Disasters Midterm 7-11 – Flashcards

question
This volcanic feature forms by the explosion and collapse of a volcano summit to form a basin at the summit of the volcano?
answer
caldera
question
Capulin's volcano in New Mexico and Sunset Crater in Arizona are both?
answer
scoria cone
question
Brief eruptions of pyroclastic material produces these steep-sided volcanoes often slopes of 30-35 degrees that are seldom more than 500-1000 meters in height?
answer
scoria cone
question
Which igneous rock type is produced at spreading ocean ridges?
answer
basalt
question
A particular type of mudflow or debris flow composed of mixture of pyroclastic material and water which flows rapidly down volcanic slopes with tremendous force is called a?
answer
lahar
question
Extinct volcanoes are ones that have not been active or shown any signs of activity in the form of gas emissions, geothermal activity, earthquakes or ground subsidence and uplift during the past how many years?
answer
10,000 years
question
Hydrovolcanic eruptions are rarely explosive
answer
false
question
This type of volcanic rock is intermediate in composition between basal rhyolite?
answer
andesite
question
Mt. Rainier, Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. Fiji are all examples of what type of volcano?
answer
stratovolcano
question
This style of eruption involves rhyolitic and andesitic magmas and usually begins with very powerful explosive eruptions of incandescent pyroclastic flows capable of sweeping away even the strongest structure
answer
peleean
question
This type of volcanic rock is often buoyant enough to float on seawater?
answer
pumice
question
What kind of volcano is Mauna Loa in Hawaii?
answer
shield volcano
question
This region of the Pacific Northwest was formed by voluminous fissure eruptions?
answer
columbia river plateau
question
Formation of this feature occurs after the explosive phase of an eruption when the magma becomes depleted in volatiles or gasses with the reduction of gas the viscous lava rises out of the vent to produce this feature in the summit crater?
answer
lava dome
question
Volcanoes with magma of high silica content are generally more explosive than those with magma of low silica content?
answer
true
question
What term describes a variety of volcanic eruptions from small to ones with an eruptive column of around a kilometer? This style of eruption is short lived and ejects viscous or pasty lava tens or hundreds of meters in the air.
answer
strombolian
question
This national park features a lake within a caldera?
answer
crater lake
question
Pyroclastic flows move much faster than basalt flows?
answer
true
question
Volcanoes of this type have steep slopes as much as 30 degrees near the summit and tapering down to four or five degrees near the base and are composed of igneous rocks from flows and pyroclastic material?
answer
stratovolcano
question
The various types of volcanic debris hat settles out of the air are called?
answer
pyroclasic
question
Santorini is in
answer
greece
question
The name Minoan was given to the Bronze Age civilization of Crete by British Archaeologist Arthur Evans who named them after
answer
the Greek mythical king Minos
question
The center of the Bronze Age civilization of Minoans was on the island of
answer
Crete
question
What happened to the center of Minoan civilization in Crete when Santorini exploded?
answer
devastated by earthquakes and tsunami
question
The volume of erupted material ranks Santorini how in regards to historic volcanic eruptions
answer
second
question
Minoan civilization flourished before which of these civilizations
answer
all of these
question
Radio carbon agres suggest that the Santorini eruption occurred when
answer
1627-1600 BC
question
Of the Cyclades group of Aegean Sea Islands represents the submerged tops of mountains composed of continental crust
answer
true
question
Subduction of this plate and the magma it generates by the subduction has helped create the
answer
South Aegean volcanic arc
question
Minoan art was produced strictly for political, religious, or other social purposes
answer
false
question
Not long after the eruption of Santorini this cilization replaced the Minonans as the power in the region
answer
Mycenean
question
What famous myth has the destruction of Santorini been associated with?
answer
Atlantis
question
script of Minoans is
answer
linear A
question
Santorini is at the boundary of these 2 lithospheric plates
answer
African and the Aegean subplate
question
Minoan women had a measure of equality greater than most of the ancient world
answer
true
question
What style of eruption was Santorini
answer
plinian
question
Does the Post-Minoan eruption and volcanic history of Santorini indicate that it is an active volcano
answer
yes
question
The end of the Santorini was marked by formation of a large submarine caldera
answer
true
question
A famous archaeological excavation on Santorini is
answer
akrotiri
question
The rectangular lagoon surrounded by Santorni islands is
answer
caldera
question
How did Minoans accumulate wealth?
answer
maritime traders
question
What happened to the people of santorini when the eruption occurred
answer
most fled
question
A sliver of this tectonic plate is subducting under Italy
answer
african
question
What types of artifacts have been found in Herculaneum and Pompeii?
answer
all of these
question
The eyewitness to the Vesuvius eruptions described the eruption column as looking like
answer
an umbrella pine
question
Herculaneum and Pompeii were both buried by
answer
pyroclastic flows/surges
question
Deeper layers of pumice mark ancient eruptions, older than the Vesuvius eruption that buried
answer
Herculaneum and Pompeii
question
The Italian government supports a volcano observatory to monitor Vesuvius and has mapped volcanic hazards in the region
answer
true
question
Which buried city was explored and exploited for artifacts by tunnels long before open excavation began?
answer
herculaneum
question
The most voluminous rock constituent of Vesuvius pyroclastic flow is
answer
pumice
question
What is the name of the subduction zone along the Adriatic margin of Italy?
answer
calabrian subduction zone
question
Most of the eruptions of Mt. Vesuvius are of what eruptive style?
answer
plinian-pellean
question
Collapse of the Vesuvius eruption column caused how many pyroclastic flows/surges down the south and west volcano slopes
answer
six
question
A detailed account of the Vesuvius eruption was made by
answer
Pliny the Younger
question
An eruption of Mt. Vesuvius buried Pompeii and Herculaneum in the year of
answer
79 AD
question
The pyroclastic surges of Vesuvius raced down slop at 100 to 300 km/hr and with a temperature over 100 degrees Celsius
answer
true
question
Mt. Vesuvius occupies this historic region of Italy
answer
the campanian plain
question
What very large modern metropolitan city is only a short distance from Mt Vesuvius?
answer
Naples
question
What was the name of the commander of the Roman fleet at Misenum who died on a rescue mission to Stabiae near Pompeii?
answer
Pliny the Elder
question
Herculaneum and Pompeii are now on the coast but were several miles inland at the time of Vesuvius's eruption
answer
false
question
An even larger eruption of Vesuvius occurred in about 1780 BECAUSE and has been named the
answer
Avellino eruption explosion
question
The largest pyroclastic surge from Vesuvius reached all the way to
answer
Misenum across the bay of naples
question
Mt. Vesuvius is considered an active volcano
answer
true
question
Which city was buried more deeply, Herculaneum or Pompeii?
answer
herculaneum
question
Naples is not among the top ten largest population centers threatened by a volcanic hazard
answer
false
question
Which city was hit first by Vesuvius pyroclastic flows?
answer
herculaneum
question
Which of these volcanic areas are also associated with the Italian volcanic arc?
answer
all of these
question
This volcanic area in Naples is home to 200,000 people and experiences significant vertical movement from magma causing ground swelling and contraction
answer
phlegreaen fields
question
Animals killed by "tainted air" less than twenty years prior to the burial of Herculaneum and Pompeii were probably killed by gaseous emissions from fumaroles
answer
true
question
The destruction of Herculaneum and Pompeii and surrounding villages was done over how long a period of time?
answer
24 hours
question
Pyroclastic flows into the bay of Naples caused at least one tsunami
answer
true
question
Some buildings in Pompeii exhibit evidence of earthquake damage from 63 AD that was not yet repaired when the Vesuvius eruption occurred
answer
true
question
The recent eruption of this Icelandic volcano caused the cancellation of thousands of trans-Atlantic and European airline flights
answer
Eyjafjallajokull
question
Icelandic fissure eruptions often are characterized by lava fountaining
answer
true
question
Melting ice in contact with magma makes for quiet non-explosive volcanic eruptions
answer
false
question
the eruption of this volcano was the largest (in volume) basaltic eruption during historic time
answer
Laki
question
Until WWII, Iceland was a territory of this European country
answer
Denmark
question
the winter following the eruption of Lake was unusually severe in Europe and North America
answer
true
question
The year of the Laki eruption this famous American suggested a link bw the volcanic eruption in Iceland and the unusual weather and atmospheric conditions experienced in Europe
answer
Ben Franklin
question
Most of Iceland's livestock died from what byproduct of the Laki eruptions?
answer
skeletal fluorosis
question
The capital of Iceland is
answer
Reykjavik
question
The volcanic eruptions at Laki were
answer
all of these
question
Most fissure eruptions occur in this region than any other region on earth
answer
Iceland
question
Subglacial eruptions can melt massive amounts of ice causing flash floods called
answer
jokulhlaups
question
The great loss if human and animal lives in Iceland after the Laki eruption were causes by
answer
"the Mist Hardship"
question
Basaltic lava fountains occur both in Hawaii and Iceland
answer
true
question
Laki erupted what year?
answer
1783
question
The laki eruption occurred in which country?
answer
Iceland
question
The Laki volcanic region lies almost directly over
answer
a mantle plume
question
flat topped, volcanic summit formed from a subglacial eruption is called a
answer
moberg
question
Which country is the most active volcanic region in the world?
answer
Iceland
question
Iceland is on what plate boundary?
answer
the mid-atlantic ridge
question
What caused the deadly tsunami associated with the Tambora eruption?
answer
pyroclastic flows on the ocean
question
A great deal of our information about the eruption of Tambora comes from the Lt. Governor of the territory who was
answer
thomas raffles
question
The volcano Tambora is on an island, one of many belonging to this island archipelago country
answer
Indonesia
question
The large eruption of columns of Tambora were of this style
answer
Plinian
question
A book titled The Last Great Subsistence of Crisis in the Western-World refers to the period after the Napoleonic Wars and the climate problems caused by the eruption of
answer
Tambora
question
An increase in atmospheric aerosols can cause the atmosphere to cool
answer
true
question
The Tambora increase in atmospheric aerosols was preserved and measured in
answer
ice cores
question
What type of volcano is Tambora?
answer
stratovolcano
question
The volcanic activity at Tambora is a consequence of subduction into what nearby trench?
answer
sunda
question
Which of the following contribute to the aerosol content of the atmosphere?
answer
all of these
question
Which of the following eruptions involved the greatest volume of erupted material?
answer
Tambora
question
The summer of 1816 was so cold that it is known as
answer
the year without summer
question
Increasing atmospheric aerosols can cause a decrease in rainfall
answer
true
question
No trace has ever been found of the village of Tambora, buried by the eruption?
answer
false
question
The largest numbers of casualties from the Tambora eruption were from what?
answer
a tsunami
question
The greatest volume of erupted material from Tambora was
answer
tephra
question
A great deal of our information about the eruption of Tambora comes from the Lt. Governor of the territory who was
answer
Thomas Raffles
question
Today Tambora has a very prominent, large, and deep caldera
answer
true
question
Dry Fog is
answer
Caused by large concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere
question
Were it not for the cold Swiss summer following Tambora eruption, John William Polidori may not have introduced this genre of creatures to the world
answer
vampires
question
Months after the Tambora eruption, large quantities of this material were found floating thousands of kilometers from Tambora
answer
pumice
question
Tambora's last large eruption occurred what year
answer
1815
question
In the vicinity of Tambora, post-eruption problems for local populations did not include
answer
cold conditions
question
How does the Tambora eruption rank in terms of the greatest loss of life (directly or indirectly) from a volcanic eruption?
answer
first
question
Which volcanic eruption was the largest explosive eruption of the last 100,000 years?
answer
Tambora
question
Mary Shelley began this famous book while the guest of Lord Byron during the cold Swiss summer following the Tambora eruption
answer
the modern prometheus or frankenstein
question
Some of the landscape sunsets of this artist appear to have ben inspired by the colorful sunsets following the Tambora eruption
answer
William Turner
question
The large eruption columns of Tambora were of this style
answer
plinian
question
At the time of the Tambora eruption what colonial power was in control of the territory?
answer
britain
question
Scientists believe the pyroclastic flows/surges of Tambora were caused by
answer
collapse of the eruption column
question
Livestock deaths are often reported because of fluorine poisoning near the sites of volcanic eruptions
answer
true
question
The release of huge quantities of this gas by Tambora caused acid rain over a large area
answer
chlorine
question
The highest eruption clouds from Tambora reached a maximum altitude of
answer
30-40 km
question
The eruption of this volcano was basaltic
answer
Laki
question
Which type of volcano is characterized by gentle slopes of less than 15 degrees and is generally basaltic in composition?
answer
shield volcano
question
Basaltic flow tops with a ropey appearance are known by the Hawaiian name
answer
Pahoehoe
question
Rhyolitic and andesitic eruptions, basaltic eruptions are incapable of causing temporary global cooling
answer
false
question
Dates for the Santorini eruption are provided by
answer
radio carbon analysis and tree ring dates
question
This individual, the Lt. Gov. of Java, provided a great deal
answer
Raffles
question
Lava once poured from the Laki fissure at a rate comparable to 85% of the discharge rate of this major river
answer
Amazon
question
The Pillars of Hercules as described in antiquity is a reference to what?
answer
Striats of Gibraltar
question
Most of the erupted Laki material was by
answer
fissure eruption
question
The last eruption of Vesuvius was how many years ago
answer
less than 100 years ago
question
A volcanic ash horizon form the eruption of this volcano is important for the alignment of the eastern Mediterranean archeology record of the second millennium BC
answer
santorini
question
Indonesia has approximately how many volcanoes
answer
more than 150
question
This volcanic rock is similar to pumice but produced by basaltic eruptions
answer
scoria
question
The volcanic explosively index ranges from 0 to 8. What was the index of the last major prehistoric eruption of Yellowstone?
answer
8
question
Most of the volcanic material that buried Pompeii and Herculaneum was
answer
ash and pumice
question
More people died from indirect effects of Tambora than from immediate direct effects
answer
true
question
The collapse of Plininan eruption columns can case pumice-rich _____ to rapidly inundate the flanks and surrounding regions of a stratovolcaone
answer
pyroclastic flows
question
Vesuvius, Laki, Santorini, are all considered active volcanoes
answer
true
question
The agricultural disaster caused by global cooling after the eruption of this volcano caused what has been called the last great sustenance crisis
answer
tambora
question
A tsunami, contemporaneous with the Santorini eruption, hit Crete and probably was caused by
answer
collapse of santorini caldera
question
Lava of what composition is thicker or more viscous and has higher silica content?
answer
rhyolitic
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question
This volcanic feature forms by the explosion and collapse of a volcano summit to form a basin at the summit of the volcano?
answer
caldera
question
Capulin's volcano in New Mexico and Sunset Crater in Arizona are both?
answer
scoria cone
question
Brief eruptions of pyroclastic material produces these steep-sided volcanoes often slopes of 30-35 degrees that are seldom more than 500-1000 meters in height?
answer
scoria cone
question
Which igneous rock type is produced at spreading ocean ridges?
answer
basalt
question
A particular type of mudflow or debris flow composed of mixture of pyroclastic material and water which flows rapidly down volcanic slopes with tremendous force is called a?
answer
lahar
question
Extinct volcanoes are ones that have not been active or shown any signs of activity in the form of gas emissions, geothermal activity, earthquakes or ground subsidence and uplift during the past how many years?
answer
10,000 years
question
Hydrovolcanic eruptions are rarely explosive
answer
false
question
This type of volcanic rock is intermediate in composition between basal rhyolite?
answer
andesite
question
Mt. Rainier, Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. Fiji are all examples of what type of volcano?
answer
stratovolcano
question
This style of eruption involves rhyolitic and andesitic magmas and usually begins with very powerful explosive eruptions of incandescent pyroclastic flows capable of sweeping away even the strongest structure
answer
peleean
question
This type of volcanic rock is often buoyant enough to float on seawater?
answer
pumice
question
What kind of volcano is Mauna Loa in Hawaii?
answer
shield volcano
question
This region of the Pacific Northwest was formed by voluminous fissure eruptions?
answer
columbia river plateau
question
Formation of this feature occurs after the explosive phase of an eruption when the magma becomes depleted in volatiles or gasses with the reduction of gas the viscous lava rises out of the vent to produce this feature in the summit crater?
answer
lava dome
question
Volcanoes with magma of high silica content are generally more explosive than those with magma of low silica content?
answer
true
question
What term describes a variety of volcanic eruptions from small to ones with an eruptive column of around a kilometer? This style of eruption is short lived and ejects viscous or pasty lava tens or hundreds of meters in the air.
answer
strombolian
question
This national park features a lake within a caldera?
answer
crater lake
question
Pyroclastic flows move much faster than basalt flows?
answer
true
question
Volcanoes of this type have steep slopes as much as 30 degrees near the summit and tapering down to four or five degrees near the base and are composed of igneous rocks from flows and pyroclastic material?
answer
stratovolcano
question
The various types of volcanic debris hat settles out of the air are called?
answer
pyroclasic
question
Santorini is in
answer
greece
question
The name Minoan was given to the Bronze Age civilization of Crete by British Archaeologist Arthur Evans who named them after
answer
the Greek mythical king Minos
question
The center of the Bronze Age civilization of Minoans was on the island of
answer
Crete
question
What happened to the center of Minoan civilization in Crete when Santorini exploded?
answer
devastated by earthquakes and tsunami
question
The volume of erupted material ranks Santorini how in regards to historic volcanic eruptions
answer
second
question
Minoan civilization flourished before which of these civilizations
answer
all of these
question
Radio carbon agres suggest that the Santorini eruption occurred when
answer
1627-1600 BC
question
Of the Cyclades group of Aegean Sea Islands represents the submerged tops of mountains composed of continental crust
answer
true
question
Subduction of this plate and the magma it generates by the subduction has helped create the
answer
South Aegean volcanic arc
question
Minoan art was produced strictly for political, religious, or other social purposes
answer
false
question
Not long after the eruption of Santorini this cilization replaced the Minonans as the power in the region
answer
Mycenean
question
What famous myth has the destruction of Santorini been associated with?
answer
Atlantis
question
script of Minoans is
answer
linear A
question
Santorini is at the boundary of these 2 lithospheric plates
answer
African and the Aegean subplate
question
Minoan women had a measure of equality greater than most of the ancient world
answer
true
question
What style of eruption was Santorini
answer
plinian
question
Does the Post-Minoan eruption and volcanic history of Santorini indicate that it is an active volcano
answer
yes
question
The end of the Santorini was marked by formation of a large submarine caldera
answer
true
question
A famous archaeological excavation on Santorini is
answer
akrotiri
question
The rectangular lagoon surrounded by Santorni islands is
answer
caldera
question
How did Minoans accumulate wealth?
answer
maritime traders
question
What happened to the people of santorini when the eruption occurred
answer
most fled
question
A sliver of this tectonic plate is subducting under Italy
answer
african
question
What types of artifacts have been found in Herculaneum and Pompeii?
answer
all of these
question
The eyewitness to the Vesuvius eruptions described the eruption column as looking like
answer
an umbrella pine
question
Herculaneum and Pompeii were both buried by
answer
pyroclastic flows/surges
question
Deeper layers of pumice mark ancient eruptions, older than the Vesuvius eruption that buried
answer
Herculaneum and Pompeii
question
The Italian government supports a volcano observatory to monitor Vesuvius and has mapped volcanic hazards in the region
answer
true
question
Which buried city was explored and exploited for artifacts by tunnels long before open excavation began?
answer
herculaneum
question
The most voluminous rock constituent of Vesuvius pyroclastic flow is
answer
pumice
question
What is the name of the subduction zone along the Adriatic margin of Italy?
answer
calabrian subduction zone
question
Most of the eruptions of Mt. Vesuvius are of what eruptive style?
answer
plinian-pellean
question
Collapse of the Vesuvius eruption column caused how many pyroclastic flows/surges down the south and west volcano slopes
answer
six
question
A detailed account of the Vesuvius eruption was made by
answer
Pliny the Younger
question
An eruption of Mt. Vesuvius buried Pompeii and Herculaneum in the year of
answer
79 AD
question
The pyroclastic surges of Vesuvius raced down slop at 100 to 300 km/hr and with a temperature over 100 degrees Celsius
answer
true
question
Mt. Vesuvius occupies this historic region of Italy
answer
the campanian plain
question
What very large modern metropolitan city is only a short distance from Mt Vesuvius?
answer
Naples
question
What was the name of the commander of the Roman fleet at Misenum who died on a rescue mission to Stabiae near Pompeii?
answer
Pliny the Elder
question
Herculaneum and Pompeii are now on the coast but were several miles inland at the time of Vesuvius's eruption
answer
false
question
An even larger eruption of Vesuvius occurred in about 1780 BECAUSE and has been named the
answer
Avellino eruption explosion
question
The largest pyroclastic surge from Vesuvius reached all the way to
answer
Misenum across the bay of naples
question
Mt. Vesuvius is considered an active volcano
answer
true
question
Which city was buried more deeply, Herculaneum or Pompeii?
answer
herculaneum
question
Naples is not among the top ten largest population centers threatened by a volcanic hazard
answer
false
question
Which city was hit first by Vesuvius pyroclastic flows?
answer
herculaneum
question
Which of these volcanic areas are also associated with the Italian volcanic arc?
answer
all of these
question
This volcanic area in Naples is home to 200,000 people and experiences significant vertical movement from magma causing ground swelling and contraction
answer
phlegreaen fields
question
Animals killed by "tainted air" less than twenty years prior to the burial of Herculaneum and Pompeii were probably killed by gaseous emissions from fumaroles
answer
true
question
The destruction of Herculaneum and Pompeii and surrounding villages was done over how long a period of time?
answer
24 hours
question
Pyroclastic flows into the bay of Naples caused at least one tsunami
answer
true
question
Some buildings in Pompeii exhibit evidence of earthquake damage from 63 AD that was not yet repaired when the Vesuvius eruption occurred
answer
true
question
The recent eruption of this Icelandic volcano caused the cancellation of thousands of trans-Atlantic and European airline flights
answer
Eyjafjallajokull
question
Icelandic fissure eruptions often are characterized by lava fountaining
answer
true
question
Melting ice in contact with magma makes for quiet non-explosive volcanic eruptions
answer
false
question
the eruption of this volcano was the largest (in volume) basaltic eruption during historic time
answer
Laki
question
Until WWII, Iceland was a territory of this European country
answer
Denmark
question
the winter following the eruption of Lake was unusually severe in Europe and North America
answer
true
question
The year of the Laki eruption this famous American suggested a link bw the volcanic eruption in Iceland and the unusual weather and atmospheric conditions experienced in Europe
answer
Ben Franklin
question
Most of Iceland's livestock died from what byproduct of the Laki eruptions?
answer
skeletal fluorosis
question
The capital of Iceland is
answer
Reykjavik
question
The volcanic eruptions at Laki were
answer
all of these
question
Most fissure eruptions occur in this region than any other region on earth
answer
Iceland
question
Subglacial eruptions can melt massive amounts of ice causing flash floods called
answer
jokulhlaups
question
The great loss if human and animal lives in Iceland after the Laki eruption were causes by
answer
"the Mist Hardship"
question
Basaltic lava fountains occur both in Hawaii and Iceland
answer
true
question
Laki erupted what year?
answer
1783
question
The laki eruption occurred in which country?
answer
Iceland
question
The Laki volcanic region lies almost directly over
answer
a mantle plume
question
flat topped, volcanic summit formed from a subglacial eruption is called a
answer
moberg
question
Which country is the most active volcanic region in the world?
answer
Iceland
question
Iceland is on what plate boundary?
answer
the mid-atlantic ridge
question
What caused the deadly tsunami associated with the Tambora eruption?
answer
pyroclastic flows on the ocean
question
A great deal of our information about the eruption of Tambora comes from the Lt. Governor of the territory who was
answer
thomas raffles
question
The volcano Tambora is on an island, one of many belonging to this island archipelago country
answer
Indonesia
question
The large eruption of columns of Tambora were of this style
answer
Plinian
question
A book titled The Last Great Subsistence of Crisis in the Western-World refers to the period after the Napoleonic Wars and the climate problems caused by the eruption of
answer
Tambora
question
An increase in atmospheric aerosols can cause the atmosphere to cool
answer
true
question
The Tambora increase in atmospheric aerosols was preserved and measured in
answer
ice cores
question
What type of volcano is Tambora?
answer
stratovolcano
question
The volcanic activity at Tambora is a consequence of subduction into what nearby trench?
answer
sunda
question
Which of the following contribute to the aerosol content of the atmosphere?
answer
all of these
question
Which of the following eruptions involved the greatest volume of erupted material?
answer
Tambora
question
The summer of 1816 was so cold that it is known as
answer
the year without summer
question
Increasing atmospheric aerosols can cause a decrease in rainfall
answer
true
question
No trace has ever been found of the village of Tambora, buried by the eruption?
answer
false
question
The largest numbers of casualties from the Tambora eruption were from what?
answer
a tsunami
question
The greatest volume of erupted material from Tambora was
answer
tephra
question
A great deal of our information about the eruption of Tambora comes from the Lt. Governor of the territory who was
answer
Thomas Raffles
question
Today Tambora has a very prominent, large, and deep caldera
answer
true
question
Dry Fog is
answer
Caused by large concentrations of aerosols in the atmosphere
question
Were it not for the cold Swiss summer following Tambora eruption, John William Polidori may not have introduced this genre of creatures to the world
answer
vampires
question
Months after the Tambora eruption, large quantities of this material were found floating thousands of kilometers from Tambora
answer
pumice
question
Tambora's last large eruption occurred what year
answer
1815
question
In the vicinity of Tambora, post-eruption problems for local populations did not include
answer
cold conditions
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How does the Tambora eruption rank in terms of the greatest loss of life (directly or indirectly) from a volcanic eruption?
answer
first
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Which volcanic eruption was the largest explosive eruption of the last 100,000 years?
answer
Tambora
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Mary Shelley began this famous book while the guest of Lord Byron during the cold Swiss summer following the Tambora eruption
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the modern prometheus or frankenstein
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Some of the landscape sunsets of this artist appear to have ben inspired by the colorful sunsets following the Tambora eruption
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William Turner
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The large eruption columns of Tambora were of this style
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plinian
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At the time of the Tambora eruption what colonial power was in control of the territory?
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britain
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Scientists believe the pyroclastic flows/surges of Tambora were caused by
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collapse of the eruption column
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Livestock deaths are often reported because of fluorine poisoning near the sites of volcanic eruptions
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true
question
The release of huge quantities of this gas by Tambora caused acid rain over a large area
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chlorine
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The highest eruption clouds from Tambora reached a maximum altitude of
answer
30-40 km
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The eruption of this volcano was basaltic
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Laki
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Which type of volcano is characterized by gentle slopes of less than 15 degrees and is generally basaltic in composition?
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shield volcano
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Basaltic flow tops with a ropey appearance are known by the Hawaiian name
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Pahoehoe
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Rhyolitic and andesitic eruptions, basaltic eruptions are incapable of causing temporary global cooling
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false
question
Dates for the Santorini eruption are provided by
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radio carbon analysis and tree ring dates
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This individual, the Lt. Gov. of Java, provided a great deal
answer
Raffles
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Lava once poured from the Laki fissure at a rate comparable to 85% of the discharge rate of this major river
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Amazon
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The Pillars of Hercules as described in antiquity is a reference to what?
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Striats of Gibraltar
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Most of the erupted Laki material was by
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fissure eruption
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The last eruption of Vesuvius was how many years ago
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less than 100 years ago
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A volcanic ash horizon form the eruption of this volcano is important for the alignment of the eastern Mediterranean archeology record of the second millennium BC
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santorini
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Indonesia has approximately how many volcanoes
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more than 150
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This volcanic rock is similar to pumice but produced by basaltic eruptions
answer
scoria
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The volcanic explosively index ranges from 0 to 8. What was the index of the last major prehistoric eruption of Yellowstone?
answer
8
question
Most of the volcanic material that buried Pompeii and Herculaneum was
answer
ash and pumice
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More people died from indirect effects of Tambora than from immediate direct effects
answer
true
question
The collapse of Plininan eruption columns can case pumice-rich _____ to rapidly inundate the flanks and surrounding regions of a stratovolcaone
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pyroclastic flows
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Vesuvius, Laki, Santorini, are all considered active volcanoes
answer
true
question
The agricultural disaster caused by global cooling after the eruption of this volcano caused what has been called the last great sustenance crisis
answer
tambora
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A tsunami, contemporaneous with the Santorini eruption, hit Crete and probably was caused by
answer
collapse of santorini caldera
question
Lava of what composition is thicker or more viscous and has higher silica content?
answer
rhyolitic
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