Expert Systems Analysis Essay Example
Expert Systems Analysis Essay Example

Expert Systems Analysis Essay Example

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Lemos & Porto (1998) authored a research book on 'technological change at work' where they discuss three main areas affected by new technology: work tasks and skills, job content and work organization, and supervision and control.

According to their analysis of case studies and literature, the adoption of new technology leads to a reduction in the number of complex tasks that require manual skills. Instead, it introduces new complex tasks that necessitate problem-solving abilities, interpretive skills, and an understanding of system interdependencies. Nonetheless, the utilization of tacit skills and abilities associated with the use of previous technology remains essential.

Lemos & Porto emphasize that while technology's characteristics and capabilities will impact task and skill requirements, the choice of job content and work organization is crucial for managers when designing work. They argue that new technology should support and complement workers' roles rather than


simply replacing them. Therefore, careful consideration of work content and organization is necessary when implementing new technology. Lemos & Porto highlight two approaches to organizing supervisory control tasks. In some cases, operations managers have utilized new technology to enhance visibility and boost the certainty and confidence in management decision-making.

The desire for greater control has led to the centralization of work operations. Additionally, managers have leveraged new technology to delegate decision-making closer to the production process. This is a response to the recognition that certain technologies undermine the role of first-line supervisors and promote team autonomy within workgroups. The day-to-day operations of manufacturing and service systems are benefiting from numerous advances in computerization and automation. Many of these technologies are part of a CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) or CISS (Computer Integrated Service Systems) system. For

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example, computers play an increasing role in monitoring quality and creating daily production schedules.

Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS) in inventory control can use bar codes to mechanically move inventory items in response to computer controls. Electronic Data Interchanges (EDI) can automatically link a firm’s ordering system to a supplier’s computer for ordering supplies. Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV) can mechanically route batches of items between work centers. The field of Artificial Intelligence/Expert Systems (AI/ES) is advancing rapidly and can assist in making complex decisions in areas such as scheduling and routing. Computers can perform information integration by configuring separate channels of information graphically using the configural or object display. They can also draw inferences from raw data, either by interpolating or predicting data with lower levels of intelligence, or by using more advanced algorithms and heuristics in the diagnosis process. Human performance data supports the idea that higher levels of automation, which enhance situation awareness, are generally beneficial as long as the automation is reliable. By conducting careful task analysis, users can be guided to the most relevant information using highlighting and attentional cueing, while still having access to less relevant information if needed.

Both integration and inference have the potential to greatly reduce the demands on human working memory. In the context of operations management, automation systems serve as excellent examples of how these functions can be utilized. These systems are designed to integrate information for controllers and make inferences about future events, such as prediction. These capabilities not only enhance decision making but also reduce the overall workload for humans.

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