ASCP-Chemistry Flash Cards – Flashcards

question
IU
answer
international unit
question
L
answer
liter
question
dL
answer
deciliter = 0.1 liter
question
g/dL
answer
g/dl = gram per deciliter
question
mg
answer
mg = milligram
question
mmol
answer
mmol = millimole
question
mEq
answer
mEq = milliequivalents
question
Types of monosaccharides, and what they are composed of:
answer
glucose and fructose (4-8 carbon atoms and a aldehyde or ketone group)
question
Oligiosaccharides are composed of:
answer
(2 to 6 molecules of simple sugars linked together)
question
Disaccharides are composed of:
answer
(2 monosaccharides)
question
Glycolysis
answer
Glucose-->Pyruvate<-->lactate
question
Glycogenesis
answer
Glucose-->Glycogen
question
Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
answer
Glucose--->pyruvate--->CO2 + H20+ ATP
question
Pentose Phosphate Pathway/ Hexose Monphosphate Shunt
answer
Glucose--->ribose + CO2 + NADPH
question
Uronic Acid Pathway
answer
Glucose--->Glucuronic Acid
question
Glycogenolysis
answer
Glycogen--->Glucose
question
Gluconeogenesis
answer
Noncarbohydrate sources--->glucose
question
What are the other hormones that increase blood glucose levels?
answer
Epinephrine, human growth hormone (hGH), cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroxine
question
Define Glycated hemoglobin:
answer
The Ketoamine structure where glucose is irreversibly bound to hemoglobin.
question
Define Glycosylated Hemoglobin:
answer
The reversible stage where glucose may equilibrate (attach and detach) with the hemoglin molecule.
question
HLP
answer
Hyperlipoproteinemia
question
TG
answer
Trigycerides
question
Chol
answer
Cholesterol
question
CM
answer
Chylomicrons
question
FFA
answer
Free Fatty Acids
question
Equation for Cholesterol
answer
[LDL-C]=[TC]-[HDL-C]-([TG]/5)
question
Define Lipid:
answer
Hydrophobic (nonpolar), organic molecules-insoluble in water, but readily soluble in organic solvents.
question
Define Lipoprotien:
answer
Complexes of lipids and proteins, act as vehicles for transporting lipids in the aqueous milieu of the circulatory system
question
What are Fatty Acids, and what do they do?
answer
carboxylic acids of straight-chain hydrocarbons. They provide energy through ?-oxidation.
question
What makes a Saturated Fat?
answer
all single bonds between carbons
question
What makes a Monounsaturated Fat
answer
One double bond in a chain
question
What makes a Polyunsaturated fat?
answer
more than one double bond in the chain
question
What is an essential fatty acid?
answer
a Linoleic or Linolenic acid which is two polyunsaturated fatty acids, that must come from dietary sources.
question
What is the most prevelant fat in the diet?
answer
Trigylcerides
question
Fat from animals
answer
saturated fatty acids, and solid at room temp
question
Fat from plant sources
answer
unsaturated fatty acids, liquid even upon refridgeration
question
Cholestrol is the precursor for:
answer
steroid hormones, vitamin D, and bile acids.
question
Where is Cholestrol synthesized
answer
Liver
question
Where are phospholipids synthesized
answer
liver
question
What are the Fat Soluble Vitamins
answer
Vitamins A, D, E, and K
question
Lipoprotien function
answer
transport lipids and facilitate the metabolism of lipids in the circulatory system
question
Info about Chylomicrons
answer
Lowest density lipoprotein, and mostly exogenous triglycerides from diet
question
Info about VLDL
answer
transports triglycerides synthesized in the liver
question
Info about Cholesterol
answer
the major component of LDL
question
Info about HDL
answer
high protein content with phospholipids and cholesterol as the major lipid components
question
What are Apolipoproteins?
answer
Participate in lipoprotein metabolism as enzyme activators, enzyme inhibitors, or binding sites for cellular receptors
question
apo AI and apo AII
answer
HDL
question
apo B-48
answer
Chylomicrons
question
apo B-100
answer
VLD, IDL, and LDL
question
apo CI, CII, and CIII
answer
chylomicrons and VLDL
question
apo E
answer
VLD and LDL
question
Lipoprotein(a)
answer
a variant of LDL in which a molecule of the protein apo(a) is bound to apo B-199
question
Albumin: LP name and Predominant Lipid
answer
No name, FFA
question
Alpha-1 (HDL): LP name and predominant lipid
answer
Alpha, phospholipids
question
Alpha-2 (VLDL): LP name and Predominant Lipid
answer
Trigylcerides
question
Alpha-2/Beta Bridge (IDL): LP name and Predominat Lipid
answer
Floating Beta, Cholesterol and Trigycerides
question
Beta: LP name and predominant lipid
answer
Beta, Cholesterol
question
Gamma: LP name, and predominant lipid
answer
no name, Chylomicrons
question
Specimen Requirements for Lipid Testing:
answer
1. Patient Fasting 2. Heparin plasma for Trigyceride assays 3.Disodium EDTA for Lipoprotein Electrophoresis 4. Serum OK if fresh, unhemolyzed, and immediately sperated from cells. Keep cold, and don't freeze. 5. mix well
question
What happens to lipids after Heart attack?
answer
all blood lipid leveles decrease
question
what happens to lipids during Heparin therapy?
answer
falsely decreased triglyceride levels
question
what happens to lipids with alchohol ingestion or abuse?
answer
Increase blood FFA level, increase VLDL production, increase blood Triglyceride level, and increase HDL
question
What happens to lipids with birth control or pregnancy?
answer
decrease in cholesterol (LDL) and FFA, and increase in Triglycerides
question
What happens to lipids with steroids, beta blockers?
answer
increase in serum trigylcerides (VLDL)
question
What happens to lipids in a bacteria-contaminated specimen?
answer
Smudging of the pattern, plus the Beta and Pre-Beta LPs migrate fater than normal towards the anode
question
Hypo-Beta Lipoproteinemia
answer
low serum cholesterol because of low LDL, cuase by underproduction of Apo-B.
question
Abetalipoproteinemia
answer
no LDL= low cholesterol levels
question
Hypo-Alpha-Lipoproteinemia
answer
underproduction of Apo-A, very low HDL levels, possible other lipids high
question
Tangier Disease
answer
no HDL, due to inability to produce Apo-A
question
Type I HLP
answer
lack of Lipoprotein Lipase, so CM can't be cleared from blood. Hi levels of CHOL and TG. Creamy layer of CM at the top.
question
Type II-A HLP
answer
caused by increase in LDL. Blood CHOL high, but TG normal. Serum is clear.
question
Type II-B HLP
answer
increase in LDL and VLDL. High CHOL and TG. Specium is faintly turbid due to the TG
question
Type III HLP:
answer
Floating Beta Band due to production of an abnormal lipoprotein (IDL). High CHOL and TG. Slighly turbid, and may or may not have CM present
question
Type IV HLP:
answer
most common, high TG, turbid serum
question
Type V HLP
answer
High TG and CHOL, turbid, with a creamy layer of CM at the top
question

Fasting Blood Glucouse (FBS)

 

[Reference Range]

answer

Serum:  70-110 mg/dL

CSF: 40-70 mg/DL

(or 2/3 of blood level)

question

Hbg A1-C

 

[Reference Range]

answer
5.0-9.0%
question

OGTT (adult, 75 g load)

 

[Reference Range]

answer

Fasting:  70-110 mg/dL

1/2 Hour:  Less than 170 mg/dL

1 Hour:  Less than 170 mg/dL

2 Hr:  Under 110 mg/dL

3 Hr:  Fasting level

4, 5 Hr:  Fasting level

question

Serum Osmolality

 

[Reference Range]

 

answer
289-308 mOsm/Kg
question

Urine, 24- Hour Osmality

 

[Reference Range]

 

answer

300-900 mOsm/Kg

 

 

question

Urine/Serum Osmolality Ratio

 

[Refence Range]

answer

Random 1.0-3.0

 

Should be greater than 3.0 after 12 hours fluid restriction

question

Adult Billirubin Values

 

[refence ranges]

answer

Total:  0.2-1.0 mg/dL

 

Direct:  0.0-0.4 mg/dL

question

Neonatal Bilirubin Values- 

(Total=Indirect Bilirubin)

 

 

[Refence range]

answer

Cord Blood:  less than 4.5 mg/dL

3 Day: Less than 7.0 mg/dL

5 Day: Less than 12.0 mg/dL

7 Day: Less than 7.0 mg/dL

question

Sodium

(mEq/L=mMol/L)

 

[Reference Range]

answer
Adult Plasma:  136-146 mMol/L
question

Potassium

(mEq/L=mMol/L)

 

[Reference Range]

answer

Adult: 3.5-5.1 mMol/L

Newborn: 3.7-5.9 mMol/L

question

Chloride

 

[Reference range]

answer

Plasma:  98-106 mMol/L

Sweat:  up to 35 mMol/L

question

Total CO2

 

[reference range]

answer

Venous:  23-30 mMol/L

Arterial: 22-29 mMol/L

Capillary:  22-20 mMol/L

question

Bicarbonate

 

[reference range]

 

answer

Venous: 22-20 mMol/L

Arterial: 21-28 mMol/L

Capillary:  21-28 mMol/L

question

Plasma Lactic Acid (lactate)

 

[reference range]

 

answer
0.5-1.9 mMol/L
question

Blood pH

 

[reference range]

answer

Venous:  7.32-7.42

Arterial:  7.35-7.45

Capillary:  7.35-7.45

question

Anion Gap

 

 

answer
12 mMol/L  (+/- 5 method)
question

Serum Calcium

 

[reference range]

answer

Children values slightly higher than adults

 

Total:  8.4-10.2 mg/dL

2.1-2.6 mMol/L

 

Ionized:  1.10-1.35 mMol/L

 

 

question

Serum Inorganic Phosphorous

 

[reference range]

answer

Adults:  3.0-4.5 mg/dL


Children:  4.5-6.5 mg/dL

 

question

Serum Magnesium

 

[reference range]

answer

1.6-2.3 mg/dL

 

0.65-1.05 mMol/L

question

Serum Iron

 

[reference range]

answer

Males:  50-170 ug/dL

 

Females:  30-160 ug/dL

question

Serum TIBC

 

[reference range]

answer
250-450 ug/dL
question

Transferrin Iron Saturation

 

[reference range]

answer
25%-55%
question

Plasma Ammonia Nitrogen

 

[reference range]

answer
7-27 uMol/L
question

BUN

 

[reference range]

answer
7-18 mg/dL
question

Urea

 

[reference range]

answer
15-38 mg/dL
question

Serum/Plasma Creatinine

 

[reference range]

answer

Males:  0.6-1.2 mg/dL

 

Females:  0.5-1.1 mg/dL

question

24-Hour Urine Creatinine

 

[reference range]

answer

Males:  800-1800 mg/Day

 

Females:  600-1600 mg/day

question

Creatinine Clearance (GFR)

 

[reference range]

answer

Males:  97-137  mL/min

 

Females:  88-128 mL/min

question

Uric Acid

(serum/plasma)

 

[reference range]

answer

Males:  3.5-7.2 mg/dL

 

Females:  2.6-6.0 mg/dL

 

question

Haptoglobin

 

[reference range]

answer

40-180 mg/dL

 

(as Hgb. binding capacity)

question

Total Protein

 

[reference range]

 

answer

6.0-8.2 g/dL

 

 

question

Albumin

 

[reference range]

answer
3.5-5.2 g/dL
question

A/G Ratio

 

[reference range]

answer
1.1-1.8
question

CSF Protein

 

[reference range]

answer
15-50 mg/dL
question

Urine Protein

 

[reference range]

answer

50-150 mg/day

 

or

 

< 10 mg/dL random

question

Total Cholestrol

 

[reference range]

answer

Optimal:  <200 mg/dL

Borderline:  200-239 mg/dL

High Risk:  > 240 mg/dL

question

LDL- Cholestrol

 

[reference range]

answer

Optimal:  <100 mg/dL

Above Optimal:  100-129

Borderline:  130-159

High Risk:  160-189

Very High: >190 mg/dL

question

HDL-Cholestrol

 

[reference range]

answer

Optimal:  >40 mg/dL

High Risk:  <40 mg/dL

question

Triglycerides

 

[reference range]

answer

Optimal:  <150 mg/dL

Borderline:  150-199

High Risk:  200-499

Verh High:  500 mg/dL and above

 

question

Total/HDL Cholestrol Ratio

 

[reference range]

answer
Average risk:  5.0
question

LDL/HDL Cholestrol Ratio

 

[reference range]

answer
Average Risk:  3.5
question

Amniotic Fluid L/S Ratio

 

(extremely dependent on method)

 

[reference range]

answer

Mature:  >2.0 with PG+

Borderline:  1.6-2.0 with PG-

Immature:  <1.5 with PG-

question

Total T4

 

[reference range]

answer
4.5-12.5 ug/dL
question

Total T3

 

[reference range]

answer
120-195 ng/dL
question

T3-Uptake

 

[reference range]

answer
25-37 %
question

TBG Saturation

 

[reference range]

answer
25-37%
question

TSH

 

[reference range]

answer
0.4-6.0 uU/mL
question

FTI

 

(31% method)

 

[reference range]

answer
3.6-14.9
question

Serum or Plasma Glucose

 

(kids and adults)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 40 mg/dL=  Brain damage

 

Above 450 mg/Dl=   Diabetic Coma

question

Plasma Glucose

 

(newborn infant-6 weeks)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 30 mg/dL=  brain damage

 

Above 300 mg/dL=   diabetic coma

question

Serum Total Bilirubin

 

(newborn-6 months of age)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Above 20.0 mg/dL

 

May Require an Emergency Exchange Transfusion

 

 

question

Potassium

 

(children and adults- serum or plasma)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 3.0 mMol/L=  Tetany, cardiac fibrillation

 

Above 6.1 mMol/L=  arrhythmias, cardiac failure  (evaluate for hemolysis)

question

Potassium

 

(newborn- serum or plasma)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 3.0 mMol/L=  Tetany, Cardiac Fibrillation

 

Above 6.6 mMol/L=  Arrythmias, cardiac failure (check for hemolysis)

question

Sodium 

 

(serum or plasma)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 120 mMol/L=  Vascular collapse, heart failure

 

Above 170 mMol/L=  Severe hypertension, stroke, heart failure

question

Serum Bicarbonate (or Total CO2)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 10 mMol/L=  Severe Metabolic ACIDosis

 

Above 55 mMol/L= Severe Metabolic ALKALosis

 

question

Blood pH

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below pH 7.20=  Severe ACIDosis

 

Above 7.6=  Severe ALKALosis

question

Serum or Plasma Calcium

 

(Total)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 6.0 mg/dL=  Tetany, convulsions  (check for wrong anticoagulants)

Above 13.0 mg/dL=  Coma

question

Serum, Plasma, or Whole Blood Calcium (Ionized)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 0.79 mMol/L=  Tetany, convulsions (check for wrong anticoagulants)

 

Above 1.57 mMol/L=  Coma

question

Serum or Plasma Inorganic Phosphorous

 

[Critical Value]

answer
Below 1.0 mg/dL=  Acidosis, seizures
question

Serum or Plasma Magnesium

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 1.0 mg/dL=  Tetany, convulsions (check for wrong anticoagulants)

 

Above 9.0 mg/dL=  Coma (evaluate for hemolysis)

Note:  Contamination from powdered gloves (talk is Mg++ and/or Ca++ Stearate) will cause drastic elevations in Calcium and/or Magnesium)

question

Serum or Plasma Lithium

 

[Critical Value]

answer
Above 1.5 mMol/L=  Coma
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question
IU
answer
international unit
question
L
answer
liter
question
dL
answer
deciliter = 0.1 liter
question
g/dL
answer
g/dl = gram per deciliter
question
mg
answer
mg = milligram
question
mmol
answer
mmol = millimole
question
mEq
answer
mEq = milliequivalents
question
Types of monosaccharides, and what they are composed of:
answer
glucose and fructose (4-8 carbon atoms and a aldehyde or ketone group)
question
Oligiosaccharides are composed of:
answer
(2 to 6 molecules of simple sugars linked together)
question
Disaccharides are composed of:
answer
(2 monosaccharides)
question
Glycolysis
answer
Glucose-->Pyruvate<-->lactate
question
Glycogenesis
answer
Glucose-->Glycogen
question
Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle
answer
Glucose--->pyruvate--->CO2 + H20+ ATP
question
Pentose Phosphate Pathway/ Hexose Monphosphate Shunt
answer
Glucose--->ribose + CO2 + NADPH
question
Uronic Acid Pathway
answer
Glucose--->Glucuronic Acid
question
Glycogenolysis
answer
Glycogen--->Glucose
question
Gluconeogenesis
answer
Noncarbohydrate sources--->glucose
question
What are the other hormones that increase blood glucose levels?
answer
Epinephrine, human growth hormone (hGH), cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroxine
question
Define Glycated hemoglobin:
answer
The Ketoamine structure where glucose is irreversibly bound to hemoglobin.
question
Define Glycosylated Hemoglobin:
answer
The reversible stage where glucose may equilibrate (attach and detach) with the hemoglin molecule.
question
HLP
answer
Hyperlipoproteinemia
question
TG
answer
Trigycerides
question
Chol
answer
Cholesterol
question
CM
answer
Chylomicrons
question
FFA
answer
Free Fatty Acids
question
Equation for Cholesterol
answer
[LDL-C]=[TC]-[HDL-C]-([TG]/5)
question
Define Lipid:
answer
Hydrophobic (nonpolar), organic molecules-insoluble in water, but readily soluble in organic solvents.
question
Define Lipoprotien:
answer
Complexes of lipids and proteins, act as vehicles for transporting lipids in the aqueous milieu of the circulatory system
question
What are Fatty Acids, and what do they do?
answer
carboxylic acids of straight-chain hydrocarbons. They provide energy through ?-oxidation.
question
What makes a Saturated Fat?
answer
all single bonds between carbons
question
What makes a Monounsaturated Fat
answer
One double bond in a chain
question
What makes a Polyunsaturated fat?
answer
more than one double bond in the chain
question
What is an essential fatty acid?
answer
a Linoleic or Linolenic acid which is two polyunsaturated fatty acids, that must come from dietary sources.
question
What is the most prevelant fat in the diet?
answer
Trigylcerides
question
Fat from animals
answer
saturated fatty acids, and solid at room temp
question
Fat from plant sources
answer
unsaturated fatty acids, liquid even upon refridgeration
question
Cholestrol is the precursor for:
answer
steroid hormones, vitamin D, and bile acids.
question
Where is Cholestrol synthesized
answer
Liver
question
Where are phospholipids synthesized
answer
liver
question
What are the Fat Soluble Vitamins
answer
Vitamins A, D, E, and K
question
Lipoprotien function
answer
transport lipids and facilitate the metabolism of lipids in the circulatory system
question
Info about Chylomicrons
answer
Lowest density lipoprotein, and mostly exogenous triglycerides from diet
question
Info about VLDL
answer
transports triglycerides synthesized in the liver
question
Info about Cholesterol
answer
the major component of LDL
question
Info about HDL
answer
high protein content with phospholipids and cholesterol as the major lipid components
question
What are Apolipoproteins?
answer
Participate in lipoprotein metabolism as enzyme activators, enzyme inhibitors, or binding sites for cellular receptors
question
apo AI and apo AII
answer
HDL
question
apo B-48
answer
Chylomicrons
question
apo B-100
answer
VLD, IDL, and LDL
question
apo CI, CII, and CIII
answer
chylomicrons and VLDL
question
apo E
answer
VLD and LDL
question
Lipoprotein(a)
answer
a variant of LDL in which a molecule of the protein apo(a) is bound to apo B-199
question
Albumin: LP name and Predominant Lipid
answer
No name, FFA
question
Alpha-1 (HDL): LP name and predominant lipid
answer
Alpha, phospholipids
question
Alpha-2 (VLDL): LP name and Predominant Lipid
answer
Trigylcerides
question
Alpha-2/Beta Bridge (IDL): LP name and Predominat Lipid
answer
Floating Beta, Cholesterol and Trigycerides
question
Beta: LP name and predominant lipid
answer
Beta, Cholesterol
question
Gamma: LP name, and predominant lipid
answer
no name, Chylomicrons
question
Specimen Requirements for Lipid Testing:
answer
1. Patient Fasting 2. Heparin plasma for Trigyceride assays 3.Disodium EDTA for Lipoprotein Electrophoresis 4. Serum OK if fresh, unhemolyzed, and immediately sperated from cells. Keep cold, and don't freeze. 5. mix well
question
What happens to lipids after Heart attack?
answer
all blood lipid leveles decrease
question
what happens to lipids during Heparin therapy?
answer
falsely decreased triglyceride levels
question
what happens to lipids with alchohol ingestion or abuse?
answer
Increase blood FFA level, increase VLDL production, increase blood Triglyceride level, and increase HDL
question
What happens to lipids with birth control or pregnancy?
answer
decrease in cholesterol (LDL) and FFA, and increase in Triglycerides
question
What happens to lipids with steroids, beta blockers?
answer
increase in serum trigylcerides (VLDL)
question
What happens to lipids in a bacteria-contaminated specimen?
answer
Smudging of the pattern, plus the Beta and Pre-Beta LPs migrate fater than normal towards the anode
question
Hypo-Beta Lipoproteinemia
answer
low serum cholesterol because of low LDL, cuase by underproduction of Apo-B.
question
Abetalipoproteinemia
answer
no LDL= low cholesterol levels
question
Hypo-Alpha-Lipoproteinemia
answer
underproduction of Apo-A, very low HDL levels, possible other lipids high
question
Tangier Disease
answer
no HDL, due to inability to produce Apo-A
question
Type I HLP
answer
lack of Lipoprotein Lipase, so CM can't be cleared from blood. Hi levels of CHOL and TG. Creamy layer of CM at the top.
question
Type II-A HLP
answer
caused by increase in LDL. Blood CHOL high, but TG normal. Serum is clear.
question
Type II-B HLP
answer
increase in LDL and VLDL. High CHOL and TG. Specium is faintly turbid due to the TG
question
Type III HLP:
answer
Floating Beta Band due to production of an abnormal lipoprotein (IDL). High CHOL and TG. Slighly turbid, and may or may not have CM present
question
Type IV HLP:
answer
most common, high TG, turbid serum
question
Type V HLP
answer
High TG and CHOL, turbid, with a creamy layer of CM at the top
question

Fasting Blood Glucouse (FBS)

 

[Reference Range]

answer

Serum:  70-110 mg/dL

CSF: 40-70 mg/DL

(or 2/3 of blood level)

question

Hbg A1-C

 

[Reference Range]

answer
5.0-9.0%
question

OGTT (adult, 75 g load)

 

[Reference Range]

answer

Fasting:  70-110 mg/dL

1/2 Hour:  Less than 170 mg/dL

1 Hour:  Less than 170 mg/dL

2 Hr:  Under 110 mg/dL

3 Hr:  Fasting level

4, 5 Hr:  Fasting level

question

Serum Osmolality

 

[Reference Range]

 

answer
289-308 mOsm/Kg
question

Urine, 24- Hour Osmality

 

[Reference Range]

 

answer

300-900 mOsm/Kg

 

 

question

Urine/Serum Osmolality Ratio

 

[Refence Range]

answer

Random 1.0-3.0

 

Should be greater than 3.0 after 12 hours fluid restriction

question

Adult Billirubin Values

 

[refence ranges]

answer

Total:  0.2-1.0 mg/dL

 

Direct:  0.0-0.4 mg/dL

question

Neonatal Bilirubin Values- 

(Total=Indirect Bilirubin)

 

 

[Refence range]

answer

Cord Blood:  less than 4.5 mg/dL

3 Day: Less than 7.0 mg/dL

5 Day: Less than 12.0 mg/dL

7 Day: Less than 7.0 mg/dL

question

Sodium

(mEq/L=mMol/L)

 

[Reference Range]

answer
Adult Plasma:  136-146 mMol/L
question

Potassium

(mEq/L=mMol/L)

 

[Reference Range]

answer

Adult: 3.5-5.1 mMol/L

Newborn: 3.7-5.9 mMol/L

question

Chloride

 

[Reference range]

answer

Plasma:  98-106 mMol/L

Sweat:  up to 35 mMol/L

question

Total CO2

 

[reference range]

answer

Venous:  23-30 mMol/L

Arterial: 22-29 mMol/L

Capillary:  22-20 mMol/L

question

Bicarbonate

 

[reference range]

 

answer

Venous: 22-20 mMol/L

Arterial: 21-28 mMol/L

Capillary:  21-28 mMol/L

question

Plasma Lactic Acid (lactate)

 

[reference range]

 

answer
0.5-1.9 mMol/L
question

Blood pH

 

[reference range]

answer

Venous:  7.32-7.42

Arterial:  7.35-7.45

Capillary:  7.35-7.45

question

Anion Gap

 

 

answer
12 mMol/L  (+/- 5 method)
question

Serum Calcium

 

[reference range]

answer

Children values slightly higher than adults

 

Total:  8.4-10.2 mg/dL

2.1-2.6 mMol/L

 

Ionized:  1.10-1.35 mMol/L

 

 

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Serum Inorganic Phosphorous

 

[reference range]

answer

Adults:  3.0-4.5 mg/dL


Children:  4.5-6.5 mg/dL

 

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Serum Magnesium

 

[reference range]

answer

1.6-2.3 mg/dL

 

0.65-1.05 mMol/L

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Serum Iron

 

[reference range]

answer

Males:  50-170 ug/dL

 

Females:  30-160 ug/dL

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Serum TIBC

 

[reference range]

answer
250-450 ug/dL
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Transferrin Iron Saturation

 

[reference range]

answer
25%-55%
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Plasma Ammonia Nitrogen

 

[reference range]

answer
7-27 uMol/L
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BUN

 

[reference range]

answer
7-18 mg/dL
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Urea

 

[reference range]

answer
15-38 mg/dL
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Serum/Plasma Creatinine

 

[reference range]

answer

Males:  0.6-1.2 mg/dL

 

Females:  0.5-1.1 mg/dL

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24-Hour Urine Creatinine

 

[reference range]

answer

Males:  800-1800 mg/Day

 

Females:  600-1600 mg/day

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Creatinine Clearance (GFR)

 

[reference range]

answer

Males:  97-137  mL/min

 

Females:  88-128 mL/min

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Uric Acid

(serum/plasma)

 

[reference range]

answer

Males:  3.5-7.2 mg/dL

 

Females:  2.6-6.0 mg/dL

 

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Haptoglobin

 

[reference range]

answer

40-180 mg/dL

 

(as Hgb. binding capacity)

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Total Protein

 

[reference range]

 

answer

6.0-8.2 g/dL

 

 

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Albumin

 

[reference range]

answer
3.5-5.2 g/dL
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A/G Ratio

 

[reference range]

answer
1.1-1.8
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CSF Protein

 

[reference range]

answer
15-50 mg/dL
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Urine Protein

 

[reference range]

answer

50-150 mg/day

 

or

 

< 10 mg/dL random

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Total Cholestrol

 

[reference range]

answer

Optimal:  <200 mg/dL

Borderline:  200-239 mg/dL

High Risk:  > 240 mg/dL

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LDL- Cholestrol

 

[reference range]

answer

Optimal:  <100 mg/dL

Above Optimal:  100-129

Borderline:  130-159

High Risk:  160-189

Very High: >190 mg/dL

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HDL-Cholestrol

 

[reference range]

answer

Optimal:  >40 mg/dL

High Risk:  <40 mg/dL

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Triglycerides

 

[reference range]

answer

Optimal:  <150 mg/dL

Borderline:  150-199

High Risk:  200-499

Verh High:  500 mg/dL and above

 

question

Total/HDL Cholestrol Ratio

 

[reference range]

answer
Average risk:  5.0
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LDL/HDL Cholestrol Ratio

 

[reference range]

answer
Average Risk:  3.5
question

Amniotic Fluid L/S Ratio

 

(extremely dependent on method)

 

[reference range]

answer

Mature:  >2.0 with PG+

Borderline:  1.6-2.0 with PG-

Immature:  <1.5 with PG-

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Total T4

 

[reference range]

answer
4.5-12.5 ug/dL
question

Total T3

 

[reference range]

answer
120-195 ng/dL
question

T3-Uptake

 

[reference range]

answer
25-37 %
question

TBG Saturation

 

[reference range]

answer
25-37%
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TSH

 

[reference range]

answer
0.4-6.0 uU/mL
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FTI

 

(31% method)

 

[reference range]

answer
3.6-14.9
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Serum or Plasma Glucose

 

(kids and adults)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 40 mg/dL=  Brain damage

 

Above 450 mg/Dl=   Diabetic Coma

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Plasma Glucose

 

(newborn infant-6 weeks)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 30 mg/dL=  brain damage

 

Above 300 mg/dL=   diabetic coma

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Serum Total Bilirubin

 

(newborn-6 months of age)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Above 20.0 mg/dL

 

May Require an Emergency Exchange Transfusion

 

 

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Potassium

 

(children and adults- serum or plasma)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 3.0 mMol/L=  Tetany, cardiac fibrillation

 

Above 6.1 mMol/L=  arrhythmias, cardiac failure  (evaluate for hemolysis)

question

Potassium

 

(newborn- serum or plasma)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 3.0 mMol/L=  Tetany, Cardiac Fibrillation

 

Above 6.6 mMol/L=  Arrythmias, cardiac failure (check for hemolysis)

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Sodium 

 

(serum or plasma)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 120 mMol/L=  Vascular collapse, heart failure

 

Above 170 mMol/L=  Severe hypertension, stroke, heart failure

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Serum Bicarbonate (or Total CO2)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 10 mMol/L=  Severe Metabolic ACIDosis

 

Above 55 mMol/L= Severe Metabolic ALKALosis

 

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Blood pH

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below pH 7.20=  Severe ACIDosis

 

Above 7.6=  Severe ALKALosis

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Serum or Plasma Calcium

 

(Total)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 6.0 mg/dL=  Tetany, convulsions  (check for wrong anticoagulants)

Above 13.0 mg/dL=  Coma

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Serum, Plasma, or Whole Blood Calcium (Ionized)

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 0.79 mMol/L=  Tetany, convulsions (check for wrong anticoagulants)

 

Above 1.57 mMol/L=  Coma

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Serum or Plasma Inorganic Phosphorous

 

[Critical Value]

answer
Below 1.0 mg/dL=  Acidosis, seizures
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Serum or Plasma Magnesium

 

[Critical Value]

answer

Below 1.0 mg/dL=  Tetany, convulsions (check for wrong anticoagulants)

 

Above 9.0 mg/dL=  Coma (evaluate for hemolysis)

Note:  Contamination from powdered gloves (talk is Mg++ and/or Ca++ Stearate) will cause drastic elevations in Calcium and/or Magnesium)

question

Serum or Plasma Lithium

 

[Critical Value]

answer
Above 1.5 mMol/L=  Coma