cell membranes are _____% lipids by mass
what are the 3 types of membrane lipids?
1. phospholipids
2. glycosphingolipids
3. cholesterol
what is the most abundant lipid in cell membranes?
what is glycerophospolipids composed of?
-2 fatty acids
-amino alcohol
in glycerophospolipids the amino alcohol is attached through _____
phosphate ester
what are the 3 possible amino acids that could be part of glycerophospolipids?
glycerophospolipids lecithins contain?
glycerophospolipids cephalins contain?
ethanolamine or serine
where is lecithins found?
in egg yolks, wheat germ, yeast
what is lecithins used as?
cephalins are common in what kind of tissue?
nervous tissue
what is sphingolipids composed of?
-sphingosine (18 carbon amino dialcohol)
-1 fatty acid
-sometimes a phosphate/amino alcohol
where is sphingolipids important?
in membranes around brain & nervous tissues (myelin)
what do glycosphingolipids contain?
-fatty acid
glycosphingolipids are involved in?
-cellular recognition
-tissue immunity
-receptors for hormones
cerebrosides have carb that is ____ or ____
glucose or galactose
accounts for 7% of dry mass of brain
ganglisodes are carb that have _____
2 or more saccharide units
where is ganglisodes common?
a fused structure of 4 rings
steroid nucleus
what is the most abundant steroid in the body?
where is cholesterol found?
cell membrane
cholesterol is a starting material for?
bile salts
vitamin D
steroid hormones
cholesterol is found only in ____
cell membranes separate _____ from _____
cellular contents from the external environment
regulate flow in and out of cell
cell membrane
what is the phosopholipid bilayer?
-polar heads on surfaces
-nonpolar tails in the center
cell membranes also contain
what makes cell membrane fluid-like rather than rigid?
unsaturated fatty acids
the two proteins of fluid mosaic model are?
peripheral(on surface)
integral(pass completely through)
particles move from a higher to a lower concentration
diffusion(passive transport)
particles diffuse through “tunnels” created by integral proteins
facilitated transport
ions move against a concentration gradient so that means its going from low to high concentration
active transport
active transport requires?
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