Discrete Multivariate Analysis
In the questionnaire, different types of questions were used in order to raise the respondents’ interest and obtain the fullest picture of the research question. Some questions were closed and thus required only answers yes/no. Such types of questions have both advantages and disadvantages. They are efficient because they let to finish the interview fast and obtain all of the necessary information. However, they do not let the respondent to express his point of view on the question.
“Closed questions … are quick to complete and straightforward to code, and do not discriminate unduly on the basis of how articulate the respondents are. On the other hand they do not enable respondents to add any remarks, qualifications and explanations to the categories, and there is a risk that the categories might not be exhaustive and that there might be bias in them. ” (Cohen, 2000, p. 251). In order to ensure the mentioned disadvantages were overcome, open-ended questions were introduced into the questionnaire.
The use of open questions enabled the respondents not only to choose the answers from the given list but also make their own contribution into the research. “Open questions, on the other hand, enable respondents to write a free response in their own terms, to explain and qualify their responses and avoid the limitations of pre-set categories of response. On the other hand the responses are difficult to code and to classify. The issue for researchers is one of “fitness for purpose” (Cohen, 2000, p. 252).
It was also possible to use multiple-answer questions in the questionnaire, however they were not included into the questionnaire due to the limited time. Multiple-answer questions could be more efficient than closed questions because they would offer a large possibility of respondents’ creativity. “To try to gain some purchase on complexity, the researcher can move towards multiple choice questions, where the range of choices is designed to capture the likely range of responses to given statements. ” (Cohen, 2000, p. 252). Unfortunately, there is no single research method, which can lead researchers to completely accurate results.
Therefore, the results obtained in the result of questionnaire run in the UK and China could not be completely accurate. Particular difficulties are connected with the validity of results of China research. This research requires not only understanding of marketing concepts but also Chinese language. Some translators need to be employed in order, first, to design the questionnaire in the necessary way and translate it adequately and second, to translate the results and offer their interpretation. Every method includes a possibility of making some kind of mistakes.
“The two major disadvantages pertain to relevance and accuracy. ” (Patzer, 1995, p. 19). However, accuracy is much higher in research methods based on primary data rather than on secondary data: “Lack of relevance and lack of accuracy in marketing research are associated with using secondary data rather than primary data. These disadvantages exist regardless of whether a marketing research project includes primary data. As a result, at times, not only may secondary data be of little or no assistance to a user of marketing research, they can actually be detrimental.
” (Patzer, 1995, p. 19). Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the choice of primary sources of data in the survey is well-grounded. The questionnaire in this case offers a full picture of the leisure preferences of two cultures- British and Chinese. However, it is necessary to note that the validity of the results is not going to be completely accurate due to the imperfections of the sampling process, which is used in the research of leisure preferences in the UK and China.
As Trochim remarks, “…you should appreciate that sampling is a difficult multi-step process and that there are lots of places you can go wrong. In fact, as we move from each step to the next in identifying a sample, there is the possibility of introducing systematic error or bias. ” (Trochim, 2000, Internet WWW page, at URL: <http://trochim. human. cornell. edu/kb/ index. htm>). Despite the fact that it is impossible to find a completely accurate method of research, it is necessary to mark that the negative influence of survey mistakes can be eliminated with the help of extra research.
“It is unwise to think that threats to validity and reliability can ever be erased completely; rather, the effects of these threats can be attenuated by attention to validity and reliability throughout a piece of research. ” (Cohen, 2000, p. 105). Conclusion. Marketing research is a very important activity of many companies nowadays because it allows them to gather information about the customers, their preferences, their needs for products and services. Marketing research is also important to identify the main competitors in the market and actions which need to be taken in order to obtain competitive position in the market.
Marketing research uses many methods in order to obtain valid results and the correct choice of methods in many ways pre-determines the success of the companies’ operations in the market. With the help of research methods, it is possible to confirm the hypothesis or obtain useful information which the researcher needs to get. There are many research methods which companies use for marketing purposes. The results of the questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion research produce useful, accurate, validated, reliable and relevant data which support the conclusions of the study.
However, questionnaire is considered one of the most popular research methods. The suggested questionnaire determines the most important aspects of leisure activities in the UK and China. Due to the design of the questionnaire and a large number of questions used in it, the information is obtained easily and with a minimum of efforts. The design of questionnaire is the same for the UK and China but some questions needed to be adjusted to the cultural differences of the countries for maximum validity of results.
The fact that the questionnaire used many types of questions (closed questions, multiple-answer questions, Likert scale questions) makes it a very efficient source of information for companies which seek to offer leisure services worldwide.
Main sources. 1. Bishop, Y. M. M. , Fienberg, S. E. , and Holland, P. W. Discrete Multivariate Analysis: Theory and Practice, Cambridge. MA: MIT Press. 1975. 2. Cohen Louis, Manion Lawrence, Morrison Keith. Research Methods in Education. Routledge Falmer. London. 2002 http://www.omf.org.uk