation satisfaction and occupation features as direction influences have indirect impact to the degrees of turnover purpose among IT professionals. The literature reappraisal indicates that there are different factors impacting IT professionals’ turnover purpose. This research is traveling to analyze the turnover purpose of IT professionals in _____________ .

Research Questions

The survey will reply the undermentioned two research inquiries:

  • Which occupation characteristic variable ( s ) causes the occupation satisfaction among IT professionals in ____________ ?
  • What occupation satisfaction variable ( s ) cause the turnover purpose among IT professionals in ____________ ?

In replying these two primary inquiries. the thesis will do usage of the undermentioned model:


  • Hypothesiss
    • Research Question 1

“Which occupation characteristic variable ( s ) causes the occupation satisfaction among IT professionals in _______________ ? ”

The first research inquiry will analyse the standardised consequence of occupation features to occupation satisfiers. The void hypotheses tested were:

Job Featuresa Job Satisfactions

  • H1: The degree of IT preparation does non impact the assorted steps of occupation satisfaction.
  • H2: The degree of user contact does non impact the assorted steps of occupation satisfaction.
  • H3: The job-required accomplishments do non impact the assorted steps of occupation satisfaction.
  • H4: The degree of undertaking significance does non impact occupation satisfaction.
  • H5: The sum of work load does non impact occupation satisfaction.
  • H6: The sum of feedback does non impact occupation satisfaction.

Research Question 2

“What occupation satisfaction variable ( s ) cause the turnover purpose among IT professionals in ________________ ? ”

The first research inquiry will analyse the standardised consequence of the occupation satisfaction graduated

tables to turnover purpose. The void hypotheses tested were:

Job SatisfactionsaEmployee turnover Purpose

  • H7: The degree of internal work motive does non impact turnover purpose.
  • H8: The degree of occupation security satisfaction does non impact turnover purpose.
  • H9: The degree of societal occupation satisfaction does non impact turnover purpose.
  • H10: The degree of occupation growing satisfaction does non impact turnover purpose.
  • H11: The degree of satisfaction with wage does non impact turnover purpose.
  • H12: The degree of satisfaction with supervising does non impact turnover purpose.
  • Research Procedures

Data Collection

Research is a procedure of analyzing and analysing situational factors of a specific job or issue in order to find solutions of it ( Cavana. Delahaye and Sekaran 2001 ) . Harmonizing to Cavana. Delahaye and Sekaran ( 2001 ) . there are three research paradigms: rationalist. interpretivist and critical research.

As the research hypotheses of this survey seek to research the relationships between occupation characteristic. occupation satisfaction and turnover purpose among the IT professionals in __________________ . the rationalist attack will be adopted and it will supply the model upon which the methodological analysis of this survey can be used.

In this survey. the research job requires primary informations to specifically turn to the 12 hypotheses. An Internet questionnaire will be used as it is the most effectual and appropriate informations aggregation method. “Questionnaire” is defined as a “pre-formulated written set of inquiries to which respondents recorded their replies within closely defined alternatives” ( Cavana. Delahaye and Sekaran. 2001 ) . A well-designed questionnaire provides accurate and functional informations for analysis in order to do a decision of accepting / rejecting a research hypothesis. A transcript of the questionnaire to be used is attached as Appendix A of this survey.

After garnering the information from questionnaires. the analysis of the informations ( including frequence distribution. correlativity analysis and arrested development analysis ) will be performed by a quantitative information analysis tool called SPSS ( Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ) . SPSS prognostic analytics progresss in serviceability and informations entree. pulling dependable decisions from the collected quantitative informations ( SPSS. Inc. 2002 ) . In depth quantitative analysis of the informations will be undertaken. Frequency Distribution. Correlation Analysis. and Regression Analysis will be used to analyse the collected information.

The population of this research is the _________ professionals in the state. The research is expected to hold a 10 % response rate ( i. e. ____ questionnaires ) . A reminder electronic mail will be sent to the pupils to guarantee making the planned response rate. Participants are non inconvenienced or exposed unnecessarily to possible injury by enrolling more than is required. The research conducted by Dore in 2004 ( which this paper intends to compare itself to ) merely received 326 responses which is less than 0. 1 % of the population.

An invitation electronic mail will be sent to the disposal directors of the participating establishments. Then the director will send on the invitation electronic mail to all qualified IT professionals and ask for them to make full in the Internet anon. questionnaire within 10 concern yearss. A reminder electronic mail will be sent by

the director on the 6th concern twenty-four hours. The invitation email merely contains a consent signifier and a URL to the Internet anon. questionnaire. Engagement is wholly voluntary. The participant can retreat at any clip and there will be no disadvantage if the participant decides non to finish the study. At no clip will any single be identified in any studies ensuing from this survey. A transcript of the consent signifier is attached with this application.

  • Variables

The variables which will used in this survey can be categorized into two classs: occupation features and occupation satisfaction. The factors within each class are discussed as follows:

The undermentioned occupation features for IT professionals were selected for this survey. based besides on old use in similar surveies as indicated in the literature reappraisal:

  • IT Training
  • User Contact
  • Job-required Skills
  • Undertaking Significance
  • Workload
  • Feedback

On the other manus. the occupation satisfaction graduated tables include the followers:

  • Internal Work Motivation
  • Job Security Satisfaction
  • Social Job Satisfaction
  • Job Growth Satisfaction
  • Satisfaction with Pay
  • Satisfaction with Supervision
  • Datas Analysis

The survey will do usage of descriptive and illative analysis were used throughout the survey. Descriptive statistics ( per centums. agencies. standard divergences. frequences. and point agencies ) were computed utilizing the SPSS ( SPSS. Inc. . 2002 ) . This all-purpose analysis plan will be used to qualify the sample in footings of demographic features refering to gender. income. instruction. age. old ages as an IT professional. old ages in the current organisation. and old ages in the current place. SPSS will likewise used to analyse the correlativity among occupation features. the correlativity between occupation satisfaction graduated tables. the correlativity between occupation satisfaction and occupation features. and the correlativity between occupation features. occupation satisfaction. and turnover purpose.

The primary illative technique that will be used is bivariate correlativity. SPSS will besides be used to analyse the arrested development analysis for the information. A 0. 01 degree of significance was adopted for proving significance. The standardised effects of all the occupation features for each occupation satisfier will besides be computed. The same method will be used to analyse the standardised consequence of all the occupation satisfaction graduated tables to turnover purpose. From these standardised consequence analyses. the anticipation of turnover purpose by occupation satisfaction graduated tables will be computed.

The occupation satisfaction graduated tables which had a 0. 60 degree were considered important to turnover purpose. The dependability coefficients runing between 0. 60 and 0. 70 are deemed equal for research intents ( Aiken. 2000. p. 88 ) . For intents of this survey. the occupation satisfiers and occupation features which have indirect effects of 0. 60 above significance to turnover purpose will be used. The standardised consequence of the important occupation characteristic will be multiplied to the standardised consequence of the peculiar occupation satisfier.

Each of the 12 hypotheses of this survey will be tested in basically six multiple arrested development analyses – one for each occupation satisfier as the invariable. independent variable and its relation to each dependant variable represented by the occupation features. Otherwise stated. each occupation satisfier will stand for a standard variable and the six occupation features will be

considered forecasters in each of the six arrested development analyses.


  1. Alexander. S. M. ( 1999. November 1 ) .The fast ones for retaining endowment. Crain’s Cleveland Business. T2-T3.
  2. Amabile. T. M. ( 1997 ) . Motivatingcreativeness in organisations: On making what you love and loving what you do. California Management Review. 40. 39-58.
  3. Cavana. R. Y. . Delahaye. B. L. . and U. Sekaran. ( 2001 ) .Applied Business Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods. John Wiley & A ; Sons Australia. Ltd. . Milton.
  4. Cohen. A. ( 1995 ) . An scrutiny of the relationships between work committedness and nonwork spheres.Human Relations.48. 239-263.
  5. Donovan. J. J. . and D. J. Radosevich. ( 1998 ) . The moderating function of end committedness on the end difficulty–performance relationship: a meta-analytic reappraisal and critical re-analysis.Journal of applied psychological science. 1998. 83:308–15.
  6. Dore . Timothy Lee. ( 2004 ) .The Relationships Between Job Characteristics. Job Satisfaction. and Turnover Intention Among Software Developers. Graduate School of Argosy University-Orange County.
  7. Douthit. M. W. . ( 2000 ) . Job satisfaction returns to human and societal capital.Journal of behavioural and applied direction. 2000. 1 ( 1 ) :67.
  8. Fisher. A. ( 2000. December 18 ) .Inspiring the burned-out computing machine coder. Fortune. 334.
  9. Guptill. B. Stewart. B. Maroccio. L. . Potter. K. and C. Claps ( 1999 ) . 1998 IT Spending and Staffing Survey Results.Gartner Group Strategic Analysis Report. April 1st.
  10. Hacker. C. A. ( 2003. Spring ) .Employee turnover: A soundless net income slayer. Information Systems Management. 14-18.
  11. Hackman JR. and GR Oldham. ( 1980 ) .Work design. Reading. Massachusetts. Addison–Wesley. 1980:114–21.
  12. Herzberg. F. ( 1968 ) .Work and the nature of adult male.Cleveland: World.
  13. Herzberg. F. ( 2003. January ) . Onemore clip: How do you actuate employees?Harvard Business Review. 87-96.
  14. Kochanski. J. . and G. Ledford. ( 2001 ) .‘How to maintain me’—Retaining proficient professionals. Research Technology Management. 44 ( 3 ) . 31-38.
  15. Kosseff. J. ( 1999. September 6 ) .Info-tech houses increase attempts to maintain workers. Crain’s Detroit Business. p. 21.
  16. McNee. B. Morello T. Zidar. E. and C. Smith ( 1998 ) . IT Staff Retention and Recruitment: Addressing a Critical Problem for the IS Organization.Gartner Group Strategic Analysis Report. September 28.
  17. Meyer. J. P. . and N. J. Allen. ( 1997 ) .Committedness in the Workplace. Sage Publications.
  18. Mohamed. A. H. ( 2004. May )Using the occupation features theoretical account to compare patient attention assignment methods of nurses. Vol. 10. No. 3. May 2004. p. 389-405. Department of Nursing Administration. Faculty of Nursing. University of Alexandria. Alexandria. Egypt.
  19. Morello. D. T. ( 1998 ) . IT keeping and enlisting: What has a twelvemonth brought?Gartner Group Monthly Research Review. September 01.
  20. Omachonu V. K. . Swift. J. A. . Ross. J. E. . explosive detection systems.Principles of entire quality. 3rd erectile dysfunction. Florida. St. Lucie Press. 1999:335.
  21. Organ D. W. . ( 1990 ) . The motivational Basis of Organizational Citizenship Behavior » In B. M.
  22. Pare . G. and Tremblay. M. ( 2000 ) . The Measurement and Antecedents of Turnover Intentions among IT Professionals.Scientific Series. Ciprano. September 2000.
  • Pfeffer. J. . & A ; Lawler. J. ( 1979 ) .The effects of jb options. extrinsic wagess. and committedness on satisfaction with the organisation: A field illustration of the deficient justification paradigm. Berkeley: University of California.
  • Pilon BA. Outcomes and surprises of work redesigning: how other leaders are get bying with alterations.Nursing Management. 1998. 29 ( 8 ) :44–5.
  • Porter. L. W. . and R. M. Steers. ( 1973 ) . Organizational. work and personal factors in employee turnover and absenteeism.Psychological Bulletin.80. 151-176.
  • Rouse. P. D. ( 2001 ) . Voluntary turnover related to information engineering professionals: A reappraisal of rational and instinctual theoretical accounts.International Journal of Organizational Analysis.9. 281-290.
  • Sabiston J. A. . and H. K. Laschinger ( 1995 ) . Staff nurse work authorization and perceived liberty.Journal of nursing disposal. 1995. 25 ( 9 ) :42–50.
  • SPSS. Inc. ( 2002 ) . Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( Version 11. 5 ) [ Computer package ] . Chicago. Illinois: SPSS. Inc.
  • Tips. R. M. . and R. T. Mowday. ( 1981 ) . Employee turnover and post-decision adjustment processes. In L. Cummings & A ; B. Staw ( Eds. ) .Research in Organizational Behavior( Vol. 3. pp. 235-281 ) .
  • Tips. R. M. . and J. C. Black.Organizational behaviour. 5th erectile dysfunction. New York. Harper Collins. 1994:95–101.
  • Thatcher. J. B. . Stepna. L. P. and R. J. Boyle ( 2002-03 ) . Employee turnover of information engineering workers: Examining through empirical observation the influence of attitudes. occupation features. and external markets.Journal of Management Information Systems. 19. 231-261.
  • Zetlin. M. ( 2001. June 4 ) .Model employers. Computerworld. 40-45.