Attitudes Of University Students In Lebanon Towards Homosexuality
Recently, about all civilizations have witnessed increasing tendencies in homosexualism. As a consequence, more and more organisations protecting homosexual, sapphic, and bisexual rights have emerged. One factor that seems to impact the emotional and societal development of homosexuals and tribades is the attitudes of society toward them ( Bowen & A ; Bourjeois, 2001 ) .
Much research has been conducted since late 1970s concentrating on the factors that affect straight persons ‘ attitudes toward homosexuals and tribades ( Whitley, 1988 ) . Gender, faith, instruction, every bit good as race are some of the factors that play a function in finding these attitudes ( Whitley, 1988 ; Negy & A ; Eisenman, 2005 ; Landen & A ; Innala, 2002 ; Grapes, 2006 ) . Studies conducted in the United States, Australia, Turkey, Hong Kong, Sweden and Canada have indicated that most attitudes towards homosexuals and tribades are negative in general ( Negy & A ; Eisenman, 2005 ; Landen & A ; Innala, 2002 ; Hopwood & A ; Jimmy conorss, 2002 ; Schellenberg, Hirt, & A ; Sears, 1999 ) .
It is suspected that the predominating attitudes in Lebanon are similar to those in the states mentioned earlier. However, because of the deficiency of concrete research on this subject in Lebanon, it is necessary that a survey be conducted in order to look into the attitudes towards homosexuals and tribades among university pupils in Lebanon.
The intent of this survey was to find the attitudes that pupils at universities in Lebanon have towards homosexuals and tribades. Since old research have shown gender and pick of major to be of great importance in finding university pupils ‘ attitudes towards homosexualism, this survey besides compared the attitudes of male vs. female, every bit good as Social scientific disciplines and Art pupils vs. Natural scientific disciplines and Business pupils.
Reappraisal of the Literature
One of the chief jobs associated with homosexualism in the Middle East is the negative attitudes that Arabs have towards gay work forces and tribades. These attitudes are farther complicated by international political relations which slow down societal advancement in Middle Eastern states. As a consequence, rigorous Arab morality is imposed in these states as a agency of defence against Western tendencies that promote female nakedness and homosexualism. However, these negative attitudes could non be generalized as “ homophobia ” because they are straight linked to political, societal, spiritual and cultural issues ( Whitaker, 2006 ) . Contrary to what many people believe, the attitudes towards cheery work forces and tribades are instead negative even in western states such as the United States, Australia, Sweden and Canada ( Negy & A ; Eisenman, 2005 ; Landen & A ; Innala, 2002 ; Hopwood & A ; Jimmy conorss, 2002 ; Schellenberg, Hirt, & A ; Sears, 1999 ) . Previous surveies on attitudes of undergraduate university pupils specifically indicate largely negative attitudes, with fluctuations that depend on factors such as gender, instruction, religionism, every bit good as, race ( Whitley, 1988 ; Negy & A ; Eisenman, 2005 ; Landen & A ; Innala, 2002 ; Grapes, 2006 ; Jonathan, 2008 ) . Because of the deficiency of empirical grounds on the attitudes in Lebanon towards gay work forces and tribades, it is of import that this survey be conducted so as to put stable evidences for this issue. The intent of this survey was to mensurate the attitudes of undergraduate university pupils in Lebanon towards gay work forces and tribades.
Hopwood and Connors ( 2002 ) examined the attitudes of undergraduate pupils toward homosexualism at a university in Australia. The first hypothesis was that homophobic males were most likely to be spiritual and politically conservative. The 2nd hypothesis stated that degrees of homophobia would be more prevailing among concern big leagues than humanistic disciplines big leagues.
The sample consisted of 104 pupils from two modules ; 58 % were registered in a humanistic disciplines category, while 42 % were registered in a concern category, and 65 % of the sample was females. Participants were asked to finish a questionnaire composed of three parts. The first portion included The Heterosexual Attitudes to Homosexuals questionnaire which measured the attitudes of the participants toward issues such as befriending or societal equality for homophiles. The 2nd portion of the questionnaire measured the participants ‘ fright of AIDS/HIV with the usage of the Fear of AIDS graduated table by Bouton et Al. The 3rd portion involved the measuring of demographic variables intended to determine participants ‘ religionism and political positions.
The consequences validated the hypotheses tested in this research. Fear of HIV/AIDS seemed to be the most powerful index of homophobia among work forces, with a correlativity of 0.64. Gender was besides a forecaster of homophobia ; males exhibited more negative attitudes towards homophiles than adult females. The consequences besides showed that spiritual persons expressed more homophobia than nonreligious 1s. Last but non least, academic major aided in foretelling homophobia ; as hypothesized, concern big leagues expressed higher degrees of homophobia and fright of HIV/AIDS than did the humanistic disciplines pupils.
In another similar survey conducted by Schellenberg et Al. ( 1999 ) at the University of Windsor in Canada investigated the attitudes of undergraduate university pupils toward cheery work forces and tribades. Comparisons were to be made on the footing of the participants ‘ gender, module, and twelvemonth at university. One hypothesis was that participants enrolled in Humanistic disciplines or Social scientific discipline modules would hold more positive attitudes than those enrolled in Science or Business modules. Another hypothesis was that females were more likely to hold positive attitudes than work forces toward homosexual and sapphic persons.
This survey ‘s sample consisted of 199 undergraduate pupils ( 101 males and 98 females ) enrolled at the University of Windsor, who were hired so as to increase the opportunities that they would be enrolled in different modules. Participants were asked general inquiries such as their twelvemonth at college, their major, every bit good as their age and gender. Their attitudes were measured utilizing the short signifier of Herek ‘s Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay work forces scale which was designed to give a subscale which measures attitudes toward tribades, and other that measures attitudes toward cheery work forces.
The consequences of this survey indicated that attitudes toward cheery work forces changed as a map of the pupils ‘ modules ; that is to state that pupils in the modules of Humanistic disciplines or Social Sciences had more positive attitudes than those in the modules of Business or Science. Furthermore, gender and twelvemonth at university had a large function ; adult females had more positive attitudes as compared to work forces irrespective of their twelvemonth at university. However, although new male pupils held negative attitudes toward cheery work forces, these attitudes improved with the old ages spent at university. As for attitudes towards tribades, gender and module played small or no function in finding the attitudes. However, the attitudes became more positive with the clip at university.
Along the same lines, Negy and Eisenman ( 2005 ) studied the attitudes and affects of African American and White college pupils toward sapphic, cheery and bisexual persons. More specifically, this survey aimed to look into how socialization and religionism might command the attitudes toward sapphic, cheery and bisexuals. Because of inconsistent findings in the yesteryear, no formal hypothesis was made. Previous surveies sing African Americans showed that they seem to be more likely than Whites to both see homosexualism as incorrect and to back up homosexual rights Torahs. As a consequence, this survey aimed to look into African American attitudes while sing variables which may act upon homophobia such as civilization, religionism, and sociodemographics.
The survey ‘s sample consisted of 77 African Americans ( 22 male, 48 female ) and 143 non-Hispanic Whites ( 38 male, 105 female ) who attended a public university in Southeast U.S. 90 % of the African Americans and 94 % of the White persons were entirely straight persons, and 89 % of the African Americans and 76 % of the White persons were Christian. In order to mensurate the three variables mentioned antecedently, several questionnaires were handed out to the participants. Questionnaires included a Demographic Sheet which inquires the age, gender, ethnicity, spiritual association, and sexual orientation of the participants. It besides inquired the degree of parental instruction every bit good as the old ages of instruction of the participants ‘ parents so as to deduce the socioeconomic position of each. Furthermore, participants ‘ committedness to faith was assessed based on two steps ; one of which is the frequence of church attending, and the 2nd includes grounds for believing in a faith. The 3rd questionnaire was a Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, constructed to mensurate societal desirableness. The 4th questionnaire was the Index of Homophobia by Hudson & A ; Ricketts which measured homophobia among the participants. A 5th questionnaire was the Heterosexual Attitudes Toward Homosexuality ( HATH ) which measured attitudes and beliefs sing homosexual and sapphic persons. Finally, a 6th questionnaire, African American Acculturation Scale, was handed out to the African American participants merely to mensurate how much African American respondents were absorbed into a traditional African American civilization.
The consequences indicated that even though African American participants ‘ affective and attitudinal reactions to sapphic, cheery and bisexual persons may be more negative than those of White pupils ‘ , this difference faded when regularity of church attending, spiritual dedication, and SES were considered. So for both, African Americans and Whites, the three variables church attending, religionism and SES served as forecasters of homonegativity.
Bowen and Bourgeois ( 2001 ) examined the attitudes toward sapphic, cheery and bisexual ( LGB ) persons based on certain societal psychological science theories. They foremost hypothesized that holding had more LGB familiarities in the yesteryear would give more positive bing attitudes. The 2nd hypothesis was that respondents were more likely to rate their personal attitudes toward LGB more positively than their friends or typical pupils as a consequence of pluralistic ignorance. The 3rd hypothesis predicted that pupils ‘ attitudes would alter with respects to the abode halls ( i.e pupils from the same abode hall would portion the same attitude ) based on the Dynamic Social Impact Theory. The last hypothesis stated that present contact with LGB persons would give more positive attacks irrespective of the respondent ‘s past contact with LGBs.
Questionnaires were sent out by mail to 240 undergraduate pupils in two abode halls ( 6 Floors in constructing A and 5 floors in edifice B ) , nevertheless merely 109 pupils completed them ( 48 females and 51 males ) . The questionnaire included merely a Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Attitudes questionnaire made of a 7 point Likert type graduated table. Respondents were inquired to supply three responses: the first about his/her attitude toward LGB, the 2nd about his/her beliefs about how friends would react, and 3rd they had to rate how they thought the typical pupil would answer. Respondents were besides asked about the figure of old LGB familiarities, as they were asked to bespeak how many openly LGB persons resided in their abode halls and on their single floors.
The consequences of this survey confirmed the hypotheses constructed at the really get downing. Respondents really did represent themselves as holding more positive attitudes towards LGB persons than their friends and the typical pupil, turn outing the pluralistic ignorance theory. Furthermore, consistent with the contact hypothesis, respondents who referred to every bit few as one or two explicitly LGB pupils in their abode halls or on their floor held well more positive attitudes than pupils who knew none. Some restrictions of this survey could be the little sample, the cultural homogeneousness of the respondents. Furthermore, the low response rates could hold been an indicant of prejudice since it is possible that the pupils with more negative attitudes did non react.
In an interesting research article by Landen and Innala ( 2002 ) , the effects of a biological account on attitudes towards homosexuals and tribades in Sweden were examined. The intent of this survey was to prove whether attitudes towards homophiles differed between people who supported the biological account and those who supported a psychological account. Comparisons were besides to be made between the attitudes of work forces and those of adult females, every bit good as between an old age group and a immature age group.
A sample of 992 people was indiscriminately selected from the National Registration and was sent questionnaires by mail. 668 out of the 992 people returned the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 10 inquiries that covered the participants ‘ beliefs about the beginning of homosexualism, the integrating of homophiles in the society every bit good as homosexual friendly relationships. Participants ranged between 18 and 70 old ages of age, with the average age being 44 old ages.
The consequences of this survey supported old findings that proposed that persons back uping the biological account of homosexualism had more tolerant attitudes toward it ( CITE ) . Furthermore, the more participants were acquainted with homosexuals and tribades, the more broad attitudes they held toward them. Besides, the consequences of this survey showed that adult females and the younger age group tended to hold more positive attitudes towards homophiles than those who believed in a psychological account of homosexualism. Out of the 668 people, a little more than half of them ( 51 % ) believed in a biological account, whereas the staying 49 % believed in a psychological account. This survey supports theories of the prominence of positive attitudes among people who believed that homosexualism had a biological beginning, every bit good as people who had more personal contacts with homophiles ( CITE ) .
In an effort to inspect the prevalent attitudes towards homophiles among Turkish university pupils, Cirakoglu ( 2006 ) aimed to analyze the pupils ‘ beliefs sing the causes of homosexualism. The survey besides aimed to compare how participants ‘ attitudes varied towards the labels ‘gay ‘ and ‘lesbian ‘ . Finally, the attitudes of participants who had had old societal contact with homophiles were measured. Cirakoglu ( 2006 ) hypothesized that the label ‘gay ‘ would arouse the most negative attitudes, whereas the label ‘lesbian ‘ would trip more positive 1s. And, in relation to old surveies, he hypothesized that participants who had anterior societal contact with a homosexual would hold more positive attitudes than those who had n’t.
Participants of this research included 334 private university pupils ( 140 adult females and 194 work forces ) in Turkey. Students were given inquiries sing their demographic information, as they were besides given a 50-item graduated table for the causes of homosexualism and a 19-item attitude graduated table. When asked about old contact with at least one homosexual, 41.82 % of participants reported holding had contact with a homosexual.
The consequences of Cirakoglu ‘s survey seemed to verify the hypotheses stated at the beginning. The label ‘lesbian ‘ seemed to arouse more positive attitudes than did the term ‘gay ‘ or ‘homosexual ‘ . It seemed that the term ‘gay ‘ triggered the most negative attitudes among the three labels ( CITE ) . Furthermore, work forces had instead negative attitudes towards homophiles, unlike adult females who held more positive attitudes. As hypothesized earlier and in conformity to old research, participants who reported holding old societal contact with homophiles held more positive attitudes than participants who reported no anterior societal contact. It is interesting to observe that, participants who had no societal contact with homophiles seemed to believe that homosexualism stems from a psychological or physiological upset ; participants who reported anterior contact, nevertheless, believed that homosexualism is a pick of life style ( CITE ) .
Since South Africa became the 5th state to legalise homosexual matrimonies in 2006, Mwaba ( 2009 ) studied the attitudes and beliefs of South African pupils sing homosexualism and same-sex matrimonies. Even though South African jurisprudence protected its homosexual citizens ‘ rights and bans any kind of favoritism against them, the general attitudes of pupils remained negative.
Mwaba ‘s sample was made up of 150 undergraduate pupils at a university in Western Cape in South Africa. These pupils were hired during a clip of intense argument after the proof of homosexual matrimonies in 2006. The sample ‘s average age was 18.3 old ages, 83 % of which were females. Besides, 68 % of the sample pupils were Christians. An 18-item questionnaire was used to mensurate the attitudes toward homosexual matrimonies and homosexualism.
The consequences signified instead conservative attitudes among the sample, as about 44 % thought that homosexualism should be socially unacceptable instead than acceptable in South Africa. However, when it came to allowing homophiles equal rights, 41 % merely believed that the authorities was right in making so, with the bulk of the sample ( 59 % ) opposed it. 37 % idea at that place was nil incorrect in know aparting against homophiles, and 71 % indicated that they thought the matrimony of two people of the same sex to be unusual. But overall, those who believed that homosexual matrimonies should be legalized were about equal to those who were against it ( 51 % and 49 % severally ) .
One of the factors that seems to impact people ‘s attitudes towards homosexualism is their degree of instruction. In one of her surveies, Grapes ( 2006 ) investigated the relationship between the degree of instruction and the attitudes towards homophiles and their rights. Grapes hypothesized that as the degree of instruction additions, the attitudes towards homophiles go more broad. She besides hypothesized, in conformity to literature, that females will hold more tolerant attitudes than males.
Grapes obtained informations from the General Social Survey which was conducted by the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago ( Grapes, 2006 ) . Her two independent variables were gender and degree of instruction, and her dependant variable was the attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexual rights. The attitudes were measured by taking four specific inquiries that address homosexualism in the General Social Survey ( Grapes, 2006 ) . The sample consisted of 740 participants.
Consistent with old surveies, Grapes ‘ ( 2006 ) consequences prove that gender plays a large function in finding the attitudes toward homosexual rights and homophiles. Females held more positive attitudes than did males. Furthermore, Grapes established a multivariate relationship between degree of instruction, gender and attitudes toward homosexual rights ( 2006 ) . She found that males who had a grade lower than high school were 36 % more inclined to be against equal rights for homophiles. Whereas females with a alumnus sheepskin are 28 % more likely to be supportive of homophiles ‘ rights than females with an instruction lower than high school ( Grapes, 2006 ) .
Congruently, Herek ( 1988 ) used a sample of 405 pupils to analyze what contributes to straight persons ‘ reaction formation to gay and sapphic persons. First, he wanted to find how straight persons ‘ attitudes were affected by gender. Second, he inquired about the part of societal psychological factors to the attitude formation toward homophiles. Last, he questioned whether attitudes differ toward tribades and homosexuals work forces ( Herek, 1988 ) .
Herek ‘s sample included 405 pupils ( 226 females, 179 males ) from six different universities in the United States. The participants presented information about their spiritual backgrounds and how frequently they attend spiritual services, every bit good as the figure of their gay/lesbian familiarities. An Attitude Toward Lesbians and Gays ( ATLG ) graduated table composed of a 20-item likert graduated table was developed by Herek ( 1988 ) . The graduated table had two ten-item subscales: half of which step attitudes toward tribades, whereas the other half steps attitudes toward cheery work forces.
Herek ‘s consequences ( 1988 ) proved that male participants held more negative attitudes than females on both the ATL ( Attitudes Toward Lesbians ) and ATG ( Attitudes Toward Gays ) graduated table, yet they held less negative attitudes toward tribades. Herek ‘s survey besides verified that attitudes toward homophiles are influenced by participants ‘ trueness to traditional gender and household values, every bit good as by the degree of their spiritual committednesss and old experience with cheery work forces and tribades ( Herek, 1988 ) . Last but non least, and in conformity to the Pluralistic ignorance theory in Bowen and Bourgeois ‘ survey ( 2001 ) , participants who held negative attitudes were likely to assume that their friends had similar attitudes towards homophiles.
Similarly, attitudes of undergraduate university pupils toward cheery work forces and tribades were investigated in a survey conducted by Engstrom and Sedlacek ( 1997 ) . The survey aimed to look into whether heterosexual college pupils at a southeast university held negative attitudes toward cheery work forces and tribades. Furthermore, the survey investigated the type of state of affairss in which negative feelings toward homophiles were expressed ( Engstrom & A ; Sedlacek, 1997 ) .
The survey ‘s indiscriminately selected sample consisted of 224 heterosexual university pupils ; half of which were males, and half of which were females. Engstrom and Sedlacek ( 1997 ) administered the SAS Sexual Orientation Survey to mensurate the pupils ‘ attitudes toward homosexuals and tribades. The study contained a likert-type graduated table runing from one to five ; it consisted of 10 statements that covered personal, societal, and academic state of affairss. Three different signifiers of the study were produced and mailed to participants: one referred to “ pupil ” ( with no specified sexual orientation ) , the 2nd referred to “ Gay male pupil, ” and the 3rd referred to “ sapphic pupil, ” ( Engstrom & A ; Sedlacek, 1997 ) .
Engstrom and Sedlacek ‘s survey confirmed that male pupils ‘ attitudes were more negative toward gay work forces than toward tribades. It seemed that participants displayed more intolerant attitudes in state of affairss where they must interact with cheery males in public. Furthermore, despite the fact that adult females hold more negative attitudes toward tribades, in this survey, females had surprisingly more negative attitudes toward homosexual males ( Engstrom & A ; Sedlacek, 1997 ) . However, and despite the negative attitudes toward homophiles, participants seemed to be infuriated at the idea of the physical assault of a homosexual. This survey gives insight as to how and in what state of affairss stereotyped attitudes could be formed and allows farther deductions for pattern ( Engstrom & A ; Sedlacek, 1997 ) .