Kevin C. Towery COM110-15 Research Speech Outline CHILDHOOD APRAXIA OF SPEECH General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To provide information to the audience about the speech disorder known as childhood apraxia of speech. Thesis Statement: Apraxia is a rare disorder that if left untreated can persist into adulthood, causing a child to suffer years of frustration from being unable to communicate effectively. Introduction: I. Attention-getter – Who here tonight has known someone who has or has had a speech disorder? (Pause) Everyone can raise his or her hand, since you know me. II.
Thesis Statement – Apraxia is a rare disorder that if left untreated can persist into adulthood, causing a child to suffer years of frustration from being unable to communicate effectively. III. Credibility – I have read numerous articles and support websites about apraxia and I have also personally gone through four years of speech therapy for this disorder. IV. Preview of points – Tonight I am doing to discuss childhood apraxia, what the speech disorder is, what causes it, how it is diagnosed, and how it is treated. (Transition: To understand what causes Apraxia, we must first understand what the disorder is. ) Body: I. What is Apraxia? . For every 10,000 children 1 in 10 are affected by apraxia. (Shriberg, Aram, & Kwiatkowski, 1997a) b. Controversy around its definition, cause, treatment and diagnosis. c. Disorder attributed to deficits of the nervous system that impact the ability to sequence and say sounds, syllables, and words. d. A child knows what they want to say, but the brain can’t tell the rig...
ht body parts the correct way to move in order to say it properly. e. Called by various names (slide showing various names) (Internal Transition: Just as there are varying medical definitions of apraxia, the topic of how it is caused has multiple theories. II. What causes Apraxia in children? a. The cause or causes of Apraxia are not yet known. b. Studies have determined: i. Apraxia typically affects more boys than girls. ii. Validated that it is not caused by muscular weakness or paralysis. iii. Studies involving brain imagings have not produced any evidence to support there are differences in the brain structure. c. Observations have shown that children with apraxia often have family members who have a history of communication disorders or learning disabilities. These studies suggest that there is a genetic factor that may play a role in the disorder. Internal Transition: Since apraxia is not physiologically obvious, diagnosis combines eliminating other medical conditions with evaluation by a speech pathologist. ) III. How is Apraxia diagnosed? a. Speech pathologists evaluate children for speech disorders and over half are employed in K-12 school systems (slide showing statistics). b. First a hearing test is done to evaluate if hearing loss is a possible cause. c. A certified speech pathologist evaluates coordination of their speech mechanisms. An example is moving the tongue side-to-side, smiling, frowning, etc. . The pathologist will also evaluate the coordination of muscle movements by having the child repeat strings of sounds as fast as possible. e. Speech articulation is evaluated and assessed by havin
the child pronounce individual sounds and combined sounds. (Internal Transition: Once a speech pathologist has diagnosed a child with apraxia, the family’s next step is treatment. ) IV. How is Apraxia treated? a. Speech therapy with focus on the planning, sequencing, and coordination of motor movements for speech production. b. Exercises are done emphasizing repetition. i.
Recording a child’s speech and playing it back. ii. Repeat syllables, words, sentences, and longer utterances. c. Once speech production is improved or corrected speech therapy is ended. Conclusion I. Summary – Tonight we have discussed what childhood apraxia is, factors that may cause this disorder in children, how the condition is diagnosed, and its treatment. II. Thesis Re-statement – It is important to understand that properly treating childhood apraxia will take time, commitment, and a supportive environment to ensure that a child develops confidence in his or her ability to communicate.
III. Clincher – To first cope with a problem that may affect our children, we must first understand the nature of the problem, and then become educated in the options available for an effective resolution. BIBLIOGRAPHY Apraxia Kids Web Site. 1996. 4 Apr. 2005. Childhood Apraxia of Speech. 2005. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 4 Apr. 2005. < http://www. asha. org/public/speech/disorders/Developmental-Apraxia-of-Speech. htm> Velleman, Shelley. Childhood Apraxia of Speech. Delmar Learning, 2003. LIST OF MATERIALS/VISUAL AIDS: Power Point Presentation