Linking gender differences and their effects Essay Example
Linking gender differences and their effects Essay Example

Linking gender differences and their effects Essay Example

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  • Pages: 3 (816 words)
  • Published: August 26, 2017
  • Type: Research Paper
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The purpose of this literature review is to analyze previous research on the Linkage between Gender Gaps, Gender Bias, Gender Discrimination, and Gender Abuse using specific techniques. Ronald Inglehart and Pippa Norris (2000) conducted a study to examine the behavior of men and women in voting regarding the developmental theory of the Gender Gap on a global level. The objective was to determine if traditional gender gaps persist today or if gender differences in the electorate have converged with more left-leaning women. Their study found that gender gaps in electoral behavior are realigning with women moving towards the left of men in advanced industrial societies. This research explores why this is happening considering both structural and cultural factors based on three main premises that can be empirically investigated: we expect to find systematic differences in the gender gap between societies ba


sed on their level of political and economic development. This article analyzes the effects of gender on left-right voting scales within societies based on generational cohorts, as well as structural and cultural factors through methodological analysis of pronunciamentos comparing old and new data sets from many post-industrial societies by 1990s which showed that women shifted leftwards resulting in a modern gender gap similar to one observed in United States.The process of closing the gender gap in politics varies depending on factors such as party competition, prevailing issues, and the strength of the organized women's movement in each country. By the mid-1990s, women were becoming less conservative than men in many established democracies. However, even after social controls are introduced, a modern gender gap still exists in post-industrial societies. Nevertheless, when cultural factors are taken int

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account, its size decreases. This indicates that differences between men and women's value orientations towards station philistinism and the women's movement cause the gender gap more than differences in their lifestyles. In 2004, Sharon R. Bird and Stephen G. Sapp conducted a study examining gender-based social norms affecting small business success in rural and urban areas; they found that forms of little business economic success reflect these norms due to overrepresentation of women-owned businesses within unprofitable industries and sectors. Gender-queuing arguments suggest this trend is even more pronounced in rural locations where profits tend to be lower compared to urban areas.Sharon R. Bird and Stephen G. Sapp conducted a study to determine if the factors influencing gender differences in small business success varied between urban and rural areas. Their theoretical model suggested that economic and societal structures shape human resources, social networks, and structural obstacles that impact small business achievement for both male and female proprietors. The research was carried out in Iowa; 30 rural communities with populations less than or equal to 10,000 were examined in 1995, while data on urban communities with populations over 10,000 was collected in 1997. The rural communities were randomly selected from a larger sample of 99 towns representing each county within the province. Chi square analysis was used as the methodological approach. Results showed that urban and rural communities offer different gendered contexts for small business ownership and success due to unique characteristics such as population size and consumer spending habits. Urban areas attract more consumer spending because of their growing economies, whereas rural areas are more likely to foster distinctive businesses since their smaller populations cannot support

competition between local establishments. These results align with claims regarding gender alignment where there is a decreasing gap in small business success between genders in rural areas compared to overall declining opportunities for owners residing there.
In rural areas, male-owned businesses seem to have an advantage over female-owned businesses in attracting customers, as noted by Gregory M. Herek's (2002) study on gender gaps in attitudes towards homosexuality-related issues. Using data from a national RDD survey conducted in 1999 (N=1,335), Herek found variations in attitudes towards lesbians and gay men across different countries and between heterosexual males and females. A national telephone study conducted between September 1998 and May 1999 revealed that survey participants generally viewed gay men as mentally ill, while being more supportive of acceptance rights for lesbians. Heterosexual adult females were inclined to support employment protection and acceptance rights for homosexual individuals, provide benefits to same-sex couples, and avoid maintaining stereotypical beliefs about gay people. However, heterosexual males exhibited negative reactions towards gay individuals and were the least supportive of recognition of same-sex relationships and acceptance rights for them. They were more likely to perceive gay men as mentally ill or child molesters and had the most negative emotional responses towards them.The Survey Research Centre at the University of California, Berkeley conducted a study using computer-assisted telephone interviewing. The methodology employed Chi square and P value analysis to analyze respondents who identified as heterosexual. This excluded 34 individuals who identified as homosexual, sapphic, or bisexual and 22 who did not answer the sexual orientation question. Results showed significant differences in endorsement between two versions of data with chi-square (X2=52.62, P<.001) and for all four

combinations of respondent and target sex (all P's<.001). Heterosexual women were more supportive of employment non-discrimination than men across all versions or target sexes (all P's<.01). Endorsement for discrimination against gay men vs lesbians did not differ significantly. The article concludes that some heterosexual men held attitudes towards lesbians that were equally favorable to those of heterosexual women and less hostile towards them than gay men in certain cases.According to a survey by Doris R. Kimbrough (1999), heterosexual work forces have different cognitive attitudes towards tribades compared to cherry work forces, as observed when questions about lesbians were presented separately from questions about gay men and not in the context of attitudes towards them. Kimbrough's research on gender prejudice in computing usage produced conflicting results on a technological gender gap favoring male pupils, but did demonstrate a preference for female usage of a specific computing application. A study on gender differences in the use of online chat room tutorials found that a higher percentage of female non-traditional chemical science students participated more frequently than males, leading to more females enrolled in both distance and on-campus subdivisions of general chemistry. The methodology used was correlation analysis, which showed that frequency of IRC engagement has a positive correlation with class performance. Interestingly, the correlation is similar whether all enrolled students or only those who used online tutorials are included in the analysis, but stronger among females than males.Sandra McKay and Uday Tate conducted a study in which students evaluated the impact of sales representative gender on job performance ratings. Participants reviewed information about high or low performing male or female sales representatives from their supervisor and assessed

how the supervisor might respond based on performance level. Results showed that upper-level students at a medium-sized university in the southeastern US believed supervisors were more likely to reward high-performing males than females with equal performances, but would be more punitive towards low-performing males than females with indistinguishable public presentations. The sample comprised 256 pupils, 92% from the College of Business Administration, with 57% male and 43% female. MANOVA table analysis compared dependent measures across groups (male/female) to determine effects of gender on beliefs about how supervisors discipline/reward sales representatives in certain scenarios. Significant results were found for both male (F(3,252)=126.4,P<.001) and female variables (F(3,252)=107.2,P<.001). There was no significant effect for interaction of variables (P<0.07), and subject gender had no significant effects.Stephen B. Jarrell and T.D. Stanley (2004) conducted a study on gender pay inequality, utilizing meta-analysis and meta-regression to evaluate wage discrimination estimates. The research found evidence of pay favoritism against women, but a decreased trend for such estimations particularly among male researchers. While rectifying choice bias has been common practice, changes in the labor market have made it less important. Javier Gardeazabal and Arantza Ugidos (2005) explored scalar measures of gender pay discrimination but were unable to identify whether it was worse among high or low earners. However, using an extended scalar measure developed by Oaxaca, analyzing discrimination across any quantile of the reward distribution is possible which may lead to a reduction in gender pay discrimination and an improvement in gender research within economics.Using the Spanish Survey of Wage Structure, this study found that gender pay discrimination increases with the quantile index. However, discrimination reaches its peak at the 9th percentile as

a proportion of the gender pay gap. The Qo{wgXg) = ?'g9xgi method was used to measure this and produced an additive quantile regression model W9 = ?'g?Xg + V > (5), where Qe(uge xg) = 0. The Thursday component of ?g6 measures the return to the J?th feature on the 0?th conditional quantile of the distribution of (log) rewards. By taking expected values conditionally from equation (5), insights into gender pay discrimination can be gained from this methodology. Expression (6) calculates differences between males and females' unconditioned quantile rewards at point zero, represented by wW0 - Y = Ae + Be + Ce in expression (7). This reveals significant differences in returns across various points in reward distribution. Discrimination increases as rewards move higher up in distribution while being highest relative to entire quantile gender pay differential at low quantiles. Whether relative discrimination is lower at top reward distribution is unique only to Spanish sample or common trend across other countries remains unknown.In 1982, Claire Pedrick-Cornell and Richard J. Gelles conducted a study on the social problem of elder abuse that has gained public attention. The study discusses the current state of research on elderly abuse and its limitations while suggesting further investigation. It addresses three main questions: the extent, perpetrators and victims, and causes of elderly abuse. However, due to insufficient data available for research, many myths, conventional wisdom, and false facts have been propagated which are used in framing policies and programs aimed at detecting and preventing elderly abuse. This lack of scientific evidence often renders such initiatives misguided or ineffective causing harm to elderly clients and their families. Despite this issue, legal

changes are proposed while advanced treatment plans are initiated without sufficient scientific evidence which makes it vital for researchers to construct precise definitions by depoliticizing senior maltreatment's definition to build sound policies and plans through scientifically useful measurements.It is important to differentiate between acts of commission and acts of omission, as well as violence and neglect. Research on senior maltreatment should not only focus on publicly visible cases, but also include self-reports from non-clinical subjects. To obtain accurate estimations, a representative sample should be used instead of extrapolating from pilot studies. Small and non-representative samples can result in biased information that cannot be applied to wider populations. Comparative groups are necessary for identifying factors associated with senior abuse. Researchers must avoid post hoc analyses and design studies to test theoretical propositions in order to gather reliable and valid data. Speculation about the extent, forms, and causes of senior abuse should also be avoided without such data. Currently, there is limited knowledge on this subject matter.

In 1989, Leslie Margolin and John L. Craft conducted a study aimed at identifying characteristics of caretakers who commit child sexual abuse by investigating variables related to the subject matter.In 1985 and 1986,the Iowa Department of Human Services investigated 2,372 cases of sexual maltreatment during their investigation process.The investigation found that cases of sexual maltreatment were more often carried out by non-biologically related caretakers such as biological and non-biological male and female parents, siblings, grandparents, other relations, fancy mans, institutional forces, and baby-sitters. Biologically related caretakers were less frequently identified as perpetrators. Male culprits outnumbered females in all groups of caretakers but the ratio varied among each group. Reports of sexual

maltreatment came from various sources including parents, social workers, police and schools. The Iowa Department of Human Services spent an average of 17.2 hours investigating each instance and only those directly responsible for the maltreatment were considered culprits. The majority involved in sexual abuse cases were white (94%) with males being responsible for 86.5% of the incidents. The degree of severity was evaluated based on the type of sexual act committed along with physical force used; acts that did not involve serious physical harm or threats earned lower scores - sexual exhibitionism received a score of 1 while intercourse involving no coercion (oral, anal or vaginal) rated a score of 3.A rating of 4 was given to intercourse accompanied by threats. Acts of sexual aggression resulting in serious physical harm without intercourse were scored as 5, while intercourse causing severe injury received a score of 6. Out of the sample, 86 offenders (3.6%) obtained intensity scores higher than 6 because they committed multiple forms of abuse on their victims, with five perpetrators receiving a maximum score of 10. The reported cases of child sexual maltreatment support previous studies indicating that children are less likely to face such maltreatment from biological relatives compared to non-biologically related caretakers. Earlier research concentrated on distinguishing between biological fathers, stepfathers, and father-figures; however, the inclusion of female offenders allows for an expansion in the analysis to include women. The study revealed underrepresentation among biological mothers and overrepresentation among non-biologically related mothers when comparing reported sexual abuse volume between these two groups along with step-, adoptive, and foster mothers. As part of its analysis, this research utilized ANOVA TABLE and PHI

COEFFICIENT as in-sample methods to investigate how sexual abuse is linked to binge drinking and suicidal ideation negative outcomes.In a Midwestern state, 42,568 adolescents in grades 7 through 12 completed a 160-item self-report survey in classroom settings by trained data collectors during scheduled class periods. This anonymous survey covered various attitudes, beliefs, behaviours, as well as essential demographic and academic details. Caregiver groups such as siblings, grandparents, other relatives, foster parents, babysitters and institutional staff were included in this study to evaluate the impact of biological relatedness on non-parents. The survey includes inquiries concerning maltreatment history, alcohol consumption, suicidal thoughts, academic performance and family relationships. Comparable outcomes were revealed for both sets of data through analysis. Sexual maltreatment history had a significant effect on both males and females who had prior experiences faced more difficulties than those who did not. Additionally, adolescents currently experiencing sexual maltreatment scored higher than those in the other two groups. Modest results were yielded by phi coefficients for this investigation.The strongest association for both genders concerns the correlation between sexual maltreatment and physical abuse.

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