Civics and Economics Part 1

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Because of the Constitutional principle of _______, the central government must share power with local and state governments.
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federalism
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Which of the following was written in an effort to encourage the ratification of the Constitution?
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Federalist Papers
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Which political principle is located in the Bill of Rights?
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freedom of religion
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Which of the following explains the significance of the Mayflower Compact as it relates to the history of the United States?
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It was the first document to establish a government that ruled with the consent of the governed
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John Locke wrote that, according to social contract, every person is entitled to the natural rights of life, liberty, and estate. How does this differ from the text of the Declaration of Independence?
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The Declaration does not list “estate” as a natural right.
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“I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” – Voltaire Based on the quote, Voltaire agrees with the United States democratic ideal that…
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humans have the right to freedom of speech
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I have never believed that man’s freedom consisted in doing what he wants, but rather in never doing what he does not want to do. – excerpt from Reveries of a Solitary Walker by Jean-Jacques Rousseau This quote by Rousseau mirrors a common Enlightenment view that…
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humans can reason and choose their own destiny.
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While Alexander Hamilton supported merchants, Thomas Jefferson was more sympathetic toward the needs of…
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farmers
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Which convention of American government reflects the principle of popular sovereignty?
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The House of Representatives is composed of individuals elected every two years directly by the people
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When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty; because apprehensions may arise, lest the same monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws, to execute them in a tyrannical manner. – excerpt from The Spirit of the Laws by Charles de Montesquieu Montesquieu’s statement aligns with which democratic principle of government?
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multiple branches of government
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Politicians who supported the ratification of the Constitution were known as Federalists. Why were the Federalists in favor of the Constitution?
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They wanted a strong central government
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John Adams was the first president of the U.S. to belong to a political party. Parties arose during the presidency of George Washington and were sharply divided on the issue of…
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how powerful the federal government should be.
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Montesquieu’s Spirit of the Laws influenced which core democratic value in the United States Constitution?
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the separation of powers between branches of government
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“We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.” – Preamble, United States Constitution Which American ideal is expressed in the preamble of the United States Constitution?
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popular sovereignty
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Which statement best describes a weakness of the Articles of Confederation?
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The powers of Congress were weak.
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-The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it. -No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. -No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken. -No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. -No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another. -No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time. The provisions above, all included in the U.S. Constitution, are designed to uphold the principle of…
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limited government.
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-Government is legitimate only if the people consent to its authority. -If consent is not given to government by the people, the people have the right to rebel. -Government must protect natural rights (rights all people are born with) The ideas above are attributed to which of these people?
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John Locke
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The Constitutional Convention of 1787 in Philadelphia was made up of 55 men who drafted the U.S. Constitution. Which of the following was a major topic of debate throughout the drafting process?
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representation of large and small states
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Which statement best describes why the Americans created a loose confederation of states in the Articles of Confederation?
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They did not want a central authority like the British system. representation of large and small states
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How does the U.S. Constitution reflect the democratic principle of rule of law?
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The Constitution insures that laws are applied equally to all citizens.
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Which of the following best describes the influence John Locke’s Second Treatise had on the U.S. Constitution?
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Locke believed that political society was created to protect individual rights.
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How does organized crime represent a threat to the rule of law?
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It usually involves collaboration among criminals, politicians, and police.
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How does the system of governmental checks and balances work?
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It protects liberty and limits any one branch of government form having too much power. It usually involves collaboration among criminals, politicians, and police.
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Which best describes the Enlightenment’s impact on democracy?
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The Enlightenment inspired democratic ideas about the rights of man.
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“We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.” – Preamble, U.S. Constitution How does the Preamble to the United States Constitution suggest the political principle of the social compact?
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The Constitution and government are established by the people.
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Which of these was created to build a common or shared sense of nationalism in American civic culture?
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Pledge of Allegiance
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Which of the following statements about the Federalist Papers is true?
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They consisted of 85 essays that argued in favor of the ratification of the Constitution and originally appeared in New York newspapers to explain to citizens how the new government would work.
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Identify fundamental American values in the constitutional principle of rule of law.
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equality and justice
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Charles-Louis Montesquieu was a French political thinker known for his…
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theory of separation of powers.
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Patrick Henry was a leading Anti-Federalist who was against the adoption of the U.S. Constitution. He believed the new federal government would be too powerful. Patrick Henry was influential in the adoption of which of these pieces of legislation?
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the Bill of Rights
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Which part of the U.S. Constitution most supports the American ideal of “equality and justice for all”?
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Fourteenth Amendment
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All… will bear in mind this sacred principle, that though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will to be rightful must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, which equal law must protect, and to violate would be oppression. Let us, then, fellow-citizens, unite with one heart and one mind. – Thomas Jefferson What democratic principle is most similar to the quotation used here?
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individual rights
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The _______, written in 1776, is historically significant because it argued for equality among citizens and effective government serving the people
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Declaration of Independence
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Thomas Hobbes was an Enlightenment thinker considered to be the originator of social contract theory. According to Hobbes and his ideas on social contract, which of the following would be true?
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People give up certain rights to a government in order to maintain social order.
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Why was the Magna Carta, signed in 1215, historically significant to the development of democratic governments?
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The document established the principle that no person is above the law and that the government must follow its own laws in its dealings with its citizens.
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Marbury v. Madison, an 1803 court case, affirmed which power of the Supreme Court?
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power to determine whether a law is constitutional
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Thomas Jefferson based concepts in the Declaration of Independence on philosophies from the Enlightenment. The ideas of the unalienable rights of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” are based on which of these political principles?
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natural rights
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How did Enlightenment philosophies impact the American Revolution?
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It motivated the colonists to unite and stand up for their rights.
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Why was Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson opposed to the creation of a national bank?
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He felt that the Constitution did not authorize the government to create a bank
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We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. – Preamble of the United States Constitution The idea of popular sovereignty is most related to which of the following statements from the preamble of the U.S. Constitution?
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“We the people of the United States”
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The Magna Carta required the king (as executive) to be bound by law. Which of these statements best reflects how this idea applies to the U.S. Bill of Rights?
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The government is not above the law and the will of the people.
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– Magna Carta – English Bill of Rights – Declaration of Independence The documents in the box above all…
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express principles that helped to shape the United States government.

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