Attitudes towards homosexuality among university students Essay

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In 2006, Answers Corporation explained that homosexualism is a term created by nineteenth century. The significance of homosexual is, holding a sexual orientation to individuals of the same sex ( The American HeritageA® Dictionary of the English Language, 2006 ) .

Homosexuality includes two groups, which are female homosexualism and male homosexualism. Female homosexualism is described as sapphism and the male homosexualism is described as homosexual ( Answers Corporation, 2006 ) .

At the beginning, some of the psychologists said that homosexualism is a mental unwellness and set it into the list of mental upset. However, after some of the surveies, they realized that homosexualism is non a mental upset because it is related to psychological perturbation and is in no sense of ‘mental job ‘ every bit good. So, homosexualism removed from the list of mental upsets ( Tozeland, Loewen, & A ; Monteith, n.d. ) .

The factors that lead to homosexualism are critical and discuss by many specialist Fieldss such as psychologists and head-shrinkers.

Position of Psychologists toward Reason of Homosexuality

In Robinson survey ( as cited in “ Facts about Homosexuality and Mental Health, ” n.d. ) , early of the 20th century, Ellis ( 1901 ) argued that homosexualism was congenital and it was non immoral, non a disease, and that many homophiles made outstanding parts to society.

Sigmund Freud has a different theory of human gender from Ellis. He believed that all human existences were innately bisexual. Human beings become heterosexual or homosexual as a consequence of what they have experiences with other people or environment that environing of them. Freud besides agreed with Ellis that homosexual orientation should non be viewed as a signifier of pathology ( “ Facts about Homosexuality and Mental Health, ” n.d. ) .

He wrote a missive to an American female parent in 1935. He said that, people ca n’t acquire any advantages from their homosexual orientation. But, they were ever blamed, discriminated by other people. Actually, homosexualism is non a wickedness, non an unwellness every bit good. He besides said that, we need to see it as a sexual map produced by certain sexual development. There are many persons of antediluvian and modern times that were respect by us are homosexualism. Harmonizing to him, it is injustice and inhuman treatment to depict that homosexualism is a offense and wickedness. He told the American female parent that, analysis may allow her boy feel harmoniousness, peace and full efficiency when her boy in the clip of unhappy, neurotic, torn by struggles, and inhibited in the societal life whether he remains a homosexual or gets changed ( “ Facts about Homosexuality and Mental Health, ” n.d. ) .

Position of Reincarnation Researchers toward Reason of Homosexuality

Harmonizing to Dr. Ian Stevenson, he concludes that homosexualism is a natural human trait that consequences from the reincarnation of a individual of one gender as a individual of the opposite gender. Such people must set to their new gender and gender at an early age. The trouble of seting associating to the ‘sex alteration ‘ and lead to homosexualism subsequently on in their lives ( as cited in Williams, 2006 ) .

Reincarnation means the psyche business a new organic structure after the decease of the former organic structure ( The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2006 ) . The authoritative signifier of the reincarnation philosophy was formulated in India, but surely non earlier than the ninth century BC, when the Brahmana Hagiographas were composed. After the Upanishads clearly defined the construct between the 7th and the fifth century BC, it was adopted by the other of import Eastern faiths which originated in India, Buddhism and Jainism. Due to the spread of Buddhism in Asia, reincarnation was subsequently adopted by Chinese Taoism, but non earlier than the third century BC ( Reincarnation, its significance and effects, n.d. ) .

Former misss who are reborn as male childs may wish to dress as misss or prefer to play with misss instead than male childs. Former male childs who are reborn as misss may wish to dress as male childs or prefer to play with male childs instead than misss. Former work forces who are reborn as adult females will be attracted to adult females and will hence be sapphic. Former adult females who are reborn as work forces will be attracted to work forces and will hence be cheery ( as cited in Williams, 2006 ) .

“ Former ” means past-life or old life and “ born-again ” average present life-time. In many instances the individual begins speaking about his or her life or lives before the present life-time, about their old decease and about the clip between lives including the planning of the present life-time ( as cited in Williams, 2006 ) . So, Dr. Ian Stevenson concludes that, homosexualism is the root of reincarnation.

Beside of the factors to do homosexualism, the factors that influence people attitudes towards homosexualism are besides really controversial.

Different people may convey out different of attitudes, believing, feeling and behaviours towards homosexualism. The differences can be considered contribute to some of the factors such as personal and societal factors.

Personal Factors that Influence Attitudes towards Homosexual

Age. Have a step of tolerance of homosexual behaviours from attitude towards homosexualism in 29 states, such as the states of Australia, USA, Norway, and others indicated that the higher points of tolerance scored as 100 and the lowest point as 0. The higher the tolerance scored the higher the credence of homosexualism. The predicted degree of tolerances for immature people age 20 would be 53 points. Peoples in in-between age have tolerance tonss of 43 points by age 40. At age 60, the tolerance scored is about 33 and with 23 points at age 80. It showed that, as the age increasing, the tolerance scored of homophile was diminishing.

The tolerance point of senior was low comparison to younger people ( “ Attitude towards homosexualism in 29 states, ” n.d. ) .

Beside of the factors of age, the attitudes besides influences by faith.

Religion background. Different spiritual will makes a big difference to tolerance of homosexualism. Harmonizing to a trial of step of homosexual behaviours tolerance, the higher points of tolerance scored as 100 and the lowest point as 0. The higher the tolerance scored the higher credence of homosexualism. Ardent trusters in a personal God would rate homosexual behaviour at 28 points. But, steadfast atheists who are wholly reject the thought of personal God rate homosexualism at 59 points ( “ Attitude towards homosexualism in 29 states, ” n.d. ) .

It evidently showed that, Ardent trusters in a personal God was less accepting to homosexualism which rate 28 points compare to steadfast atheists who wholly reject the thought of personal God which rate 59 points ( “ Attitude towards homosexualism in 29 states, ” n.d. ) .

Beside that, church departers are less tolerant of homosexualism than those who are ne’er darken a church ‘s door. Peoples who are regular traveling to church rate 32 points, and those who are eschewing the church were evaluation 48 points ( “ Attitude towards homosexualism in 29 states, ” n.d. ) .

It is because harmonizing to Christians, homosexualism go againsting some of God ‘s most basic commandments for humanity. Christians ‘ belief in God ‘s disapprobation of homosexualism is claimed to be so of import that coercing them to handle homosexuals every bit means coercing them to go against their spiritual beliefs ( Cline, n.d. ) .

In about all societies throughout human history, faith offers replies to cardinal inquiries refering the beginning and significance of things. Religious systems of account offer histories of the creative activity of the universe, every bit good as stipulating the regulations for proper behavior-and the effects for infractions-that have been imposed by the Creator ( Gross, 2005 ) .

Christianity traditionally forbid sexual dealingss between people of the same sex and Teachs that such behaviour is iniquitous ( Gross, 2005 ) .

So, spiritual belief and church attending have strongly influence on attitudes towards homosexualism in about 29 states.

Beside of the factors of faith, the attitudes toward homosexualism besides influences by module of survey among pupils ( “ Societal Attitudes towards Homosexuality, ” 2006 ) .

Faculty of survey. Students who studied modules of Humanistic disciplines or Social Science had more positive attitudes toward homosexual adult male compared to Science or Business pupils. The consequence revealed that pupils in the modules of Humanistic disciplines and Social Science had more positive attitudes towards homosexual comparison with pupils in modules Business and Science ( Schellenberg, Hirt and Sears, 1999 ) .

It shows that there are two possible grounds that determined these consequences. First, pupils who value traditional sex functions may be the most likely to choose plans in modules of concern and scientific disciplines where political attitudes are conservative. Second, pupils with less value traditional sex functions may be the most likely to choose plans in modules of Art and Social Science. It is because they thought the sections are more broad ( Schellenberg, Hirt and Sears, 1999 ) .

In academic field, beside the factor of different module of survey, the educational degree besides plays a really of import function to find the attitudes towards homosexualism.

Educational degree. The higher old ages of instruction people involve, the higher scored of tolerances people have. The higher points of tolerance scored as 100 and the lowest point as 0. The higher of tolerance scored mark that it is more credence of homosexualism ( “ Attitude towards homosexualism in 29 states, ” n.d. ) .

The point of tolerances was 34 out of 100 evaluation by people who with 8 old ages of instruction. Those with 10 old ages of instruction were evaluation 38 points and people who have complete 2 old ages maestro ‘s grade after 4 twelvemonth unmarried man ‘s grade was evaluation 51 points. So, the spread between the least educated and the most educated is 17 points. ( “ Attitude towards homosexualism in 29 states, ” n.d. ) .

This tolerance-enhancing consequence of instruction really is link to other forces which significantly depend on the independent of age, so the lesser animadversion of homosexualism among the extremely educated can non be attributed to a altering societal clime. The age effects themselves suggest that there is a altering societal clime, but the instruction effects are in add-on to that ( “ Attitude towards homosexualism in 29 states, ” n.d. ) .

Other than that, gender besides likely to hold strongly influences on the attitudes towards homosexualism. Many research workers conducted researches that related to gender differences and their attitudes towards cheery work forces and tribades.

Gender. Gender belief system is the form of masculine or feminine behaviour of an person that is defined by a peculiar civilization and that is mostly determined by a kid ‘s upbringing ( Answers.com, 2006 ) .

Kite and Whitley suggested that work forces evaluation the cheery work forces more negative than adult females, but they were same in the evaluation of tribades. Within the male and female, adult females made about equal evaluation of tribades and cheery work forces, but work forces ‘s evaluation of tribades were more positive than evaluation of cheery work forces ( as cited in Louiderback & A ; Whitley, 1997 ) .

Harmonizing to Kite and Whitley survey, it is because people who have strong gender belief system have more negative attitudes towards homosexual because homosexualism violates the norms of that belief system. Besides, work forces held more traditional sex-role attitudes than adult females. So, in the position of work forces, male should be move more masculine and aggressive. They besides strongly keep the traditional sexual orientation which is heterosexualism ( as cited in Louiderback & A ; Whitley, 1997 ) .

Beside that, a survey ( as cited in “ Schellenberg, Hirt and Sears ” 1999. ) , it besides showed that male hold more negative attitudes towards homosexual work forces than tribades, and, they besides hold more negative attitudes to homosexual comparison with female.

Different attitude towards homosexualism is the impact of personal factors. But, the societal factors besides have certain degree of impact on the attitudes towards homosexualism.

Social Factors that Influence Attitudes towards Homosexual

Media. Dissemination of information about homosexualism in selling, telecasting shows, and public sentiment polls, will impact the attitudes of public toward homophiles no affair it is accurate or inaccurate.

The information of “ homophiles will take to AIDS ” has strong impact on attitudes towards homosexualism. The prolongation of homophobic attitudes such as the intervention of people with HIV, “ moralistic readings of people with AIDS, ” certain constructs about the methods of HIV transmitted, media representation of AIDS, and even the manner in which medical specialty ‘s “ objectiveness ” reinforces a moral position unfriendly to gay work forces, tribades and bisexuals ( Anderson, Fakhfakh, & A ; Kondylis, 1999 ) .

Many of the researches have approved that some of the factors influence attitudes towards homosexualism. There are besides some of the researches conducted by research workers to O.K. whether the stereotypes of people towards homosexualism is right or non.

Social differences. Social differences in the tolerance of homosexualism are rather big. This can assist to explicate why people populating in different societal circles have different perceptual experiences of what ‘the mean Australian ‘ thinks.

For illustration, 70 old ages old had left school at the terminal of twelvemonth 10, and who holds strong spiritual beliefs and attends church on a regular basis would rate homosexual behaviours at merely 1 point out of 100 or “ ever incorrect ” ( “ Attitude towards homosexualism in 29 states, ” n.d. ) .

Stereotypes towards Homosexuality

Features. Normally, people would wish to believe that cheery work forces are emasculate and tribades are tomboys while there are some homosexual people who fit these stereotypes. But, really they are non representative of all homosexual people. So, the stereotypes of features of homosexual people are non right at all ( Tozeland, Loewen, & A ; Monteith, n.d. ) .

Duration of relationship. Surveies indicate that people would hold the stereotypes that homosexual individual will non affect in long-run, stable and close relationship with their spouses. But, it is non unusual to happen homosexualism twosomes who had been together for over 20 old ages ( Tozeland, Loewen, & A ; Monteith, n.d. ) .

Homosexual parents. Some people believe that kids of homosexual or sapphic people are more likely to turn up to be homosexual as their parents. Beside that, people besides believe that these kids will turn up without appropriate ethical values. In fact, homosexual parents would wish to learn their kids the values of kindness and charity because they are the victims of hatred and favoritism in society ( Tozeland, Loewen, & A ; Monteith, n.d. ) .

Harmonizing to Family Research Report ( 2001 ) , kids who have homosexual parents would be expected to make less good than childs in general in school, on the occupation, in matrimony, raising their ain childs, and others. Normally, kids of homosexual parents can non make good in sex individuality, linguistic communication accomplishments and mathematics Fieldss compare to kids of heterosexual parents. But, kids of homosexual parents hold strongly societal survey than kids of heterosexual parents.

However, they have attempts to be successful in life. So non every kid with homosexual parents would be expected to be ‘a failure, ‘ nor would every kid raised by a homosexual parent be expected to neglect. Likewise, non every kid rose by a married female parent and male parent would be expected to win ( Family Research Report, 2001 ) .

Religion. The huge bulk of the universe ‘s churches take the stance that homosexual Acts of the Apostless are a wickedness. To mention an illustration of a spiritual point of view, the Roman Catholic Church in a transition from its Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, states, “ As in every moral upset, homosexual activity prevents one ‘s ain fulfilment and felicity by moving contrary to the originative wisdom of God. ” Homosexuality is labeled as a “ moral upset ; ” it is non regular or acceptable ( The Scientific Debate on Homosexuality, n.d. ) .

Peoples believe that Christians are differing homosexualism. Some spiritual groups interpret certain scriptural transitions as injunctions against homosexualism, while others view these transitions in the visible radiation of historical context, much like bondage. Actually, many Christians were reprobating favoritism and bias. They welcome and affirm homosexual Christians into the organic structure of Christ, with alone gifts to offer ( Tozeland, Loewen, & A ; Monteith, n.d. ) .

Beside to carry on researches to uncover the stereotypes of people towards homosexualism is right or non, there besides a research on how the public sentiment towards homosexualism among different states.

Public Opinion toward Homosexual among Different States

In survey of Societal Attitudes towards Homosexuality ( 2006 ) , it showed that the consequence of credence homosexualism in Africa and the Middle East are tend to strongly differ. But, major Latin American states such as Mexico and Brazil accept homosexualism.

At Australia 1999, the consequence showed that 28 % of people think that sexual dealingss between two grownups of the same sex are non incorrect at all, 15 % think that it is incorrect merely sometimes, 9 % think that it is about ever incorrect, and 48 % think that it is ever incorrect ( “ Attitude towards homosexualism in 29 states, ” n.d. ) .

Harmonizing to Robinson ( 2003 ) , Apoll by the Gallup Organization from United State has conducted a research of acceptable of homosexualism in the populace. The consequence showed the per centum of the study consequence: “ do you personally believe that it is acceptable or non acceptable for homosexuals and tribades to prosecute in same-sex behaviour? ” as in 1982-JUN, there was 34 % people accept homosexualism and by 1992-JUN, there was an increasing per centum which is 38 % . In 1992-MAR, there was 44 % and by 1997-APR, there was 42 % . In 1999-FEB, there was 50 % and by 2001-MAY, there was 52 % . There was 51 % in 2002-MAY and 54 % in 2003-MAY. It showed that the per centum of acceptable towards homosexualism in the United State is increasing by twelvemonth of 1982 to 2003.

The Pew Research Center ‘s 2003 Global Attitudes Survey found that, people in Africa and the Middle East strongly object to social credence of homosexualism. But there is far greater tolerance for homosexualism in major Latin American states such as Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia and Brazil. Opinion in Europe is split between West and East. Majorities in every Western European state surveyed say homosexualism should be accepted by society, while most Russians, Poles and Ukrainians disagree. 51 % of Americans believes homosexualism should be accepted, while 42 % disagree ( as cited in “ Societal Attitudes towards Homosexuality, ” 2006 ) .

Significant of This Survey

Based on the above debut, one can see the of import of apprehension of pupils ‘ attitude to homosexualism.

First, harmonizing to Lisa Lamar and Mary Kite ( 1998 ) , it said that males have more negative attitudes towards cheery work forces and this is due to gender functions factor. However, Schellenberg, Hirt & A ; Sears ( 1999 ) , found that males who study in Humanistic disciplines and Social Sciences have more positive attitudes towards cheery work forces. So, this survey want to cognize UTAR Psychology class pupils ‘ attitudes towards cheery work forces is affected by gender functions or the modules that they have chose.

Second, harmonizing to research of Brownell, he found that faiths are related to negative attitudes towards sapphic and cheery work forces. Malaysia have many types of faiths include Islamic, Buddhist, Indian, and others. This survey wants to cognize are at that place holding differences of attitudes between faiths in Malaysia or non. This will do us cognize more about how the attitudes of different faiths people towards sapphic and cheery work forces. This can cut down struggle or do different faiths people can pass on easy.

Third, Many pupils have confused or changing sentiments on homosexualism. It is of import for all pupils to come to footings with what they presently think and feel about homosexualism ( Tozeland, Loewen, & A ; Monteith, n.d. ) . This survey want to allow them conscious about their attitudes towards homosexual and allow them make up one’s mind they want to alter it or non.

Beside that, through this survey, pupils of psychological science class can more concern about issue of homosexualism and behavior or make further research on it. The farther research can assist public cognize about homosexual such as why homosexual, what ground to do them go homosexual, and others. Once public know more about the homosexual group, they might alter their attitudes towards homosexual every bit good as cut down their favoritism perceptual experience towards homosexual.

This survey will find whether the consequence of this survey same with the consequence of old researches or non.

For this survey, it should do a clear differentiation of attitudes toward cheery work forces and sapphic adult females with divide the “ homosexual ” to “ sapphic ” and gay work forces ” . For illustration, many of old research conducted research by utilizing the term “ homosexual ” but do non split the term “ homosexual ” into “ cheery work forces ” and “ sapphic adult females ” .

Research Questions

For this survey, it will research the gender influences on attitudes towards homosexualism among university pupils. We would wish to understand more about the gender differences of credence of homosexualism among university pupils.

Beside that, this survey will find whether the consequence is same with the consequence of old researches or non.

The research inquiries in this survey are as follows.

First, are at that place any gender differences in the attitudes towards sapphic and homosexual?

Second, is at that place any gender difference in their cognition of homosexual?

Third, are at that place any faith differences in their attitude towards sapphic and homosexual?

Fourth, is at that place any faith difference in their cognition of homosexual?

Chapter II

Method

Participants

118 Psychology pupils from twelvemonth 1 to twelvemonth 3 in University Tunku Abdul Rahman were selected as the sample of this survey. Simple random method was used in the choice.

There are 82 females and 36 females. All of the pupils who participated in the study are simple random sampling.

Materials

Questionnaire. The study conducted utilizing questionnaire ( see Appendix 1 ) . All participants completed a 4 pages questionnaire dwelling of two subdivisions. Instruction manuals attach toing the questionnaire guaranteed namelessness and confidentiality.

The first portion is about the respondents ‘ demographic such as gender, age, twelvemonth, race, and faith. The 2nd portion is about respondents ‘ attitudes toward sapphic and homosexual. There are 32 inquiries in this trial.

In this trial, the first 4 inquiries are asked about the general attitudes towards homosexualism such as a ) I know about homophiles, and B ) Sexual orientation is caused by cistrons, but non the environment ( see appendix 1 ) . Question 5 to 18 is asked about the attitudes towards tribades such as a ) Lesbians merely ca n’t suit into our society, B ) exual dealingss between two female is incorrect, degree Celsiuss ) Female homosexualism is a wickedness and, vitamin D ) Lesbians are ill ( see appendix 1 ) . Question 19 to 32 is asked about the attitudes towards cheery work forces such as a ) I think male homophiles are gross outing, B ) Male homosexualism is a perversion, degree Celsius ) Sexual dealingss between two male is incorrect and, vitamin D ) Homosexual behaviour between two work forces is merely plain incorrect ( see appendix 1 ) .

Participants had to rate on the Likert Scale ( strongly differ, differ, impersonal, agree, and strongly hold ) harmonizing to their attitudes towards homosexual which include sapphic and cheery adult male.

Software. SPSS for Windows ( 12.0 ) was used for all statistical analyses.

Procedures

The study was conducted by utilizing simple random trying design. A sampling frame, which is the numbered name lists of pupils from Year One to Year Three Psychology category at UTAR was obtained from the Faculty General Office.

All the name of the pupils were assorted and came out with a new name list ( see Appendix 2 ) . A sample size of 118 was selected.

The simple random sampling was conducted as follows:

A get downing point in the tabular array of Random Numbers in the Appendix 4 was chosen utilizing a finger pang. The pang came down at column 6, row 15 at the entry 13916.

As the sampling frame ranged from 1 to 301, the left three Numberss in each set of five were used when pulling the sample. The figure “ 0 ” was ignored if that figure over 301. The Numberss to be included in trying were been identified by traveling across the tabular array from left to compensate every surrogate line started from up and down. The Numberss got were highline in xanthous colour ( see Appendix 3 ) .

We distributed the questionnaire to the samples that have been selected by simple random method through UTAR lectors. The study took between ten to five-teen proceedingss to finish and so collected back by lectors after the respondents completed it in the same twenty-four hours. Instruction manuals attach toing the questionnaire guaranteed namelessness and confidentiality.

Chapter III

Consequence

Reliability Test

There were five dimensions in the questionnaire. First, the dimension of “ Negative Attitudes toward Lesbians ” , it consisted by 10 inquiries which is from inquiry 5 to oppugn 14. The Cronbach ‘s Alpha was 0.81 after inquiries 5, 7, 9, 13 were deleted ( Table 1, pg 16 ) . Therefore, the mean of these 6 points was calculated to stand for the respondents ‘ negative attitudes toward tribades.

Second, for the dimension of “ Positive Attitudes toward Lesbians, it consisted by 4 inquiries which is from inquiry 15 to oppugn 18. There were 0.49 alphas when inquiry 16 was deleted ( Table 1, pg 16 ) .

For the dimension of “ Negative Attitudes toward Gay Men ” , it consisted by 10 inquiries which is from inquiry 19 to oppugn 28. There were 0.87 alphas when inquiry 20 was deleted ( Table 1, pg 16 ) .

For the dimension of “ Positive Attitudes toward Gay Men ” , it consisted by 4 inquiries which is from inquiry 29 to oppugn 32. There were 0.64 alphas and none of the inquiries being deleted ( Table 1, pg 16 ) .

The dependability alpha of the inquiry 1 to 4 was 0.01 alphas. So, these 4 inquiries can non calculate as one dimension and will be analyzed separately ( see Table 1, pg 16 ) .

Table 1

Reliability trial

Dimension

Cronbach ‘s Alpha

N of Items

Items

Negative Attitudes toward Lesbians

0.81

6

6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14

Positive Attitudes toward Lesbians

0.49

3

15, 17, 18

Negative Attitudes toward Gay Men

0.87

9

19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28

Positive Attitudes toward Gay Men

0.64

4

29, 30, 31, 32

I know about homosexual

Sexual orientation is caused by cistrons, but non the environment

I have of all time thought to myself when I found that an attractive individual of the sex was homosexual- ” what a waste ”

0.01

4

1, 2, 3, 4

I have of all time said, ” I do n’t mind homophiles, every bit long as I do n’t hold to see it ” or something similar

Gender Differences toward Homosexual

Negative attitudes toward tribades. The consequences of Independent t- Trials showed that there was no important difference between gender negative attitudes towards the sapphic, t ( 118 ) = 0.08, n.s. , where the mean for the negative attitudes toward sapphic for male pupils is 2.60 ( SD = 0.81 ) , and 2.59 ( SD = 0.71 ) for female pupils ( Table 2, pg 19 ) .

Positive attitudes toward tribades. The consequences of Independent t- Trials showed that there was no important difference between gender positive attitudes toward the tribades, T ( 118 ) = – 0.31, n.s. , where the mean for the positive attitudes toward tribades for male pupils is 3.29 ( SD = 0.66 ) , and 3.32 ( SD = 0.54 ) for female pupils ( Table 2, pg 19 ) .

Negative attitudes toward cheery work forces. The consequences of Independent t- Trials showed that there was a important difference between gender negative attitudes toward cheery work forces, T ( 118 ) = 2.24, P & lt ; 0.05, where the mean for the negative attitudes toward cheery work forces for male pupils is 3.03 ( SD = 0.83 ) , and 2.72 ( SD = 0.63 ) for female pupils ( Table 2, pg 19 ) .

Positive attitudes toward cheery work forces. The consequences of Independent t- Trials showed that there was no important difference between gender positive attitudes toward cheery work forces, T ( 118 ) = -1.520, n.s. , where the mean for the positive attitudes toward cheery work forces for male pupils is 3.11 ( SD = 0.80 ) , and 3.30 ( SD = 0.52 ) for female pupils ( Table 2, pg 19 ) .

Knowledge towards homosexualism. The consequences of Independent t- revealed that there was no important difference between genders in their cognition towards homosexualism.

For the “ I know about homosexual ” , T ( 118 ) = 0.82, n.s. , where the mean for the cognition towards homosexualism for male pupils is 2.31 ( SD=0.82 ) , and 2.17 ( SD=0.83 ) for female pupils.

For the “ Sexual orientation is caused by cistrons, but non the environment ” , T ( 118 ) = -0.890, n.s. , where the mean for the cognition towards homosexualism for male pupils is 3.28 ( SD=1.19 ) , and 4.85 ( SD=10.57 ) for female pupils.

For the “ I have of all time thought to myself when I found that an attractive individual of the sex was homosexual- ” what a waste ” “ , T ( 118 ) = 0.921, n.s. , where the mean for the cognition towards homosexualism for male pupils is 2.83 ( SD=0.97 ) , and 2.65 ( SD=1.03 ) for female pupils.

For the “ I have of all time said, ” I do n’t mind homophiles, every bit long as I do n’t hold to see it ” or something similar ” , T ( 118 ) = 0.403, n.s. , where the mean for the cognition towards homosexualism for male pupils is 3.97 ( SD=0.61 ) , and 3.92 ( SD=0.76 ) for female pupils ( see Table 2, pg 19 ) .

Table 2

Gender differences

Dimension

Mean

t-Value

p-Value

Males

Females

Negative Attitudes toward Lesbians

2.60

( SD=0.81 )

2.59

( SD=0.71 )

0.080

0.94

Positive Attitudes toward Lesbians

3.29

( SD=0.66 )

3.32

( SD=0.54 )

-0.31

0.76

Negative Attitudes toward Gay Men

3.03

( SD=0.83 )

2.72

( SD=0.63 )

2.24

0.027*

Positive Attitudes toward Gay Men

3.11

( SD=0.80 )

3.30

( SD=0.52 )

-1.520

0.13

I know about homosexual

Sexual orientation is caused by cistrons, but non the environment

I have of all time thought to myself when I found that an attractive individual of the sex was homosexual- ” what a waste ”

I have of all time said, ” I do n’t mind homophiles, every bit long as I do n’t hold to see it ” or something similar

2.31

( SD=0.82 )

3.28

( SD=1.19 )

2.83

( SD=0.97 )

3.97

( SD=0.61 )

2.17

( SD=0.83 )

4.85

( SD=10.57 )

2.65

( SD=1.03 )

3.91

( SD=0.76 )

0.82

-0.89

0.92

0.403

0.42

0.38

0.36

0.69

Note: * P & lt ; 0.05

Religion Differences toward Homosexual

Negative attitudes toward tribades. The consequences of Independent t- Trials showed that there was no important difference between faiths have negative attitudes towards sapphic, t ( 118 ) = 1.46, n.s. , where the mean for negative attitudes toward sapphic for Buddhist is 2.65 ( SD=0.76 ) , and 2.42 ( SD=0.67 ) for Christian and other faiths ( Table 3, pg 22 ) .

Positive attitudes toward tribades. The consequences of Independent t- Trials showed that there was no important difference between faiths have positive attitudes towards sapphic, t ( 118 ) = -0.69, n.s. , where the mean for positive attitudes toward sapphic for Buddhist is 3.29 ( SD=0.60 ) , and 3.38 ( SD=0.51 ) for Christian and other faiths ( Table 3, pg 22 ) .

Negative attitudes toward cheery work forces. The consequences of Independent t- Trials showed that there was no important difference between faiths have negative attitude towards gay work forces, T ( 118 ) = 1.65, n.s. , where the mean for negative attitudes toward cheery work forces for Buddhist is 2.87 ( SD=0.70 ) , and 2.63 ( SD=0.74 ) for Christian and other faiths ( Table 3, pg 22 ) .

Positive attitudes toward cheery work forces. The consequences of Independent t- Trials showed that there was no important difference between faiths have positive attitude towards gay work forces, T ( 118 ) = 0.352, n.s. , where the mean for positive attitudes toward cheery work forces for Buddhist is 3.26 ( SD=0.64 ) , and 3.21 ( SD=0.58 ) for Christian and other faiths ( Table 3, pg 22 ) .

Knowledge towards homosexualism. The consequences of Independent t- Trials revealed that there was no important difference between faiths ‘ cognition about Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 towards homosexualism.

For the “ I know about homosexual ” , T ( 118 ) = 0.549, n.s. , where the mean for the cognition towards homosexualism for Buddhist, is 3.95 ( SD=0.75 ) , and 3.87 ( SD=0.62 ) for Christian and other faiths.

For the “ Sexual orientation is caused by cistrons, but non the environment ” , T ( 118 ) = -0.35, n.s. , where the mean for the cognition towards homosexualism for Buddhist, is 2.20 ( SD=0.82 ) , and 2.26 ( SD=0.86 ) for Christian and other faiths.

For the “ I have of all time thought to myself when I found that an attractive individual of the sex was homosexual- ” what a waste ” “ , T ( 118 ) = -1.57, n.s. , where the mean for the cognition towards homosexualism for Buddhist, is 3.61 ( SD=1.11 ) , and 6.52 ( SD=17.19 ) for Christian and other faiths.

For the “ I have of all time said, ” I do n’t mind homophiles, every bit long as I do n’t hold to see it ” or something similar ” , T ( 118 ) = -0.26, n.s. , where the mean for the cognition towards homosexualism for Buddhist, is 2.69 ( SD=1.03 ) , and 2.74 ( SD=1.0 ) for Christian and other faiths ( see Table 3, pg 22 ) .

Table 3

Religions differences

Dimension

Mean

t-Value

p-Value

Buddhist

Christian, Others

Negative Attitudes toward Lesbians

2.65

( SD=0.76 )

2.42

( SD=0.67 )

1.46

0.15

Positive Attitudes toward Lesbians

3.29

( SD=0.60 )

3.38

( SD=0.51 )

-0.69

0.49

Negative Attitudes toward Gay Men

2.87

( SD=0.70 )

2.63

( SD=0.74 )

1.65

0.103

Positive Attitudes toward Gay Men

3.26

( SD=0.64 )

3.21

( SD=0.58 )

0.35

0.73

I know about homosexual

Sexual orientation is caused by cistrons, but non the environment

I have of all time thought to myself when I found that an attractive individual of the sex was homosexual- ” what a waste ”

I have of all time said, ” I do n’t mind homophiles, every bit long as I do n’t hold to see it ” or something similar

3.95

( SD=0.75 )

2.20

( SD=0.82 )

3.60

( SD=1.11 )

2.69

( SD=1.03 )

3.87

( SD=0.62 )

2.26

( SD=0.86 )

6.52

( SD=17.19 )

2.74

( SD=1.0 )

0.55

-0.35

-1.57

-0.26

0.58

0.73

0.12

0.80

Chapter 4

Discussion

Research Questions

This survey was to research whether there are important differences between gender ‘ positive and negative attitudes towards sapphic and cheery work forces. Besides that, this survey besides wanted to happen out whether there are important differences between faiths ‘ positive and negative attitudes towards cheery work forces and tribades.

Findingss

For the first research inquiry, the consequences showed that there are important differences between gender negative attitudes towards homosexual work forces, there are no important differences between gender negative attitudes towards tribades, and there are no important differences between gender positive attitudes towards cheery work forces and tribades.

For the 2nd research inquiry, the consequences showed that there are no important differences between faiths ‘ positive and negative attitudes towards cheery work forces and tribades.

Discussion

Research inquiry 1. The consequences of this survey show that there were “ Significant Differences between Gender Negative Attitudes towards the Gay Men ” . This means that the males ‘ negative attitudes toward cheery work forces are different as to compare with females. This might due to gender believe system and gender function. Gender believes system and gender function can determine the males with more negative attitudes towards cheery work forces compare with females.

There are many different researches support that males have more negative attitudes towards cheery work forces is due to gender believe system. One of the diaries is Lisa Lamar and Mary Kite ( 1998 ) . As male gender functions are more clearly defined in society than female functions, so there are more countenances imposed on work forces who are seen to go against these functions than on adult females. This means that, males are normally expected by the society or household to move maleness and females are expected to move in a more feminine manner. The outlook is call “ believe system ” and the expected function is call “ gender function ” . Society expects that male can move in more “ hero ” manner ever assist females when females face jobs, ever protect females from injury, and others. Once they against it, society or other masculine males would wish to follow negative attitudes toward them. Males will hold the feeling of shame towards the male who act in feminine manner ( as cited in Lamar and Kite, 1998 ) .

Work forces are encouraged by Western society to back more traditional positions about gender functions than adult females if compared with other society ( Brownell, n.d ) . This means that, the strength of gender functions are depending on the society or state.

Besides, gender belief system besides influences the negative attitudes of male and female toward cheery work forces, McCreary ( 1994 ) explain that gender functions are emphasizes on the importance of heterosexualism to maleness. In other word, if people did non move heterosexual, they are sing as muliebrity. Therefore, the heterosexual work forces may hold the negative attitudes towards cheery work forces and besides because of demand to confirm their maleness, they rejecting the homosexual work forces ( as cited in Brownell, n.d. ) .

At the other side, as we know, usually people will experience that a twosome is building by one male and one female. So, if two work forces construct as twosome, people will experience that one of them is act as the female function, which is feminine action. Peoples will develop a perceptual experience that “ cheery adult male would wish to move as feminine manner ” . So, harmonizing to the expected gender functions, people would wish to hold negative attitudes toward cheery work forces, particularly for the heterosexual work forces.

Why there no important difference between gender negative attitudes towards the sapphic? Besides that, there are besides no important differences between gender positive attitudes towards tribades and cheery work forces as good?

There might hold one of the factors to back uping this consequence. The factor can be considered as the module of the sample who completed the questionnaire. Schellenberg, Hirt and Sears ( 1999 ) survey showed that pupils who study at module of Social Science or Art are more adopting positive attitudes towards sapphic and cheery work forces compare with other module such as concern and scientific discipline.

For this survey, the samples who study Faculty of Arts and Social scientific discipline have been chosen. This means that the samples of this survey have more positive attitudes towards sapphic and cheery work forces. Therefore, the consequence would wish to demo that there are no important differences between gender positive attitudes towards sapphic and cheery work forces. This besides means that all of the samples either males or females are holding same positive attitudes toward homosexual.

One of the researches has stated that heterosexual work forces have more negative attitudes towards homosexual group than females. Surprisingly, attitudes toward cheery work forces were more positive among males pupils registered in the modules of Humanistic disciplines or Social Science than pupils in Science or Business ( Schellenberg, Hirt and Sears, 1999 ) .

The positive and negative attitudes toward homophiles are a map of pupils ‘ pick of their module. It means that pupils who have more broad positions would wish to take big leagues in Humanistic disciplines or Social Sciences and pupils who value traditional sex roles most likely will choose big leagues in Business or Science. ( Schellenberg, Hirt and Sears, 1999 ) .

For current survey, the samples of females are more than males. Therefore, harmonizing to Schellenberg, Hirt and Sears ( 1999 ) , Faculty of Arts and Science pupils adopt positive attitudes towards homosexual may be comparatively high proportion of female pupils, and adult females tend to be more accepting than work forces of homosexualism harmonizing to the factors of gender function system.

Now, allow discourse about the other consequence that we found it from this survey, which is “ faiths positive and negative attitudes towards sapphic and cheery work forces ” .

Research inquiry 2. For other consequence, it shows that there were “ no important differences between faiths negative attitudes towards sapphic and cheery work forces ” . It means that the faiths such as Christian, Buddhist, and others faiths are non differences on holding negative attitudes towards homosexualism. This might due to the factors of the faith committedness.

Harmonizing to a research of Brownell, the consequences showed that religionism correlatives with negative attitudes towards tribades and cheery work forces. From Brownell research, it can explicate that, people with faiths usually have negative attitudes towards homosexual and the faiths are considered as whole types of faiths. Beside that, ttraditionalists among the universe ‘s major faiths by and large disapprove of homosexualism ( Societal attitudes towards homosexualism, n.d. ) . Therefore, the consequence may demo that, there were no important differences between faiths ‘ positive and negative attitudes toward homosexual.

The factor of spiritual committedness has been found to be a forecaster of negative attitudes towards tribades and cheery work forces ( Herek, 1987, as cited in Brownell, n.d. ) . Peoples with strong religionism have negative attitudes towards homosexual. It can be explicate that all types of faiths besides adopted the same negative attitudes towards homosexual due to the ground of faith committedness. For illustration, God teach Christians that the homosexual behaviour is unnatural and wickedness. Therefore, they acknowledging the equality of homosexuals would go against the First Amendment. Christians ‘ belief in God ‘s disapprobation of homosexualism claimed to be of import that coercing them to handle homosexuals every bit means coercing them to go against their spiritual beliefs particularly the conservative Christians ( Cline, n.d ) .

The consequence of there was “ no important differences between faiths positive attitudes towards sapphic and cheery work forces ” is due to the factors of people known that homosexual is cause by genetically.

Presents most of the faiths are know more about homosexual through some researches or surveies. They know why and how people become homosexual. For illustration, Christians know that the being of persons who are homosexual “ because of some sort of innate inherent aptitude or a pathological fundamental law judged to be incurable ” . It means that, people who involve in faiths have more cognition about homosexual such as through some of the researches, they know that homosexual is cause by the innate inherent aptitude or pathology instead than they intentionally shape it. So, they might believe that this unconditioned factor can be forgiven. Therefore, they start to alter their negative attitudes towards homosexual ( Inventing Sin: Religion and Homosexuality In that papers, n.d. ) .

Homosexual is position as life styles. The term “ lifestyle ” refers to picks that people make about their life. For illustration, whether they to be freelance or work for a company ; whether they live in the state, suburbs or metropolis ; whether they go to university, proficient school or end their instruction at the high school degree. The usage of this term implies that one ‘s sexual orientation is besides a chosen factor. This tends to bias people ‘s reactions. This might explicate that people tend to be more accepting of factors that are genetically determined instead than chosen ( Robinson, 2003 ) .

Other than that, no important difference of faiths ‘ positive and negative attitudes towards homosexual may be due to the restriction of the little sample size. There were 118 sample of psychological science class take parting in this study and this may be considered as a little size merely. So it will act upon the consequence and can non demo the outstanding important differences ( Stockburger, n.d. ) .

Restrictions of This Survey

Restrictions of this survey are legion and must be considered when construing these findings. First, this sample of Psychology class pupils, such as Year 1 Semester 2, Year 2 Semester 1, and Year 2 Semester 2 may non be the representative for all pupils in the population. Therefore, the consequences can non be generalized to other pupil populations. Second, the female samples are more than male samples ; there are 82 females and 36 males. Third, losing informations or uncomplete informations were found in the study where it might give certain impact towards the consequences.

Last, the questionnaire is evaluation of the sample. It is considered as self-reporting signifier and it may hold the hazard that the samples lie or merely merely supply the replies when they rate. Therefore, this will besides act upon the dependability and cogency of the consequences.

Recommendations

This survey can be conducted better if the samples were chosen from different colleges or universities. Increasing the figure of samples from different colleges and universities can do the consequence more cogency and dependability.

The losing informations can be reduced by utilizing other ways to carry on this survey such as interview. The simple random methods can be used to take the samples out of the name list, and so interview them one by one. This may be clip devouring or more dearly-won, but it can take to more dependability consequences.

To forestall the respondents from rip offing when they response to the inquiries, it is better to utilize interview to carry on the survey. Through out the interview session, interviewer can explicate each of the inquiries to respondents and observed respondents ‘ gestural behaviours every bit good.

Decision

What the consequences had been found in this survey really is partly consistent to the old surveies that conducted by other research workers. In amount, for the consequences of research inquiry 1, it provide grounds that among the sample of Psychology pupils, there were no important differences between gender positive attitudes towards cheery work forces and sapphic, and besides no important differences between gender negative attitudes towards sapphic. However, there is a important difference between gender negative attitudes towards cheery work forces. The consequences could be due to the gender functions and gender believes system.

Besides that, the consequence of “ there were no important differences between faiths negative attitudes toward homosexual ” is due to the ground of faith committedness. The consequence of “ there were no important differences between faiths positive attitudes toward homosexual ” might due to the factors of people acknowledge that homosexual is genetically built-in. Last, the little size of samples besides plays an of import function that lead to this consequence.

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